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Full text of "Rivers of life, or, Sources and streams of the faiths of man in all lands : showing the evolution of faiths from the rudest symbolisms to the latest spiritual developments"

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F.R.G.S., F.R.S.E., M.A.I., A.I.C.E., F.R.H.S., 

F.R.A.SocY., &c., &r. i 


VOL.. I. 

LONDON . 1883 

[All rights reserved.] 


C N T E N T S. 

VOL. I. 



II. TREE WORSHIP . . . 31-92 


IV. FIRE WORSHIP .... . . 323-402 

V. SUN WORSHIP . . 403-534 











PLACES, &c., . . . . . . . ) 




None but those usual in all works. English is used" in preference to Latin or other languages, su that B.C. and 
A.C. stand for " Before" and "After" Christ, and C.B.C. is "Century B.C." 













VOL. I. 

No. Page 

1 Ficus Indica, with Idols . . .31 

2 The Temptation, as understood in the East . 33 

3 The Ficus leaf, a fruit ... 34 

4 A Sivaik Temple, Sacred Well, &c. . . 39 

5 Tree and Fire Worship-idea, Amravati J 

6 Dagoba, with Three Emblems . r 40 

7 Nagas worshipping all Emblems 

8 Keltik and Carthagenian Tree-ideas . 41 

9 Crown of Mary or Maya . . .45 

10 The Bael Tree . . .47 

11 Single Lotus. . . 48 

12 The Snake as Ananta or Eternity . . 49 

13 Sacred Bean of Egypt and Japan . . 50 

14 Atropa Madragora Rachel s Mandrakes . 51 

15 The Orchis Mascula-idea . . . 52 

16 The Pomegranate as a Religious Emblem . 56 

17 Palm Tree with Cross ... 62 

18 Mystic Palm and all Organs . 63 

19 Scandinavian Tree-Idea . . .64 

20 Tor s Hammer and Ancient Crosses . 65 

21 Mosk with Ficus, Palm and Cedar . .71 

22 Mamojee or Great Mother . . .72 

23 Grove or Asherah of Jews and Asyrians . 72 

24 Ishtar or Star of Love, the Eye . . 72 

25 Asyrian Tree of Life, Bull and Ark . 72 

26 Tree-Idea, Asia . . . .73 

27 Cross or Tree and Solar-Idea, Rome . 76 

28 Boat and Idol, the Arglm-Nat . . 80 

29 Maypole and Religious Emblems . . 84 

30 Tor s Hammer and Pincer-idea . . 84 

31 Earth-fast Rock, Snake and Lingam Tree . 91 

32 The Serpent-Sun of Thebes . . 94 

33 Hygia feeding Serpent from her Cup . 97 

34 Tyrian Coin, Serpents in an Ark . . 97 
Plate IV. here intervenes with 11 figures . 98 
Plate V. 9 104 

35 The Gorilla . . 108 

36 Sea, Ark and Jhaveh . . 110 

37 Serpent House or Temple . . .112 

38 Chinese Maya, Lingam, Serpents and Tor 

toise . . . .116 

39 The " Maha Deva " or Sri-Linga of India . 120 

40 Rural Lingam and Vase . . .121 

41 Siva as God of Fire .... 122 

42 Linga-in-Yoni supported by the Serpent . 123 

43 Honor and Virtue, Roman Figure of .124 

44 Apollo and Lyre in Gateway . .127 


No. P;ige 

45 The Pythian Apollo . . . .128 

46 The Concha Veneris in a God s Hand . 129 

47 The Noisy or Phalik God, with Sacred Shell 130 

48 Rudder and Shield-Ideas . . .131 

49 Pallas- Athena, Wisdom and Power . 132 

50 Latona between Rocks pursued by Jove . 132 

51 Garden of Hesperides . . . 133 

52 Mars of Campus Martins . . .133 

53 Roman Standards . . . 134 

54 Barmese Pagodas, Rangoon . .135 

55 Chief Objects in Palm-day Processions . 138 

56 The lonik Virgin and Child . . 145 

57 Moses with Rod on Mount . . .154 

58 Worship of Bakchus by Man and Woman . 155 

59 Lochs Stennes and Harray, Orkney . 156 

60 A Sacred Cave, all Symbols . .167 

61 Cherubim of Jewish Ark . . . 169 

62 Libra or "The Scales "-idea . . . 170 

63 The Serpent "Balance " of the Capitol . 172 

64 Mosk of Omar, Jerusalem . . .181 

65 Egyptian Phalik Worship . . .184 

66 Symbolism of Hats, Helmets, &c. . . 185 

67 x 

f*ft / 

6g (. The Sacred Shield and Priestly Hat-idea 185 

70 ) 

71 The Boat, Argha and Lamp-idea . .186 

72 Egyptian Ark and Ram God . . 190 

73 Ark of Phile led by Fire . . .191 

74 Twizel Moor Circle, Ireland . .193 

75 A Druid Circle of Dekan, W. India . 193 

76 Jewish Altar and Symbols . . .194 

77 Pyx Monstrance and Sacred Emblems . 196 

78 Theban Worship of Amon Ra . . 199 

79 Worship of Isis, and Adon Ra . . 200 

80 The Isinian Car with Phalus . .201 

81 Aphrodite in Ocean Shell . . . 202 

82 The Solar Christ in Cradle, with Heart, 

Cup and Virgin Worship . . 202 

83 The Vernal Horus . . . .204 

84 Harpokratian Worship of Yoni in Nineveh 205 

85 Budhist Seer in Shoe of Ass . . 206 

86 Asyrian Worship of Virgo and Sun . 206 

87 Lingam and Yoni . 206 

88 Glans of Asyrian Phalus . . .207 

89 Nun and Stole-idea . . . .211 

90 Asyrian Worship of Fertility . 213 



List of Illustrations. 

91 Solomon s Molten Sea or Kauldron . 

92 Egyptian Mirror and Woman 

93 Soloman s Temple in Plan and Section 

94 Serpent in Ark with Phalik Emblems 

95 Various Coins of Greece and Asia . 

96 The Gaulik Serpent Goddess 

97 Egyptian Tau 

98 Sri-Linga, bird-idea 

99 Planetary and Sectarian Symbols . 

100 Mahamadan Fish Nymph . . . 

101 Isis, Babe and Fish-idea . . 

102 Danes, Fish and Sun Gods 

103 Woman as the Snake Goddess 

104 Phalo-Serpeut, and Fire Worship at Pornpii 

105 Sacred Hieroglyphs 

106 Isis and Horus in lOnik bell flower 

107 Diana of Ephesus . 

108 Heaven and the four Elements 

109 The Bulla 

110 Fish and Woman-idea 

111 Asyrio-Phenician Fish-God with Rod 

112 Egyptian Themis, and Solar Python 

113 Time and Truth, worshipping Lingam 

114 Vishnu in the Fish- Avatar 

115 Mermaid, Clonfert, Ireland 

116 Pisco-Phalik Worship ... 

117 Tombstone of Ophites, India 

1 1 A "\ 

/ Common Ancient and Modern Sculptur- 

f ings, India, serpents and all symbols < 

121 Lituae and Crozier-idea 

122 Crozier of Cashel .... 

123 Serpent Cross of Killamery . 

124 Buclhist Constellation, Rahu 

125 The Parnassus-idea . 

126 Symbolism in Constantinople 

127 Landscape View of Hippodrome, Constan 

tinople . 

128 Ceres, Apollo, and Earth-idea 

129 Greek Ornphe Worship 

130 Serapis as Abraxas . 

Plate VI. here intervenes with 12 figures . 

131 Tyrian Herakles, Stones, and Column of fire 

132 Stonehenge as a Liuga-in-Yoni 

133 Serpent Mound, Loch Nell . 

Plate VII. here intervenes with 8 figures . 

134 The Bread Makers of Barma 

135 Tumulus with Pillar, Karnak 

136 1 

137 I 

138 I. Galgals with Menhirs, Bread Mill and 

139 ( Column-ideas . . 

140 | 

141 J 





























" 232 




























- 251 









































The Conception by Holy Ghost, Venice 
Ceres issues from Cave 
The Roman Alb-idea 

Chasuble-idea in plan 

Ancient Pallium-idea 
Priest in Ancient Pallium . 
The Great Obo of Mongolia 
A Moslem Tombstone and Fire tower 
The Delhi Lat and Gateway 
Temple of Vesta and Sivaik ring . 
Asyrian Eagle-headed Gods at Worship 
A Christian Church Altar . 
The Christian Church-idea . 
Pergamos as Mountain-god-idea 
Phalo-Arkite ideas in Mountains, &c. 

Do. in Architecture 
The Arko-foot-idea .... 
Sacred feet in Argha 
The topographical feature-idea of Rome 

Do. of Palatine Hill 

The God-idea, Roman Nympheum 
Mars on Campus Martius . 
Plate VIII. here intervenes with 8 figures 
Two views of " Newton Stone " 
Vernal Equinox .... 
Curves of Festal Intensity . 
Mother and Holy Child, Kaklia 

Do. Asyria 

Do. as Ama the Eastern Solar 
Virgin , 

Worship of Devi and Krishna 
Hindu Devi with Phalus 
The Conception-idea, Venetian picture 
The Polynesian " great God "-Ta- Aroa 
Solar Saint and Cross -idea . 
Old German God Tuisko . 
" Jack in the box " . 
St Michael s Mount, Lands-end 
The "Fall of Mithras" 
The Jewish Cherubim 
Hippa of Arkadia " the Door of Life 

Phali in Mexico, Pheuicia and Ireland 

Hands and Suns on Irish Crosses 

Ferozsha s Lat, Delhi 

Egyptian God Serapis 

Sun as Mihr or Mitr the Fertilizer 

Ablanathabla, the Gnostic Charm . 

Key and Lunar Sceptre 

Egyptian Kun or Venus 

Venus with Apple . 

Asyrian Mary and Child 

Tor attacking the Giant Clouds 









3 Rev. Dr Legge s Chinese Classics. 

1 Buddha Ghosh a s Parables. 

1 Buddhism. H. Alabaster s Wheel of Law. 

1 Modern Buddhist. By H. Alabaster, 1870. 

2 The Bui-man. By Shway Yoe, 

1 Prof. S. Beale s Texts from the Buddhist Canon 

Dhammapada, 1878. 

1 Prof. S. Beale s Buddhist Tripitaka. 
1 Do. Legends of Buddha. 

Do. Fah Hian. 

1 Rhys David s Buddhism. Tract Society Edition. 
1 Do. do. Hibbert Lectures, 1881. 

1 Japan, Travels of a Naturalist, 1870. 

1 Upham s Buddhism. 


Buddhisme en Norvege. Prof. Holmboe. 
Buddha Gaya. R. L. Mitra. 

Mind of Mencius. 
Japan History of. 
Do., Travels in. 
Japan and China, 
History of China. 
Chinese Buddhism. 
Religion in China. 
China s Place in Philology, do. 
Hue s Travels. 

Yule s Burmah and Amerapura. 
Manual of Buddhism. Spence Hardy. 

Rev. E. Faber. 
Sir E. Reed. 
Miss Bird. 
Dr Kempfer, 1728. 
Archdeacon Gray. 
Dr J. Edkins. 





2 Hwen Tsang s Travels, Julien s translation. 



5 Dr J. Muir s Sanskrit Texts, 185 8-6 3. 

1 Griffith s Ramayana. 

1 Gust s Linguistic and Oriental Essays. 

1 Do. Pictures of Indian Life. 

1 W. W. Hunter s Orissa. 

1 Antiqs. of Orissa. Dr R. Lalla Mitra, 1 875-78. 

2 Tod s Rajistan, Annals and Antiqs., 1829-32. 
2 Sherring s Hindu Tribes and Castes. 

1 Do. Benares. 

1 H. H. Wilson s Essays on Hinduism. 

1 Indian Wisdom. Prof. M, Williams. 

1 Hinduism. do. 

1 Modern India. do. Tract Soc. Ed. 

2 Indian Castes. Dr J. Wilson. 
1 Indian Arts. Dr Birdwood. 

4 History of Hindostan. Rev. T. Maurice, 1795. 

1 Caves of Elora, Capt. Seely, 1824. 

Indian Antiquities. Rev. T. Maurice, 1800. 

Abbe Dubois Mceurs des Indes. 

Hindu Pantheon. E. A. Rodriguez, 1841-45. 

Do. Major Moor. 

Oriental Fragments. do. 
Heber s Indian Journals, 1823-5. 
Archeological Surveys of India from beginning. 
Indian Antiquary from beginning. 
Ancient and Medieval India. Mrs Manning. 
Bhagavat Gita. Thomson s Translation. 
Sanhita of Sama Yeda. Dr Stevenson s Trans. 
Mythology of Hindus. C. Coleman, 1832. 
Manu s Code. 
Burgess Elephanta, 1871. 
Indo- Aryans. Dr R. Mitra. 
Macpherson s Indian Khonds. 
Hist. Maha Rajas of Bombay, 1865. 




Vols. Vo 

5 Canon Rawlinson s Ancient Monarchies, 1873. 1 

4 Do. Herodotus, 1875. 1 

1 Do. Origin of Nations, 1877. 1 

1 Phenicia. Rev. J. Kenrick, 1855. 1 

- M. Lenortnant s Manual Anc. Hist, of East. 2 

1 Do. Chaldean Magic. 1 

2 Higgins Anacalypsis, 1833. 2 

3 Jacob Bryant s Mythology, 1774. 2 
1 Do. Observ. on Scripture, 1803. 1 

1 Lord Carnarvon s Travels, Syria, &c. 1 
3 Rev. Dr Faber s Origin of Pagan Idolatry.. 1 

2 Do. Cabin. 1 

3 Bentham s Etruria and Ancient Researches. 1 
1 Heath s Phenician Inscriptions. 1 
I Isaac Taylor s Etruscan Researches. 1 
I Dr Davis Carthage and its Remains. 1 

Rev. J. Hislop s Two Babylons. 

Giant Cities of Bashan. Rev. J. Porter. 

Pheaician Ireland. H. O Brien, 1833. 

Babylonian and Assyrian Lectures. Prof. Sayce. 

Assyrian Reader and Grammar. do. 

Fergusson s Palaces of Nineveh. 

Layard s Nineveh and its Remains. Ed. 1873. 

Do. Nineveh and Babylon. 1874. 

Do. do. N.York, 1^53. 

Prof. Haug s Essays on Zoroasti-ians. 
History of Prehistoric Times. Baldwin, 1869. 
Geo. Smith s Chaldean Genesis. 
Do. Assyrian Canon. 
Do. A nc. Hist. Assyria for P. C. K. Sue, 
W. Vaux s Do. for Do. 

Cory s Ancient Frags. Hodge s Ed., 187(5. 



Sir Wm. Muir s Mahomet & Hist, of Islam, 1858. 

1 W. W. Hunter s Indian Musulmans. 

1 Dr Professor Goldziher s Hebrew Mythology. 

1 Jewish Cabala. Frank s. 

1 Talmud Selections. Palano. 
1 Do. Miscellany. Hershon. 

1 Sale s Koran. 

2 Conder s Tent Work, Palestine, 1878. 
Journals of Palestine Exploration up to 1882. 

1 Land of Gilead. L. Oliphant. 

1 Saracens. Rev. S. Ockley, 1 7 1 8. 

2 Palgrave s Arabia. 

1 S. Sharpe s Hebrew Nation. 

1 Jewish Antiquities. Rev. Dr Jennings, 1823. 

1 Josephus Do. 

4 Prideaux s Connection O. ,and N. Test., 1721. 

1 Rabbi Jeshua. 

1 Races of European Turkey. E. L. Clark. 

1 Kuenen s Hib. Lecture, 1882. 

1 Modern Judaism. J. Allen, 1830. 

1 Meredith s Prophet of Nazareth, 1864. 

1 Maundrell s Journeys, Jerusalem, 1697. 

1 Jerusalem and Sinai. F. Arundale, 1837. 

1 Worship of Baalim. Dr Oort, 1865. 


2 Hist, of Egypt, Brugsch Bey, 1879. 
2 Do. Canon Rawlinson. 

2 Do. Baron Bunsen. 

1 Hist. Ancienne, par Prof. Maspero, 1878. 
1 Egyptian Beliefs. Bon wick. 
Do. Pyramids. Do. 

Comparative Grammar, Egypt, fcc. Hyde Clarke. 

Grammar, Ancient Egypt. Renouf. 

Religion of Egypt. Renouf. Hib. Lects., 1879. 

Isis and Osiris: Plutarch. 

1 Anct. Egypt. Dr Birch. Soc. P. Christ. K. Ed. 

2 Horus and Serpent Myths. Cooper, Vic. Inst. 
1 Bible illustrated from Egyptian Monuments, 

by Dr W. CY Taylor, 1838. 
I Burckhardt s Travels, Nubia, &c. 

1 Gumpach s.Hist. Antiqs. of Egypt, 1863. 

1 Skertchly s Dahomey as it is. 

2 Osburn s Monumental Egypt. 
1 Do. Antqs. of Egypt. 

1 S. Sharpe s Egypt. 

1 Serpent Worship. Rev. J. B. Deane. 

1 3 Records of Past, Egypt and Assyria. 

1 Hist, of Egyptian Religion. Prof. Tiele, 1881. 

2 Savory s Letters on Egypt, 1787. 

2 Ancient Egypt. Rev. J. Kenrick. 

1 Egp. Pentateuch and other Lects. Cooper. 

2 Wilkinson s Ancient Egypt. 

2 Do. Dr Birch s Edition. 

1 Egypt of the Past. Sir E. Wilson. 

1 Rede and other Lects. By Dr S. Birch. 





1 Toland a History of Druids. 

1 Higgins Druids, 1827. 

1 Bishop Stukely s Stonehenge, &c. 

1 Rev. E. Davis Celtic Researches, 1804. 

1 Do. British Druids, 1809. 

1 Hermes Britanicus. Rev. W. Bowles, 1828. 

1 Old Celtic Romances. Dr Joyce, 1879. 

2 Pennant s Tours in Scotland, <fec., 1776. 

3 Thorpe s Northern Mythology, 1851. 
2 Mallet s Northern Antiquities, 1770. 
1 J. Macpherson s Ossian, 1762. 

6 Ancient Historians, Scotland. 

1 Indo-European Trads. and Folk Lore. Kelly. 

1 History of Irish Names. Dr Joyce. 

1 Wright s Kelt, Roman, and Saxon. 

2 O Brien s Diet., Anc. Irish Round Towers. 

2 Petrie s do. do. Origin and Use, 1845. 

6 Procs. Soc. Antiquaries, Scotland. 

1 Scottish Myths. Dr C. Maclagan. 

1 Stonehenge, Antiquity of. Herbert, 1849. 

1 Eskimo Tales and Traditions. Dr Rink, 1875. 

2 Nordenskiold s Voyage of Vega. 


3 Skene s Celtic Scotland. 

1 Druids and Towers of Ireland. Father R. 

Smiddy, 1873. 
1 Towers and Temples of Ireland. M. Keane. 

1 Guide to Landsend and St Michael. Physician. 

2 Cornwall Antiquities, etc. Dr Borlase, 1769. 

1 Cross and Serpent Worship. Rev. W. Haslam. 

1 Ancient Stones of Scotland. Moore. 

2 Land of Midnight San. Du Chaillu, 1881. 

5 Gen.Vallancey s Colec. de Rebus Hibern., 1876. 
1 Do. Ancient Irish Language, 1 802. 

1 Do. Essay on Do. 1818. 

2 Ancient Races of Scotland. Col. Forbes Leslie. 
1 Ceylon. Do. 

1 Archeological Essays. Sir J. Simpson. 
1 Archaic Sculpturings. Do. 

Dr Latham s Ethnology British Islands. 

Hist. Celtic Language. L. Maclean, 1840 

Rimmer s Anc. Stone Crosses. 

Father Shearman s Loca Patriciana 

Dr Pritchard s East. Origin Celtic Nations, 1 831. 

Prof. Nicholas Antiqs. Wales, 1872. 


12 Gibbon s Roman Empire. 

1 Callimachus. Dodd s Translation. 
1 Do. Hesiod and Theognis. Bohn s Eel. 

1 Hymns of Orpheus. Thos. Taylor s Ed., 1787. 

2 Prof. C. 0. Muller s Doric Race, 1830. 

3 Pausanias, trans. 1824. Taylor 1 

1 Travels of Anach arsis in Greece. Barthelemy, 


1 2 Grote s History of Greece. 

2 Pindar s Odes. Dr West s Translation, 1824. 
6 Plutarch s Lives. 

1 Lucretius Nature of Things. Bohn s Edition. 

1 Lives of Ancient Philosophers, 1702. 

1 Apuleius Meta. Bohn s Edition. 

1 Canon Wordsworth s Greece, Descriptive and 

Historical, 1844. 

1 Gen. P. Di Cesnola s Cyprus . 

1 Major do. do. or Salaminia, 1882. 

1 Antiqs. Herculaneum, &c. Pistolesi. 

1 Aryan (Greek) Civilization. Rev. J. Barker. 

1 Cicero on the Gods. 

1 Antqs. de la Nismes. M. Menard, 1831. 

1 Hermes Trismegiste, par L. Menard, 1867. 

1 Religion of Ancient Greeks. Septchenes, 1788. 

1 Dr Schliemann s Ilios. 

1 Do. Mycenae and Tiryns, 1878. 

2 Works of Virgil. Dr Bryce s and Drydeii s. 
1 Dr Liddell s Hist, of Rome. 

1 Xenophon s Anabasis. Bohn s Edition. 

1 Arriaii s History. Rooke s Translation, 1813. 

1 Tacitus Works. Bohn s Edition. 

2 Roman Antiquities. Rev. B. Kennett, 1737. 

1 Grecian do. Bishop Potter, 1778. 

2 Pococke s India in Greece. 

1 Propertius, &c.,*&c. Bohn s edition. 

2 Travels in Gree.ce and Albania. Dr Clarke 

and Hobhouse. 

1 Plotinus Five Books. Thos. Taylor s Trans. 1794. 

1 Lucan s Pharsalia. Bohn s Edition. 

3 Strabo s Geography. do. 
1 Eusebius Eccles. History, do. 
1 Herodotus. ,do. 
7 Pliny s Natural History, do. 
1 Ovid s Fasti. do. 
1 Do. Meta. do. 

1 Becker s Gallus. Metcalfe s Translation, 1866. 




Fornander s Polynesian Races, 1878-80. 
1 Rev. W. Gill s Myths of South Pacific. 
1 Yucatan and Central Amerika. Stephens. 
1 Conq. of Mexico, by Prescott. Kirk s Ed., 1 878. 
1 Do. Peru, do. do. 

1 Bradford s American Antiquities, 1841. 


2 Peru, Two Years in. T. Hutchinson, 1872. 

2 Myths of New World and Sundry Papers, by 

Dr Brinto. 

3 Crawford s Hist, of Indian Archipelago, 1820. 
1 Mexico and Mexicans. E. B. Taylor, 1861. 

1 Serpent Symbols Amerika. E. G. Squier. 


Vols. Vols. 

18 Bible, Hebrew and French. Cahen, 1831. 1 

1 Do. Comprehensive Annotated. Bagster. 

2 Do. do., by Rev. Dr R. Jamieson. 1 

4 Do. Kittos . 

5 Do. for the Young. Drs Oort, Hooykass 1 

and Kuenen, 1873. 

1 Dictionary, Fiirst, Hebrew and Chaldee, 1867. 1 

Do. Parkhui-st, Heb. and Chaldee, 180 7. 1 

Do. S. Newman, Eng. and Heb., 1832. 1 

Do. English man s Hebrew Concordance. 1 

Do. Sanskrit and Eng. Benfey, 18G6. 1 

Do. Eng. and Sanskrit. M. Williams. 2 

Do. do. Turkish. J. W. Red- 1 

house, 1861. 1 

1 Do. Pali and English. Childers, 1875. 9 

1 Do. Greek do. Liddell Scott, 1864. 1 

1 Do. do. do. Dunbar. 

1 Do. do. do. Parkhurst, 1804. 1 

1 Do. Latin, Dr A. Littleton, 1723. 2 

2 Do. Ttaliano-Inglese-Francese di S. E. 2 

Petronj, 1826. 1 

2 Do. Christian Antiquities. Dr Wm. 

Smith and Cheetham, 1875-80. 1 

3 Do. of Bible. Dr Wm. Smith, 1863. 1 
3 Do. Greek and Roman Biography and 20 

Mythology. Dr Smith, 1872-3. 14 

2 Do. Greek and Roman Geography. 2 

DrWrn. Smith, 1872. 

1 Do. Greek and Roman Antiquities. 1 

Dr Wm. Smith, 1873. . 12 
1 Do. do. do. M. Danet, 1700. 

1 Do. Classical. Dr Wm. Smith, 1864. 1 

1 Do. Greek Classical, *fec. Dr Lem- 1 

priere and Rev. T. Smith, 1865. 1 

Do. Archeological. Rev. T.Wilson,! 7 83. 2 

Do. Theological. Rev. Dr Robinson, 1816. 2 

Do. De 1 Archeologie, par E. Bose 1 

Do. Bible and Fragments. Calmet, 1797-98. 1 

Do. Classical of India. J. Garrett, 1871-73. 5 

Dictionary, of Hindu Mythology. Prof. Dow- 
son, 1879. 

Do. Archaic, Egyptian, Asyrian, <tc. 
Cooper, 1876. 

Do. Mythological and Etymol. Rev. 
W. Holwell, 1793. 

Do. Classical Manual. Oxford, 1827. 

Do. Latin Etymology. Valpy, 1828. 
Blair s Chronological Tables. Bohn s Ed., 1856, 
Million of Facts. Sir R. Phillips. 
Dates and Data. 
Fergusson s Hist. Architecture, 1874. 

Do. Do. Indian and Eastern, 1876. 

Do. and Burgess Cave Temples, 1880. 
Hunter s Imperial Gazeteer of India. 
Genealogy of Heathen Gods intrepreted. Rev. 
A. Ross, 1675. 

Do. Do. Sam.BoyseandW.Cooke,1650? 
Ancient Faiths in Anc. Names. Dr Inman, 1872. 
Biog. Hist. Philosophy. G. H. Lewes, 1845. 
Gen. Cunningham s Anc. Geog. of India, 1871. 
Bilder Atlas. Leipsic, 1860. 
Denkmaler der Alten Kunst. - C. O. Miiller. 
Monuments and Ornaments. J. Waring, 1870. 
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1797-1803. 

Do. Do. 9th Ed., 1875-1882. 

Chambers s Book of Days. 
Montfaucon s Illustrations, &c. 
Diodorus Sikulus. Booth s translation, 1721. 
Grose s Antiquities of England, Scotland, and 

Ireland, 1783-95. 

Bede s Ecclesiastical Hist. Bohn s Transl. 1847. 
Pritchard s Hist, of Man, 1848. 
Picart s Religious Ceremonies, &c., 1741. 
Col. Yule s Marco Polo, 1871. 
Rollin s Ancient History, 1826. 
Archeological Hand-Book. H. Westropp. 
Humbolt s Views of Nature, 1845-50 Ed. 
Do. Cosmos, 1844, Ed. 1849. 










Aryan Mythology. Rev. Sir Geo. Cox, 1870. 
Primitive Culture. Dr E. B. Tylor. 
Anthropology. Do. 

Prof. Max Miiller s Chips, 1868, 60, 75. 

Do. Selected Essays, 1881. 

Do. Sanskrit Literature. 

Do. Introduction to Science of 

Religion, 1873. 

Do. Science of Language, 1864. 

Do. Sundry Lectures, &c. 

Primitive Customs. J. A. Farrer. 
Professor Goldstucker s Literary Remains. 
Emanuel Deutsch s Literary Remains. 
The Sacred Books of the East (up to date). 
Druidism Exhumed, by Rev. J. Rust. 
View of all Religions. Rev. A. Ross, 1672. 
Mankind, their Origin and Destiny, 1872. 
Rev. Baring Gould s Lost and Hostile Gospels. 

Do. Origin and Development 

of Religious Belief. 

Do. Myths of Middle Ages. 

Leslie s Origin of Man, 1868. 
W. B. Dawkin s Early Man. 
J. S. Mill s Posthumous Essays. 
Cloughe s Mixed Languages. 
Burder s Oriental Customs, 1808. 
Burton s Gorilla Land. 
Voltaire s Philosophical Dictionaiy. 
Rev. G. Oliver s History of Initiation into 

Ancient Rites, 1829. 
Figuer s Primitive Man. 

Heathen Mythology, Exts. Celebrated Authors. 
Problems, Life and Mind. G. H. Lewes. 
Thos. Scott s Series" of Religious Papers. 

Do. Life of Jesus. 
Hone s Ancient Mysteries. 
Whitney s Linguistic Studies. 
Barth s Religions of India. 
Prof. Weber s Indian Literature. 
Demonology. M. Con. way. 
Sacred Anthology. Do. 
Metrical Texts fron Sanskrit. Dr J. Muir. 
Science of Language. Prof. Sayce. 
Origin of Do. Kavanagh. 

Shrines and Sepulchres. Madden, 1857. 
Asiatic Studies, Religions. Sir A. C. Lyell. 
Dean Stillingfleet s Origines Sacrse., 1680. 

Do. Rational Grounds of Chris 

tian Faith, 1670. 

Gnostics and their Remains. King, 1864. 
Monumental Christianity. Lundy. 

3 Buckle s Civilization. 

2 Draper s Intellectual Development. 
1 Do. Religion and Science. 

3 Hallam s Middle Ages, &c. 

1 Mandalay to Momien. Anderson, 1876. 

3 Marshman s History of India. 

1 Fremenville s Early Races. Finisterre. 

1 Lubbock s Prehistoric Times, 1872. 

1 Do. Origin of Civilization, 1870. 

1 Jenning s Rosicrucians. 

1 Grimm s Teutonic Mythology. Stallybrass 

Translation, 1880. 

1 Christianity as old as Creation. Tindal, 1730. 

1 Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites, &c. Rev. J. 

Godwyn, 1685. 

1 Biblical Apocrypha. Cooper. 
1 Do. Hone. 

1 Lares and Penates, or Histoiy of Cilicia. 

Barker, 1853. 

2 Brand s Antiquities. Bonn s Edition. 

6 Duncker s Hist, of Antiquities, 1877-82. 

1 Dean Stanley s Sinai and, Palestine 

1 Do. Christian^Institutions, 1881. 

1 Russian and Turk. Dr Latham, 1878. 

1 Vanbury s Bokara. 

1 Prehist. Compar. Philology. Hyde Clarke. 

1 Ludwig Noire s Philosophy of Language. 

1 Ancient Pagan and Mod. Christian Symbolism. 

Dr Inman, 1869-1874. 

1 Ancient Faiths and Modern. Dr Inman, 1876. 

1 Pilgrimage to Nejd. Lady A. Blunt. 

1 Ancient Symbol Worship. Dr Wilder, U.S.- 

1 Symbolic Language. R. Payne Knight. 

1 Freemasonry Mysteries. J. Fellows. 1871. 

1 E. Renaudot s India and China, 1718, 1733. 

1 History Ancient Religions. Prof. Tiele. 

1 Apostolic Fathers. Rev. Dr Donaldson. 

2 Clavis Calendaria. J. Brady, 1815. 
2 Isis Unveiled. .Bhlavatsky, 1877. 

2 The Lost Solar System. J. Wilson, 1856. 

3 Supernatural Religion, 4th Ed., 1879. 

1 Gregg s Creed of Christendom. 

1 Abrege de 1 Origine de Cultes. Dupuis, 1700 ? 

2 Hist. Abrege de Difierens Cultes. Delaure, 1825. 
2 Prof. Gubernatis Zoological Mythology, 1872. 
2 Do. Myfchol.desPlantes, 1878-82. 

4 T. Wheeler s History of India. 

1 Dr J. M. Arnold s True and False Religions, 1853. 

1 Rev. Dr J. Robinson s Cyclopedia of Religious 

Knowledge, 1816. 

1 F. W. Newman s Theism. 









F. W. Newman s Phases of Faith. 
Do. The Soul. 

Christian Iconography. M. Didron, 1841. 

Socrates Eccles. Hist. Bohn s Edition, 1853. 

Dryden s Fables, 1721. 

Secret Societies of Middle Ages. Knight s 
Edition, 1837. 

Bellamy s History of Religions, 1813. 

Religion of Israel. Rev. J. Knappert, 1877. 

Freemasonry Lectures. Rev. G. Oliver, 1826. 

W. W. Hunter s Brief Hist. India. 
Do. Rural Bengal. 

Do. Non- Aryan Languages/ 

C. 0. Miiller s System of Mythology, 1854. 

Hib. Lect, 1878, Muller s Origin of Religion. 
Do. 1880, Early Roman Christy. Kenan. 

Science and Culture. Professor Huxley. 

History of Fabulous Ages. London, 1764. 

History of Magic. J. Ennemoser, 1843. 

Rousselet s India and its Princes. 

Fergusson s Rude Stone Monuments. 

Do. Tree and Serpent. 

1 Do. Rock-Cut Temples, India. 

Chas. Darwin s Works 
1 Young s Corruptions in Religions, 1733. 
1 Rev. R. Taylor s Diegesis. 
1 Gregorie s Works and Scripture Notes, 1684. 
"- Lord Amberley s Analysis of Religious Belief. 
I La Bible dans L liide, par Louis Jacolliot, 1869. 
I Spenser s Faerie Queene, 1589. 
1 E. Bunsen s Angel Messiah. 
1 Climate and Time. J. Croll, Geological Survey. 
1 Glennie s Pilgrim Memories. 
1 Credulities of Past and Present. 
I Religion of Future. Crozier. 
1 Transactions Oriental Congress, 1874. 
1 Myth, de la Femme. C. Schoebel. 
1 Pitcairn s Criminal Trials. 

1 Stephen s Hist, Eng. Thought, Eighteenth Cent. 
2 Lecky s England, Eighteenth Century. 
4 Do. Rationalism and European Morals. 
1 Ceremonial Institutions. Herbert Spencer. 
1 Principles of Sociology Do. 

6 Proceedings of Society of Antiquaries, Scotland. 
1 Heathen Mythology. Abbe de Tressan. 
1 History of Heavens. Abbe" Pluche, 1790. 
I Do. Heathen Mythology. H. North, 180 6. 

1 Pantheon. Prof. Tooke. 
1 Development of Creation. Thos. L. Strange. 
1 Legends of Old Testament. do. 

1 Bible, Is it the Word of God ? do. 

1 Sources of Christianity. do. 

1 What is Christianity] do. 

1 Controversial Writings. Thos. L. Strange. 


10 Anti-Nicene Library of Christian Fathers. 
20 Asiatic Researches. 
10 Calcutta Review, 1844-48. 
14 Transactions, Biblical Archeological Society. 
Journals, Anthropological Society ; Royal 
Society, Edinburgh ; Royal Asiatic Society ; 
Royal Geographical Society ; Bengal and 
Bombay Asiatic Societies, for many years. 
1 Roscoe s Life of Leo. X. 
1 Idolomania. London, 1858. 
1 Prof. Heeren s Manual Anc. Hist., 1829. 

1 (Edipus Judaicus. Sir W. Drununond, 1811. 

3 Do. Anc. Hist. Gottingen, 1815-24. 

2 Dr Davidson s Canon of Bible and New Test. 
1 Keary s Outlines Primitive Belief. 

1 Prof. Bain s Mind and Body. 

1 Mind in Animals. Professor Biichner. 

2 Haeckel s History of Creation. 
2 Strauss Life of Jesus. 

1 Do. Old Faith and New. 
1 Kuenen s Prophets of Israel. 

7 Colenso s Pentateuch. Parts I. VII. 

1 Do. Lects. on do. and Moabite Stone. 

1 Musee Secret Herculanum et Pompee, Tome 8. 

par H. R. Ain6, 1 872. 
1 Barker s Ancient World* 

1 Emp. Julian s Arguments against Christianity. 
1 Mrs Gray s Sculptures of Etruria. 
1 Truth of Christianity. H. Grotius, 1809. 
1 Origin of Mankind. Sir M. Thales, 1677. 

8 Theodore Parker s Works. 

1 Canon Farrar s Families of Languages. 
1 Bishop Butler s Analogy. 

1 History of Apostles Creeds, 1711. Lord 

Chancellor King? 

2 History of Missions. Rev. W. Brown, 1854. 
1 Religions of World,by Missionary Societies, 1 876. 
1 Religious Ceremonies of all Nations. Rev. J. 

Nightingale, 1-821. 

6 Mosheim s Ecclesiastical History. 

1 W. E. Gladstone s Juventus Mundi. 
1 Do. Homeric Synchronisms. 

1 Horae Hellenics). Professor J. S. Blackie. 

1 Sabean Researches. Landseer, 1823. 

1 Court of Gentiles. Gall, Oxon., 1669. 

1 Sellon s Hindu Annotations. 

1 Milner s Church History. 

1 Compar. View Indian Monuments. Lon., 1785. 
5 The New Nation. J. Moris, 1880. 

2 Massey s Book of Beginnings, 1881. 

1 K. S. Maquoid, Through Brittany. 

2 Bastian s The Beginnings of Life. 

4 Dr R. Cudworth s Intellectual System, 1820. 

1 Freemasonry, Mysteries of. J. Fellows, 1871. 


IT being now several years since the first part of these volumes was written, the 
author craves the pardon of those who put their names down for copies in response 
to a prospectus of 1876 which he issued on his intended return to duty in the 
East. The work then contemplated was by no means so large or serious an under 
taking as the present, and it fell more easily from the author s hand as the every 
day thoughts and observations of Indian life on the living faiths around him. But on 
retirement from Her Majesty s service in 1877, it seemed advisable to halt, and read 
up further matter for which hitherto there had neither been opportunity in the way of 
ancient literature, nor time, from the exigencies of heavy executive and administrative 
work. He had long been anxious to take up more thoroughly and systematically the 
earliest developments of Western faiths as founded on and closely interlaced with, all 
the oldest as well as modern religions of Central and Eastern Asia. Indeed, the strik 
ing parallelisms had always been an engrossing study especially during every visit to 
Europe, and had led up gradually to the formation of divers synchronous charts of 
all Eeligions or Faith-ideas, and to various Synoptical tables, such as that contained 
in Appendix IV. of Vol. II., besides having entailed a good deal of correspondence in 
Indian Journals. The writer fortunately has had not only leisure to study most of 
what has been written regarding the ancient ruins, shrines or places sacred in the 
religious and legendary histories of Egypt, Western Asia and Europe, but had person 
ally inspected these from the upper Nile to over most part of Syria ; portions of Asia 
Minor, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, and particularly the Reltik remains of the West ; 
while of the East and its faiths, especially India and its surroundings, he felt able to 
speak with the authority and confidence which is begotten by living among the people, 
talking several of their languages, and closely studying their faiths, rites and customs 
during the third part of a century. It has been urged upon the author that even at the 
risk of being thought obtrusive he should here inform his readers of these and some 
other little matters of personal history, necessary for them to understand the circum 
stances which have directed his studies and given him a certain confidence in pursuing 
them. From these it will be seen that he has enjoyed as favourable opportunities of 

xiv Preface. 

acquiring a practical knowledge of all the faiths of India and its circumjacent 
nationalities, as of the sects in his own country. 

It is now nearly forty years since the author began to study the religions and 
languages of India, and he was led to do so in days when the latter was not compul 
sory, from a fervent belief in his own faith, and a sincere desire to save "the lost." 
He approached the vast subject how vast will be seen in page 290 of \ 7 ol. II. with 
all the usual zeal and no doubt dogmatism, which generally distinguishes those who 
are not only entirely ignorant of the old religions they so valiantly attempt to over 
throw, but who know very little even. about the foundations of the one they seek to 
propagate. Long years of careful study and many well fought encounters with the 
able adversaries of current creeds, had however, the usual effect when one determines 
to know and accept all truth, come from whatever book, shrine or priest it may. He 
found it impossible to walk like so many of his good comrades, with neither eyes nor 
ears for the ancient faiths around him, and truly there is nothing gained by shutting 
out facts, truths or comparisons however uncomfortable. Better far to know the real 
foundations of every story, doctrine and rite the root from whence sprang every 
emblem, God or divine idea, than to believe implicitly the ancient writings of more 
or less interested persons. 

The first scene s of the author s study on entering the Army had been Madras, 
Central India, the Dekan, and then the high and holy places of the Western 
Ghats of the Bombay Presidency, 1 from whence above 2000 years ago had issued 
Budhists and Jains, pushing before them Aryan, and vastly ancient Turanian Nature 
worshipers. Afterwards he was called to civil duties on and around the Mysore High 
lands, where he gazed with amazement on the remains perchance of the " River drift " 
or " Cave man," and on Druid-like shrines, surpassing far those of his native land. 

A somewhat roving and extensive Engineering charge followed, which afforded 
ample opportunity for becoming intimately acquainted with all Southern India, and 
which necessitated a systematic study of its languages. A close acquaintance was 
thus attained with the Aryan, Dravidian, and especially with the ruder non-Aryan 
populations, their shrines, deities, symbolisms, rites, traditions and legends. But it is 
not easy to search out many of the more ancient of these, and to collect or fathom, 
when found, the dim pre-historic faith-legends of the non-Aryan and Dravidian of 
the jangles. Many of the most sacred shrines, and revered but shrineless spots, lie 
far from the busy, haunts of Aryan life, on high and all but inaccessible mountains or 

1 The reader will better understand the following if he will keep before him the Map of Indi.-i 
at end. of Vol. II. 

Preface. xv 

cliffs, beside secret caves or in vales where, by a dark pool, sacred tree or holy well, 
there is often only found a solitary pious man, but one mayhap full of the tales and 
traditions of a faith which, in his opinion, is passing or has passed away. He who 
rests but for a day or two at such Indian shrines, and knows merely Brahmanas and 
Puranas, or even Vedas, will hear only of those higher gods. Siva will be the peaked 
mountain or dark stream, and Vishnu or Lakshmi the ovicular cliff or mound or deep 
gorge ; but these places had gods and rites and symbolisms before the earliest deities 
of any literature were known, and to such points the careful student must address 
himself if he would learn the roots of faiths, and from whom Puranik or Vedik gods 
sprang. This requires some experience, much study and time, and the writer looks 
back with much pleasure to the many enjoyable holidays he often spent, encamped 
beside strange shrines or sacred groves, even when he could not get within them, for many 
have laws forbidding "the unclean" to approach. By selecting, however, a suitable time, 
and showing a respectful and real interest in the faith and its god- ideas, and having a 
practical acquaintance with its literature and the vernacular languages, one can often 
acquire much substantial knowledge, as well as hints of an important kind, such as 
no writings on Eastern faiths impart. Priests and devotees also readily return visits, 
and thus many evenings of friendly talk can be arranged, when all the past and 
present faiths of the land can be freely discussed. Tn these matters there is often an 
unspoken meaning, born of true sympathy, which can only spring from such friendly 
intercourse, when this is continued long enough, and whilst priests and people are 
engaged in the daily round of their religious rites and duties. And this knowledge 
will be all the more complete, if we know the people administratively and socially. 
It will utterly fail .if a breath of proselytizing feeling is thought to exist, or even if we 
cannot show that we fully appreciate the pious yearnings of the worshipers. 
If we can do this, and what earnest thoughtful man cannot so sympathize with the 
longings of his fellows as they pass through their various stages of civilization ? then 
we can read as it were between the lines, and find a clue to many divine ideas, 
symbolisms, rites and words which no writings have yet made clear; but the problems 
must be read backwards as described at page 409, and from the living Religions well 
and practically grasped : we must try to get at the original inceptions and radical 
emblems now separated from us by a vast mental chasm. 

Faiths are linked together by symbolisms and a nomenclature which has proved 
all but indestructible as this work will abundantly show, and these the more religious 
and advanced thinkers seized from the rudest nature worshipers, and used as pious 

xvi Preface. 

devices to render apparent to the multitude, what they longed to discern of the unseen 
and the limitless. So early Christians put crosses on the ancient stones, and built 
their churches on sites endeared to Pagans by the worship of ages, just as Hindus had 
before acted in regard to Budhists, and they to Vedantists, and so on for untold time. 
The hallowed associations connected with old names and emblems, rites and fete days, 
were always esteemed by reformers as the best means of furthering their schemes 
usually the best interests of their fellows. It was found that the revered name and 
symbol best comforted the miserable, gave strength to the ignorant, and aided greatly 
him who was striving to associate himself with the divine ; and this we call " Keligion." 
Before leaving Southern India, the writer had many opportunities of seeing and 
studying the faiths and shrines of all the Eastern coast of India from Tamulian 
Madras to the northern limits of that ancient Andhra nation now and for a millenium 
known only as the Telagu, Telingana or country of the Tri-Lingas. And no region is 
more interesting, whether we consider the intense energy of the people so long mani 
fested in colonization or their very ancient lineage and far northern possessions. It 
was Audhras in their ancient Turano-Kusite or Meru-opian stage, who stemmed the 
advancement of Sanskrit- Aryans at the northern fortress of Kal-linga ; for this (our 
Kalinjar) long looked down watchfully upon the new Aryan possessions once probably 
theirs, in the valley of the Jamuna or Jumna, which river was also more anciently known 
as the Kal-linga a significant name which the reader has yet to become familiar with. 1 
The Andhras would then as now truly merit the Vedik designation 2 of " Followers of 
Sisna-Deva," the Priapian or Lingam God, for they claimed his Triune sway from three 
great shrines embracing the whole breadth and half the length of all India. When they 
lost control of these shrines they substituted others, and in lieu of Northern and much of 
Southern India expended their surplus energies in colonizing trans-oceanik countries. 
It was they and theirs who founded the old Talain, Taliny or Tra-ling Kingdom of 
Banna, and who principally pressed their Indian civilization, arts, faiths and symbolisms 
on Barma, Siam and Kambodia, and, by -the help of their Tamil brethren, on all the 
Indian Archipelago. To trace their age and probable deeds we must dig even below 
those wondrous old temples buried in the primeval forests of Siam, Kambodia, Java, 
Bali, &c., 3 and learn how they but followed here in the footsteps of those far 

1 Of. Wilson s Vishnu Vurana, Hall s ed., iv. 203. Pliny s Nat. Hist., vi. 22, and our vol. ii. 

2 Riy Veda, vii."25, 5 ; x. 99, 3, en which see Dr Muir s tians. Texts. 

3 Cf. vol. i. pp. 113-117, and other parts. 

Preface. xvii 

more ancient Turano-Bali or Baal worshipers, who had also left their South Indian and 
Ceylonese homes by no means their cradle to bear in mythologic times a wondrous 
civilization into Celebes and Sunda groups, nay onwards into Oceana and the Amerikas. 

War, followed by civil duties, called the writer to this Eastern side of the Indian 
Ocean, where, during nearly seven years, he had ample opportunity of practically 
acquainting himself with the purest Budhism that anywhere exists nationally. 
Here also he had to study his first Turanian language, the character of which was, 
however, found to be a close approximation to that with which he had been so 
familiar in Telingana. All trans-Indian languages have here borrowed, though the 
Lingam worshipers had long ago been driven away except from the seaports 
hateful no doubt from their social and comparatively recent caste pretensions yet 
lower Barma still markedly showed their ancient influence. 

The faith of the great Prophet of Budha-Gaya had long been one, the practices of 
which the writer had anxiously desired to study, for it crosses the student s path in all 
research concerning Hinduism or the Neo-Brahmanism which it had developed, as well 
as that earlier Hermaik and then Vedik Brahmanism from which it had sprung as a 
reforming and conquering faith. It seemed a vain hope to thoroughly master Budhism 
without a personal acquaintance with it as a living faith, and here throughout 
Barma, Siam and their coasts it was working under numerous and much respected 
leaders ; perhaps the least worldly of priesthoods, with a fervor and purity far 
beyond that manifested by the vastly more numerous Budhists of China and 
Japan. The Barmese had indeed looked upon Ceylon as a sort of Myamu, Eden or 
Paradise, where was concentrated all that they held lovely and pure in faith 
"a divine gem,". as they said, "in a wicked world;" but being long an appanage 
of idolatrous India and then of " white Kalds who neither fear gods nor devils," it 
had then (thirty years ago) fallen from its lofty pedestal, and the high priests of the 
Irawady were learning to trust to themselves and seek for no aid from India beyond 
an occasional relic of their Master. 

From the straits of Malaka to the northern capital of the Barmese Monarch, and 
from the forest-clad shores of Arakan and the hills where dwell the wild dark Khyens, 
to over many of the mountains of the red Karen and of the little known Shan tribes, 
all of whom are practically Nature and Nat or Fetish worshipers, the writer sought 
a knowledge of present and past faiths. Almost every shrine and sacred mountain 
spot within or near our own borders was visited, and priests and people freely dwelt 
amongst as in their Khyoungs and Ziyats, where the most friendly intercourse 

xviii Preface. 

could be long continued, and all the faiths and legends, past and present, freely 

A year and more was then spent in Eastern Bengal where, as Superintending 
Engineer of a wide circle, extending all round Calcutta and even east to Daka, 
throughout the Sunderbans and downwards towards Orisa long a sacred land of 
Budhists, and now not less so of Hindus the writer had a prolific field for all 
religious and archeological studies. 

From Calcutta he was moved into Northern and Eastern Bengal, where during 
a year or two he was able to visit most of the wild hilly retreats of the Sontalis, 
Mimds, Kols, etc. strange and ever interesting "non-Aryan aborigines," whom Aryan 
and Dravidian have alike pushed aside into almost impregnable fastnesses. Much 
will be found in the present and future volumes regarding these old persistent nature 
worshipers, as well as the inhabitants of the Tibetan highlands, to the borders of 
which, at Darjelmg, some 8000 feet high, the author s charge extended. But 
nothing could exceed in interest the whole Gangetic valley around his head 
quarters. These Provinces of Bihar and Baniires were the nucleus of the great 
Magadha Empire, where 300 years B.C. Megasthenes the Greek wrote what enables us 
to check the misty chronology of ancient Indian history. Here the- archeologist can 
study the half-mythical stories of the great cities of Kiluoj, Kasi, etc., on his west, 
and to the eastward seek for Gour and other capitals of early Bengal amid the 
swamps and jungles of the Ganges. But to the student of Eeligions all around is 
classic ground,, and a land on which one-third of the human race still look with 
affectionate reverence. In the north, by the little lake of Kapila Vasta, not far from 
Ayodhya, the holy capital of Kama and Seta, "the Great Teacher" was born, and from 
there he fled as a solitary pious man to give his great lessons to half of Asia. Here 
too is the sacred mound and stupa of Vaisali, where he had often preached and spent 
thoughtful days with his favourite disciple Ananda ; and beyond it, to the far north, 
may be seen the Devisthan suitable name for another great stupa where by Kosia- 
nagara he rested from his labors and embraced Nirvana. 

Near the southern water-sheds of the great river lie the sacred hills of Rajagriha, 
and the forests where, under an ever holy Bodh tree, the pious ascetik had so long- 
pondered over all the miseries and unsatisfactoriness of life. Here for seven years he 
had thought only of past faiths and his own salvation, but from here also he had 
roused himself above selfish aims and determined to be "up and doing," and dedicate 
the rest of his life to advance the happiness and best interests of humanity. It was 

Preface. xix 

from this retreat that he passed into the busy life of the world in Bilnares ; but his 
disciples then forsook him and fled. At Nalanda he planted his first woodland colleges, 
from which issued teachers who changed the whole face of Indian life, and swept away 
an effete faith which had become an oppressive scourge to all ranks and conditions 
except the pampered priestly castes. Here too lay the early scenes of that mongrel 
Budhism which has in India outlived Sakya Muni s in the Jainas of Gujerat and Malwa. 
But older far than all these may be seen the ancient sites of the aboriginal Nature wor 
shipers, as at Deogarh, Parasu-Kama s mountain, and at no doubt many another, sacred 
to more primitive divine-ideas than this Hindu Avatar and Jaina saint, aye, even more 
ancient than Vedik gods, if one had only the necessary knowledge and leisure for 
such researches. 

From these provinces the author was transferred to the north-west " Agra and 
Central India," as the vast and wild districts are called which stretch from the fertile 
plains of the Jamuna over all the lands watered by its great tributaries the Chambul, 
Sind, etc., which rise amidst the Aravalis and the Vindhyas. Here indeed he who 
desires to study the most ancient histories, mythologies and faiths, has a wide 
and intensely interesting field before him, which would require a volume to give any 
clear conception of. To the north, on the Jamuna or mythik Kal-linga, lie all the 
scenes of the youthful Krishna s life, including those of his amorous follies, which 
fanciful solo-phalik worshipers have woven around him as their Apollo. Further 
north are the fields where in mature life he warred with gods and Titans and all 
those Herakleidse of ancient India as depicted and immortalized in the great epik 
of the Mahabharata. Everywhere also the old Nature faiths are vigorous, though on 
the Jamna usually hidden under a thin disguise of Hinduism ; but it has no such 
covering southwards amidst the wilds of Central India and Bundelkand. There we 
find Druid-like shrines of all kinds ; ancient peoples worshiping stones and divers 
other objects symbolical of nature s fertile agencies, and keeping high festivals similar 
to the Phallaphoria of Egypt and of Greece. 

After some four years spent in developing Public Works throughout these pro 
vinces, the writer was transferred on similar duty to Eajputana, where the seat of 
the Government is on - the sacred and beautiful mountain of Abu, the ancient Ara- 
Budha. Here Brahman and Budhist had often striven for mastery, and from thence 
had many of their Reformers gone forth to redeem India ; but now Abu is only the 
timeous resort of pious Hindus and Jains and, at certain seasons, of pilgrims who 
come to worship at its exquisitely carved and famous Jaina temples or at very 

xx Preface. 

sacred shrines and wild rocky spots, where Aryan and non- Aryan, Hindu and 
aborigine, alike agree that Maha-Deva still manifests himself to the devout believer. 
In spite of Jain and Vishnuite, Siva is " The Lord " of this " Holy mountain," and 
here it was, say some, that he appeared in his earliest androgynous form as the 
Ardhanar-Isvara or half-man and half-woman. 1 

In Eajputana, that is from near Agra and Delhi to the borders of the Bombay 
Presidency, from the dreary sandy dunes of the "West to over all the rugged denies 
and plains in and about the Aravalis in the East, the writer found new fields of ever 
increasing interest. Throughout the desert oases were shrines like the Amonium in 
the Libyan desert, and everywhere a plethora of vastly ancient and holy places 
untouched by modern civilization, where the most primitive Nature worship absorbed 
the whole life and thoughts of numerous and widely different races. Here, indeed, 
the intelligent inquirer could often see the rude base on which many of the 
elaborate rites, symbolisms and even doctrines of faiths rest ; for here were the 
numerous early growths all in active and serious operation. Beside the naked rites 
and strong faith of the uncultured non-Aryan, stood the refined and gentle worship of 
all sects of Jainism, as well as old and neo-Briihmanism, down to that recent and 
voluptuous form of Hinduism the degenerate child of Krislma ism which yet 
arrogantly professes to follow the teaching of the pious and pure minded Vcallabha- 
Charya. Here one could constantly observe the outward, and occasionally much of the 
inward life of some impure dens the shrines of certain leading Gosains or " Maha 
Rajas " as these great sensualists are popularly called, and realize by comparison the 
innocent simplicity of the ancient faiths of the rudest worshipers of Fertility. 

From Western India the writer was transferred to Lucknow where, as Chief 
Engineer of Oudh that ancient classic land of Ayodhya he had great facilities for a 
further detailed study of the earliest Aryan faiths; for in this part of India lie most 
of the scenes so beautifully depicted in the stirring religious epiks of the Ramayana 
and Mahabharata. Ayodhya has been called "the cradle alike of Hindus, Budhists and 
Jains/ though it has never forsaken its old love Nature worship ; nay, this seems to 
have even spread among the dense masses who throng this " garden of India " to the 
extent of nearly 500 per square mile. Yet Ayodhya was Rama s capital when Greeks 
were fighting in the Troika, or say 3000 years ago, and has ever since been esteemed 
the "Gate of Heaven and centre of the Earth." By its waters "the Holy Sarju " 
sprung from the tears of love shed by The Supreme " upon its beloved children 
1 t f. Indexes and PI. xiv. Vol. II. p. 374. 

Preface. xxi 

did Rama, great Vishnu s seventh incarnated form, pass his youth and later days, for, 
on reaching manhood, he had to forsake the city " built on the chariot wheel " of his 
God, according to the harsh command of his father the reigning solar monarch. 
When he died, though entreated to return, Rama refused, in order that he might 
fulfil that father s vow ; but after a great war in which the solar arms and faith were 
carried to the most southern extremities of India, he revisited Ayodhya, and there 
ruled, beloved by all men, till in a ripe age he descended into the waters of the Sarju, 
and was received up into heaven amid the acclamations of celestial hosts and 
the tears of his people. By that spot where the waters were cleft apart, is a thrice 
holy shrine and sweet shady grove, where the writer has sat and listened to the 
oft-told tales of the Ramayana, and the many virtues of one confessedly esteemed by 
all sects as one of the purest, most just and gentle of Prophets. Some 600 years 
probably after that event, a higher class of mind and a greater incarnation of " The 
Supreme" Budha the ninth began to preach his gospel of loving kindness and 
honest work, in the adjoining capital of Sravasti, and there were founded monas 
teries which sent forth light and learning, and cast out many corruptions which had 
taken place in Rama s faith. 

These volumes will have greatly to do with all the aforesaid matters. Mythologies 
especially require much sifting, for they abound in history as well as allegory, though not 
usually very obscure to one familiar with the country, its people and literature. 
Rama with his ploughshare, losing and winning back the immaculate Seta, "the 
field furrow " or fields of India, is not very dark, but we must read further, for Indian 
poets were fond of two meanings to one tale, and here there is also a religious history 
and an esoteric and exoteric god. The Eastern student ought not, however, to experi 
ence those difficulties which seem to so perplex the too practical European when he 
enters upon the study of Eastern religions, and the modes, poetical and mythological, 
by which the Indian teaches faith and history. Knowing his adopted land well, the 
Eastern does not require recondite volumes to explain " Dionysiak Myths " or " Solar 
theories," as the old faiths are now called in the West. He sees these pervading the 
tales and epiks of East and West alike, just as Yahvism or Yahu-ism pervades the 
Scriptures of Jews or Yahus that ever familiar and expressive faith-term by which 
alone Asia knows the " Yahudean " race. He sees that Hektors, Priams and their fields 
of fame are at once mythical and religious, that though not true history they have yet an 
historical base, and further, that such sacred epiks are virtually to the mass of the people 
i. d 

xxii Preface. 

what Vedas and Brahmanas are to the ecclesiastics. Epiks soon assume their true 
dimensions when we study them in presence of the people and the living faiths 
which have grown out of them. He, of course, who has been cheated into 
believing too much, is prone to rush into the opposite extreme, and this is 
unfortunately true of some European scholars whose school-day-dreamland of Troy 
and its heroes has been too rudely dissipated by maturer knowledge. They are 
then apt to surpass their former state of complete credulity by averring that there is not 
in all these old writings even a residuum of truth, whilst the converse might almost be 
stated ; for there are always elements of genuine history in all the narratives of 
those startling epochs of a race which have thus called forth the true poet or even 
fanatical teacher. 

It has thus been rightly urged that a national myth has always a natural cause and 
is not a mere invention ; that many myths are history not yet developed and, when 
ponderous, have some great facts at their base. It was at least by such means that 
ancient men taught their fellows, and we must therefore no more despair of finding 
and elucidating some true points of history in Indian epiks and other sacred writings 
than in Western ones, nor any more dream of casting them aside than we would 
the lists of Manetho or the cosmogonies of Hebrews and Kaldeans with all their gods 
and heroes of fabulous ages and deeds. 

Let us be grateful for the quasi histories of Jaktan or Cahtan, Abram, Jacob, 
Moses, Samson and Solomon, as well as of Pallas, Herakles, Arjuna and Krishna, 
though we may not at once discover in these legendary accounts any very reliable 
history. Nay, let us go further, and admit as portion of the necessary study of man, 
all his various ethereal beings or Sky -gods, for these too were thought to dwell in a 
manner among men, though, as a rule, they are kept very distinctly apart from 
terrestrial humanity. There is no escaping such more or less spiritual verities as Anu, 
Hea and Bel, Osiris, Ea and Horus ; Brahma, Vishnu and Siva ; the Ale-im, Yahue 
and Adonis, Zeus and all his hosts ; nor yet the feminine and neuter forms of these 
rulers of the heavens and the earth. 

Let it be our aim then to get below or behind these well defined but not really 
primary potentialities, and to grasp the more radical forms and philological roots 
which, whether of spiritual or material significance, are continually emerging from buried 
palaces, slumbering, libraries, tombs and tumuli. We hear them in echoes, more "or 
less strong, and often strangely symbolized as Ba, B ra, Ra ; Zi, Ti, Chi, Dzi, and Je ; A, 
Ya, An, Ab, Ad, Os, Us, Az, As, Ath, Es, Ish; Ar, Er, Ir, II, El, Al, and Alias of mascu- 

Preface. xxiii 

line, feminine, and neuter repute. Some are fully recognised gods, and all are or were 
" spirits " or spiritual, with such meanings as " Ghost," " Life, " Being," " Breath," 
&c., and often of a very humid and unsavory kind, especially when materialized, which 
they frequently become, as in Asu-n, the " Breather," " Life Giver or Patriarch," of 
fiery, solar or phalik form. 

Before the " 1 am" They were, and it is, indeed, a long passage in the history 
of man to advance from As to As-mi, (Skt. " I am ") from this " Breather or Giver 
of Life," in such simple concepts as the El or Ale-im Gods of Gen. i., to "I am 
that I am." Here was an abstract conception of the ego and of " being," in lieu of 
a simple El-god or the As, Ash, Ath, Asu, Ashr, &c., or those simple fiery creative 
ideas, which every race of the old world, but especially in As-i&, held to signify 
" The Quickener of Nature s fertile energies." l Asu, the " Divine Breath," Asur and 
Asha, existed long prior to Asurias ; and Asha, said the Baktrian Ashites or Fire wor 
shipers, is that by which the world grows and can alone live a veritable Es or Is, 
as of Es-ars and Is-varas a Logos which oft assumes decidedly carnal attributes. 

Many scholars thus begin to see that the roots, however now pronounced or 
written, on which philology has built such goodly structures, must be more stringently 
analized. They have been up to this time for the most part generally accepted, not 
sufficiently and radically investigated. This has now to be done, and especially from reli 
gious and emblematic points of view, where they run as so many names do on religious 
lines, and touch on radical symbols and attributes of man s earliest gods. Strict etymo 
logical foundations may, even in many most important cases, be not available, for roots 
referring to divinities necessarily run back to periods before languages had classified, 
that is, had philologically developed before the parent tongues which we may call 
Turanian had thrown off the Shemitik and Aryan, a comparatively modern matter. 

Much new light not quite unforeseen in the East has been dawning, promis 
ing to connect these original concepts with the favorite emblems of primeval man and 
the rude scratchings of many lands, including what has been termed the gross 
literary forms used in the ancient classics of China, 2 and some Egyptian and 
Hamathite hieroglyphs. None who have made old faiths, archaik Alphabets or 
Syllabaries, a study, will be surprized at this. As with us a letter or word is only the 
sign of an idea, so rude man represented his greatest or divine ideas in letters like to 
his favorite and best known emblems. 

1 Cf. Vol. IT. under Euach, Vul or Iva and Maruts, as at pp. 58, 66, 89, 575, and elsewhere. 

2 Cf. Vol. II. p. 533, and Lon. Athen., 2d and 9th Sept., on Yih-Klng. 

xxiv Preface. 

It is undoubtedly difficult to analize or trace tlie cause of the root in Aiyau r 
Shemitik, or other tongues, but not more so than to get at the base of faiths and 
legends. We must begin by ransacking all such historical or quasi-historical reminis 
cences as can be gleaned regarding those vastly old races, which for lack of a better name 
may be termed Turano-Aithiopes, Cushites, Meru-opes, &c. These, upon leaving 
the High- Asian cradle become known to us from many sources as Eru three, Akads, Ads, 
Khems, Hamaths, Chams or Hamites, Kheta or Kutus, Kuths or Cushites, &c. ; and 
for one hundred years back, divers archeologists, historians and philologists, have told 
us to look mid- Asian- ways for such races, if we would know the sources of language, 
art and civilization, as well as of worship and its symbolisms in those early Religions 
spoken of by some of us too arrogantly as " Folk-lore," " Theories," or " Systems." To 
the development of these questions much of this work is necessarily devoted, and at 
page 548 Vol. II., will be found, roughly but typographically tabulated, the races, 
tribes or communities which have to be more especially considered. 

It is not in historic times nor near to the days of Vedas or any Bibles that 
spinning, weaving, building and mining, nay, nor writing, sprang up, and especially 
engraving of consonantal words, 1 for old as this last art is, it is clearly prior to 
the times when religion, especially symbolic faiths, arose, and when men chanted 
hymns and prayers to well denned deities hymns which had been handed down from 
parent to child, or priest to neophyte for doubtless thousands of years before being 
crystalized on stone or papyri. 

We are too prone like ancient Aryans Greeks and Sankritists to adopt their 
egotism with their literature, ever thinking that what we know most of, reveals or 
at least dwarfs all things else, whereas we are still only at the threshold of real know 
ledge in regard to very ancient languages, and Europe has to unlearn much in regard 
to faiths. We have too often divorced that which the Gods have joined together, 
and like the old Aryan, resented the fact that the fair Gftnga" whom he married in 
Vedik days had long been the wife of him he opprobriously termed a Daitya, thus 
ignoring the great Cusha-Dwipa civilization 2 which he had stepped into as the 
Shemites had done in the case of the Gush or Kuthite Akad, and the Greek in that 
of lonians and Dorians. 

1 Vowels "or breathing sounds the Eastern did not trouble himself with in early days, but he 
looked upon a broad a and u, &c., as consonants, and noticed these. 

2 The Arts, especially building, long preceded Aryans alike in India and the West. See Vol. TI. 
p. 467, <kc., and an able article in the Edinburgh Review of October 1882. 

Preface. xxv 

In all these matters we want more elbow room, and greater elasticity in our rules 
and lines of inquiry, and full sympathy with those philologists who speak of language 
having " forty distinct mothers," and given to " plurality rather than unity." Although 
we are not here concerned with philology per se, yet the histories of religions and 
mythologies during the written ages, must necessarily be sought for in the leading 
words in which deities, rites and doctrines, found expression. The further back we 
can trace a word, rite and emblem, the more the primitive idea will appear, and if we 
fail to trace it far enough, we may perchance come upon an age which had for 
gotten the primary significations, but which had retained the emblems and rites 
more or less altered, under epithets more or less misleading. The Priest, too, ever 
crosses the path of the enquirer by veiling his " mysteries " in strange names and 
forms to screen them from public gaze ; while fonetik growth and decay have all to be 
battled with. 

There are, however, certain tolerably recognized facts which the Philologist 
who fights the battle of the Eoots must bear in mind ; as for instance that 
Sanskrit and its Indo-congeners were, so far as present evidence goes, unwritten lan 
guages till about the fourth century B.C., so that philological research (not so much 
ours as to the Eoots of faiths or God-ideas,) has at once to encounter all the difficulties 
of working amongst an utterly illiterate people, whose pronunciation of words and roots 
would be as varied as their provinces, races, tribes and even families. Further, such 
feeble light as the Aryan might here possibly give us, is all but extinguished by the roots. 
descending to us orally for some fourteen hundred or more years, and then, say our most 
able scholars, becoming embodied in a foreign character belonging to a totally different 
class of languages one of early Phenician or Kutho-Kaldian parentage. This would 
indeed appear to lie at the base of all the characters used in every Indo- Aryan and non- 
Aryan Indian tongue. If this be so, and we know that Greeks and Latins as well as 
Shemites got their characters from Egyptians and Phenicians those old Bennus or 
Beni-Anaks it is much as if Italian had first been written in Hebrew, and then 
gradually appeared to us in Greek the correct ancient pronunciation of which, by 
the way, we are still doubtful of. Even -the strange radical character of the Indo- 
Aryan languages might however have been some sort of base on which to investigate 
our " Eoots ; " but it too has gone ! The parent is seen only in a few scattered letters 
of existing Indian alphabets, say some leading Indian scholars, following on the lines of 
Professor Dowson and others. 1 Nevertheless, we may be sure that the parental blood 

1 See an Art. Ind. Antiq., August 1882, by the late lamented Dr Burnell. 

xx vi Preface. 

has had the usual effect, and that a pre-Shemitik or Turano-Kuthite element has here 
been imported, just as was the case in Kaldia, when the conquering Shemites of the 
16th and 17th centuries displaced Turano-Akads, Sumirs, &c., whom Diodorus Siculus 
and others rightly inform us were the ancient civilizers of Kaldians. 

Thus then, the literature, faith and civilization of Turans formed the foundation 
on which not only Southern Kaldians but Armenian " Khaldis," Asyrians and even 
Baktrian Aryans sisters of Sanskritists reared their diverse structures, which makes 
our present matter of Aryan roots all the more obscure. We can indeed decipher the 
Kaldian characters as written probably 3000 years B.C., but, like the Egypto-Turanian 
hieroglyphics which go back about twice as far, we are doubtful how to "pronounce 
them, even when the meaning is clear. So that if we have Aryan roots without 
writing, we have Shemitik and Turanian ones without any certain sound ! 

It becomes us therefore to be very guarded in classifying any roots as purely of 
this or that tongue, and doubly so when we are doubtful as to what class an ancient 
race belonged. The Egyptian of Grecian days may possibly have been Shemitik like 
the later Sabeans of Yemen and Babylonia, but who can, with any certainty, classify the 
tongue of the builders of the Pyramids, and therefore of those earliest radical signs and 
sounds in which the first worshiper embodied his crude religious "ideas or divine 
names ? * This would be to draw too tightly those clearly laid down lines or laws of 
philology which we all acknowledge as undoubtedly putting sharply apart the whole 
structure of Aryan and Shemitik language in their well defined formative and written 
ages, or in the times immediately preceding these. 

In this work where the search is after ancient ideas the Roots of Faiths we are 
not so hampered. Philology is only one of many aids towards the unravelling of a 
much tangled mass. The arguments and conclusions which these researches point 
to have usually a sufficient base, when the same attributes are seen in the most 
primitive deities and their radical terms or signs, and though appearing amidst 
widely separate peoples, as in the Aryan Dionysos, the Hebrew Yahud Nisi, and 
Asyrian Dian Nisi ; in the Akadian Zi or " Spirit," his Sky God Zi-Anu, and the Ti 
and Thi-an of the far east, and Zeus of the far west. These similar potentialities are 
facts sufficient for our present purposes, whatever may be the ability of the philologist, 
building on modern writing ages, to reconcile the lettered changes ; not these alone nor 

1 Of. Vol. IT. p. 396, and note, that Professor Tiele declines in his late History of Egyptian lieli- 
yions to call Egyptians Shemites, following in this respect very many others. 

Preface. xxvii 

yet sound, but attributes, is what the searcher after faiths has largely, but by no 
means altogether, to do with. Spellings and present articulations are too modern for 
those remote and all but dead "First Causes." 1 Etymology is not likely to help us 
in recognizing Herakles in Bala-Kama or Samson ; Apollo or Ab-Elo in Krishna, 
or a Baal in Elohe, Alue or Yahud, although these last interchanged during early 
Hebrew thought and even in our Bible translations. We therefore proceed on other 
and divers lines. 

It will be shown that Turanian races ruled for untold ages in and around the 
acknowledged cradle of mankind, as well as over most of our planet, starting civiliza 
tions, mythologies, faiths and arts, before the national classification of languages, so that 
from the central home would radiate the radical base of most things which we find 
at the dawn of histories. This base, geographical and other, is not a point easily 
approached, and we must not therefore attempt to throw our philological bonds over 
it, and deny that the prominent and ever present ancient nouns or terms by which 
those dwellers in high Asian Edens or Merus named their Gods, rites, fdtes or divine 
ideas, could by any possibility slip into our Aryan or Shemitik speech. 

Gods and divine ideas would evolve pari passu with the growth of the human 
mind, and this would be very mature and well defined not only before language 
differentiated, but when roots were real words the symbols of things he saw and felt. 
This would be a period very distant from that in which abstract ideas were expressed 
and inflectional and agglutinating languages arose. The Gods and religious ideas had 
to travel, and the deities did so if not in propria persona, at least in proprio simulacra 
and over vast continents, carrying with them their rites, fetes and attributes, and the 
embodiment of these last, in the architecture of arks and temples. 2 Only very 
gradually did these change to suit the climate and civilization of the worshipers, 
and still more slowly would names take inflectional and other forms owing to 
fonetik growth or decay. 

No one who has for years freely spoken the tongues of the different classes, 
with Aryan, Turan, Shemite and Dravid (as the writer has done, sometimes for 
weeks together never hearing English spoken), but knows how closely interlaced all 
deities and divine ideas are with their names and attributes, and how this is specially 
the case amongst illiterate speakers when these are thrown indifferently together in 
friendly discussion. We dispute none of the fundamental laws of language as hitherto 

1 Largely treated of in Chap, ix., Vol. ii., as at pages 463-470, <kc. 

2 This is illustrated at pages 357-8, Vol. i., and elsewhere. 

xxviii Preface. 

ascertained, but find on entering such fresh fields of enquiry that new laws are disclosed 
which are as yet obscure to us, but which nevertheless all point very clearly to a 
remote parent tongue before our present classification was possible. It is on this 
account that we constantly see writers fretting under some present philological restric 
tions or passing them silently by as the author of "The Great Dionysiak Myth" 
seems frequently to do, especially when he gives us an Asyro-Shemitik base in Dian 
Nisi of the tablets, for the Aryan Dionysos. 

The more prominent and characteristic names of the -gods then have travelled 
like the gods themselves, where verbs, all ordinary nouns and other such general 
furniture of languages could not move. In this and other respects the author has 
endeavoured to be clear, but the main arguments of his work extending over a long 
period might be considerably strengthened by facts which have recently come to 
light since some early parts of it were in print. On this account the reader has been 
troubled with a lengthy Preface, and inasmuch as the volumes treat to a considerable 
extent of pre-historic matter, it is hoped that he will give due weight to the cumula 
tive force of the circumstantial evidence advanced, in support of the conclusions which 
are drawn. It will not do to skim over, or merely dip into this work or its indexes 
in order to ascertain its views on any particular subjects or words ; whoever does so, 
is likely to form opinions which a distant context or remote explanation may pro 
bably prove erroneous. The author has been unable to provide against such superficial 
reading, because once having taken the trouble to establish certain opinions he has been 
compelled merely to assume them in other parts of the work. 

It is not given to man to know his own genesis. He cannot sit down before 
authentic histories to gather up the requisite facts, nor is he likely to find true 
history in the regions of Religions and Theologies. We must therefore cast about 
widely, grasping at all sciences, including Philology and its congeners. A good 
practical knowledge however of similar living faiths, in all their vagaries, esoterik and 
exoterik, is an excellent test of the value. of these ; without this our philology can be 
nothing more than the outcome of studious theories devoid of, or insufficiently based 
upon facts. 

The philological principles of this work will probably be considered by some to 
be heresies as great, though not greater perhaps than the general views enunciated ; 
but minorities must wait, though perhaps in this case not so very long, before they 
become majorities, and by that time probably another minority will have arisen, and 
so truth go forward conquering and to conquer. 

Preface. xxix 

The author has never had any other object in view than the advancement of 
truth, and has studiously gathered facts bearing on his subjects from all the books, rites 
or faiths he has ever come across. Of course we all strive to stand by the traditions of 
our fathers, any other course being disturbing in many ways, and oftentimes stormy. 
The searcher after truth cannot however determine his own lines ; he may not trifle 
with her, but must follow where she leads, regardless of consequences. The writer 
has walked on through the usual phases of faiths, but is equally ready to retrace 
his steps whenever his positions are shown to be untenable, and it has ever been 
his practice to seek out opponents and invite discussion. Hitherto he has seen no cause 
to recede from conclusions formed nearly twenty years ago as to the roots of Faiths, 
and all the friends who have carefully considered the whole general subject during 
the long time they have watched it passing from embryo to maturity, have agreed 
with him, except perhaps in such details as priority of the faith lines and arrange 
ments, which now that all appear clearly in print, it is easy to see would have 
simplified many points, especially to the unsophisticated and purely European reader. 
The author can only plead the vastness of the subject and the inability of one person 
to do it justice in an ordinary life time. The volumes here published are indeed only 
moiety of those in manuscript, and the prefixed list of books consulted, the more 
important of which have been carefully read and often extensively annotated, will 
show under what influences the present work has been matured. 1 These two volumes 
do not even reach the " Written Faiths of Man," and all tribal and national Religions 
(from those which are only to be found on tombs, tablets and papyri, to the latest 
Bible of the race), had to be carefully investigated and the results generalized, before 
these two volumes and chart could be properly constructed, and mature conclusions 
formed about the general bases on which all Faiths rest. 

The next volume nearly ready in regard to its matter is a compendious Poly 
glot Glossary or Dictionary of Religious terms and ideas, with the names of the gods, 
divine heros, rites and fetes of all Faiths. It embraces alphabetically almost every 
subject which the student of Religions and Mythologies usually seeks to know the 
foundation of ; and will support and elucidate much which may, from a brief allusion 
in the body of the work, appear dark to the general reader. The author found, as all 
students must do, that it is necessary for accuracy of thought to write a distinct article 

1 The " Chapters to follow " will be seen on a prefixed page, also a list of some 800 volumes as 
those principally laid under contribution, not counting Works of mere Reference and all good current 
periodical literature, which has always been carefully noted. 

I. e 

xxx Preface. 

upon each subject before treating of it in the body of the work, and especially so 
before generalizing thereon. And this has been done, the Glossary being thus carried 
on pari passu with the studies of each faith. It has been, however, thought advis 
able to put forth these two volumes and chart at once, so that abler writers, and 
those who have devoted themselves to special faiths or special aspects of these, 
may have here a key which seems sadly wanted by European writers who have 
not been able to study Eastern faiths in Eastern words and temples. There are 
indeed sufficient difficulties in the way of so large a subject even when we have the 
key, and no one is more conscious of this than the author, who, irrespective of the 
training, time and diligence required, has had to encounter many obstacles which 
stopped or straitened his labors for long periods. 

The reader will perhaps notice a little repetition, but this is generally due to an 
endeavor to press arguments home under divers phases and from different sources, and 
because, as Mr Herbert Spencer reminds us, "it is only by varied iteration that alien 
conceptions can be forced upon reluctant minds ; " and, alas ! not even then, thinks 
Professor Max Mliller. He says, the older he grows "the more he feels convinced that 
nothing vexes people so much and hardens them in their unbelief and in their dogged 
resistance to reforms, as undeniable facts and unanswerable arguments." " Repeat," 
lie continues, " the same thing over and over again, undismayed by indifference, 
ridicule and contempt, and all the other weapons which the lazy world knows so well 
how to employ against those who venture to disturb its peace." * And having done 
all ! what then ? Can neither facts nor arguments convince ? " No," says the Pro 
fessor, " Reforms are carried by time ! and what generally prevails in the end are not 
logical deductions but some haphazard and frequently irrational movements." 

Let us^hope, however, that these remarks only apply to "the lazy world," none of whom, 
it is to be feared, will take up these volumes, but in this case as Erasmus wrote, " bark at 
us all the more furiously." The world is seeking some stable equilibrium amidst a seeth 
ing sea of mental unrest, but this is unobtainable till we have a sound vessel and clear 
sailing chart. It is in vain we attempt to sail this ocean in the old coasters of a by 
gone age, or try to shut out from eye and car the ever surging billows which now 
everywhere with noisy clamor seek to engulf the old craft. The teachers we have 
hitherto trusted did their best, and perhaps honestly, but they knew not the litera 
tures, faiths and sciences with which we are now familiar, and imagined in their 
ignorance that all save their own little world was full of evil men and things. 

1 Selected Essays, I. 253, Ed. 1881. 

Preface. xxxi 

They knew no " Sacred Books of the East " or West, yet boldly adventured upon the 
histories of all peoples and all Faiths ! and hence Religious history is grossly inaccu 
rate, and for the most part avowedly biased in favor of the writer s own little land 
and faith, though the latter was probably a mere geographical accident. This was 
of course much truer a dozen years ago when the author first felt the necessity of 
writing upon the roots of the oldest living faiths. Professor Max Miiller in 1868 
doubted whether the time had then come for a scientific consideration of Religions, 
and indeed, until lately the requisite knowledge has not existed for writing- 
Religious history, since it is necessary to know many Faiths accurately and prac 
tically before we can even know our own aright, that is, the sources and develop 
ments of its doctrines, practices and symbolisms. These have known no beginning 
however deeply the religious archeologist has dug, and will know no finality. They 
are the eternal offspring of heaven and earth, though mostly of the earth, earthy. 1 

The Religious historian is even more heavily weighted than the philologist, for he 
can write a tolerable analysis of our English tongue if he knows four or five Aryan 
languages. The writer upon faiths however, or even one Aryan religion, should not 
only have an accurate and detailed knowledge of all the faiths of Aryans, Turans, 
Dravidians, and Shemites, but must unlearn much of that one-sided teaching of 
his youth, though it clings to the heart with many fond memories of the past. He 
must search everywhere for the good and true, no less than for evil things, in the 
written and unwritten, in the theories as well as the practices of every faith, and mete 
out deserved praise or blame with impartial hand. Much that many sects hold 
sacred but would gladly hide from the keen cold eye of Reason and from all 
critical unbelievers, must be dragged into the light of day and fearlessly ex 
posed, and every doctrine and truth be argued out to its legitimate conclusions 
a task often difficult, painful or disturbing. 

If this however be an author s position, it is not less the proper attitude of every 
honest truth-seeking reader ; he too must put aside for the time national and religious 
bias, and school himself to view all calmly and dispassionately, bearing as he best 
can the rude thrusts of such an educating process. 

It is said that after forty, all persons resist new convictions. If so the writer s diffi 
culties are here considerable ; but there are fortunately many exceptions to this rule as 
we see in the case of good Bishop Beveridge, 2 who argued with himself, that " there 

1 Such matters will be found treated of in Vol. I., pp. 322, 409, &c., and Vol. II. p. 507, tc. 

2 Private Thoughts on Religion. P. I., Art, 2. 

xxxii .Preface. 

never was any religion so diabolical, but was preferred before all other religions by them 
that profess it," and that seeing "how natural it is for all to have an over-bearing opinion 
and esteem for that particular religion they are born and brought up in," he resolves 
" to be more jealous and suspicious" of his own "in order that he may make diligent 
and impartial enquiry into all." He "will look upon himself," he continues, "as one 
not at all interested in any particular religion " a noble faith and trust in the power of 
truth, and the only attitude the readers and writer of this work can profitably 
assume. Let us free ourselves from that common and real .infidelity which fears and 
distrusts truth, nay, which even calls its honest pursuit "a dangerous and evil thing." 
Religion is not like Politics, a system of compromize. We should rather dread 
belonging to any church, because this necessarily confines our views and makes 
us content with the modicum of truth it may have grasped. It is certain at least to 
find us partizans when any doctrine or rite held sacred by our sect is attacked. 
To have breadth of view in religious matters, one must take a neutral standpoint, 
and be a patient waiter upon truth, welcoming rather than repelling new ideas 
and all enquirers and reformers. The study of other faiths must ever tend to 
purify our own, and lead us to treat with deference and respect all the pious and 
earnest thoughts which have helped men to realize in some degree the great Ideal of 
power, goodness and truth. 

It is not enough to know well and write incisively upon religions. We must 
sympathize with the highest and holiest feelings they inculcate, and no less with the 
uncultured thought of him who bows before a mystic stone or bedizenedj altar, than 
with those who in lowliness of mind torture their bodies and souls to find favor in 
the sight of their God ; with men to whom the world is as nothing; who thrust aside 
with loathing its pomps and vanities, beauties and joys, and even proclaim all ex 
cellence of mind and heart to be but filthy rags in comparison with that holy ecstasy 
they experience in their believed communion with the Supreme. Let us not forget 
that now as in ancient times, there are millions who still feel that though flesh and 
heart faint and fail, He is the strength of their heart and continual joy ; that there are 
tens of thousands of revered and solitary ones, who in filth and nakedness, -sit within 
lone mountain caves or temple cells, striving in death-like silence to still every earthly 
emotion, that they may perchance hear but one word or sound from Him whom they 
call the Fathe r of Spirits. Most of us can fully sympathize with that cultured piety 
which, though it rejects all that Europe holds sacred, can yet express itself in hymns 
like that sung by Firdusi eight hundred and fifty years ago: "The height and the 

Preface. xxxiif 

depth of the whole world have their centre in Thee, my God I I do not know Thee 
who thou art, but I know that thou art what thou alone canst be." These words 
like many other devout ones of poet and pietest will not bear scientific analysis, but 
in our childhood we seek not for hard facts like the man of science ; mystic sayings? 
and burning words sufficed to make the infant race fall down and worship. 

In addition, however, to a free spirit, it is hoped the reader will have sufficient dili 
gence to read these volumes through, and at least suspend his judgment until he has 
done so. The task is heavy, but the subject is entrancing, and to inspire the reader 
with the spirit it deserves, Professor Max Miiller s stirring words in relation to the 
Vedas 1 (which is but a small branch of our subject) may be quoted with advantage. 

" These matters are important not only to the student of oriental languages, but to every student 
of history, religion or philosophy ; to every man who has once felt the charm of tracing that mighty 
stream of human thought on which we ourselves are floating onwards, back to its distant mountain 
sources; to every one who has a heart for whatever has once filled the hearts of millions of human 
beings with their noblest hopes, and fears and aspirations; to every student of mankind in the fullest 
sense of that full and weighty word. Whoever claims that noble title must not forget whether he 
examines the highest achievements of mankind in our own age, or the miserable failures of former ages, 
what man is, and in whose image and after whose likeness man was made. Whether listening to the 
shrieks of the Shaman sorcerers of Tatary, or to the odes of Pindar, or to the sacred songs of Paul 
Gerhard; whether looking at the pagodas of China, or the Parthenon of Athens, or the cathedral of 
Cologne; whether reading the sacred books of the Buddhists, of the Jews, or of those who worship God 
in spirit and in truth, we ought to be able to say like the Emperor Maximilian, homo sum, huniani 
nihil a me alienum puto, or, translating his words somewhat freely, I am a man, nothing pertaining to 
man I deem foreign to myself. Yes, we must learn to read in the history of the whole human race 
something of our own history; and as in looking back on the story of our own life, we all dwell with 
a peculiar delight on the earliest chapters of our childhood, and ti*y to find there the key to many of 
the riddles of our later life, it is but natural that the historian, too, should ponder with most intense 
interest OA T er the few relics that have been preserved to him of the childhood of the human race." 

The more we study each faith, its adherents, and the circumstances of their lives, 
the more we see the good the faith has wrought, and how hard it would have been 
to have done without it ; for however foolish and contradictory in its theories, and even 
cruel or immoral in its practices, the rudest faith has yet satisfied that void and long 
ing in the emotional part of uncultured men, and in doing so, comforted, strengthened, 
and elevated the race, and not until another void takes place can a new faith, however 
so much better, supplant the old one, and then only very gradually. If we have to 
sorrow over the undoubtedly dire effects which many Religions have produced and 
every superstition brings untold evils in its train we have also much for which we 

1 Chips I., 3, ed. 1868. 

xxxiv Preface. 

can be thankful. If Faiths have in their bigotry for ever destroyed the literary toil of 
millions, and too often given us only ephemeral theologies in exchange, yet even Vedas 
proclaim to us that architecture sprang at their command, and science came forth to 
do their bidding. Geodosy and geometry arose from the pious necessities of temples 
and altar decorations ; and rites and sacrifices disdaining the twistings and turn 
ings of " medicine men " and astrologers called forth astronomers, and mapped the 
heavens. If Keligion strangled a too aggressive Hypatia, and hindered or corrupted 
all literature and science for a time, burning and scattering its treasures, she was 
still the great nursing mother of much that was holy, pure and good ; if she hid 
away in turbulent times the white tooth of a Budha, a black stone emblem of a 
god or crude records of her deities, a bit of (< the true Cross " or other relics of her 
saints or nobler sons, she also preserved Bibles, Vedas and Tripitakas, epiks and 
histories, and all that she justly esteemed precious to her own life in mythologies and 
theologies. Like Kronos and Agni she doubtless sought to devour the children she 
had cherished, but only when in their might they threatened to drive her from the 
throne to which they had exalted her. Let us however gratefully remember her as 
the energetic nurse of a beneficent offspring. 

It is not for us then to seek to blot out the past, nor yet to rashly destroy 
any of the faiths of earth. These are mostly the emotional expressions of the heart, 
and not very amenable to reason nor indeed to any direct attack. They can never 
be rudely or abruptly disturbed with real and durable advantage. The change must 
be gentle and educational, as by the opening up of new channels of thought suitable 
to the age and civilization of each people, group or person, for knowledge is that 
which is built up slowly and severely on facts, not on dreams or a priori assumptions 
of what was or should be here or hereafter. True knowledge can only be attained by 
the painstaking processes of education, and until this is well advanced among men, and 
on a scientific basis, the poet, emotionalist, ritualist or Salvationist, must still control 
the multitude. 

In this work the facts or events of faiths have been inductively massed together, 
digested and classified so as to arrive at what the Platonist called his Uuiversals, and 
with a certain result best seen in the Chart by the flow of the streams of ideas or faith 
lines, which, though diverging, are rarely lost in the historic advance of civilizations 
rioted in the side columns. But there may also be observed from this synchronizing 
of the histories of faiths, a remarkable tidal wave of intensity, which seems to acutely 
affect the race physically and mentally, with considerable regularity every six 

Preface. xxxv 

hundred or six hundred and fifty years, reminding us of the Sothik and other cycles 
but especially of the mystical Phoenix or Solar Eras of Egypt and the East. The 
ebb and flow of this tide is shown on the Chart by light broad bands embracing a 
width of one hundred years. From this it will be seen that we are now in the midst of 
one which has witnessed the denationalizing of Budhism in the far East after a reign 
of some eighteen hundred years, and which threatens Christianity in the same way 
after a duration of less than a thousand years in Central and Northern Europe. 

It is hoped that the classification and arrangement here made of old beliefs, 
ideas and symbolisms, will enable the religious student to enter with more assur 
ance upon new fields of research, without being any longer pulled up or having 
lamely to halt at the threshold of temples, unable to assign their right place to the 
gods and myths which continually cross his path. 

The Chart has, it is believed, been made suitable for general use in all schools 
where classics are taught. It is neither orthodox nor heterodox, but as far as 
possible simply historical, though showing most of the usually accepted legends and 
legendary characters referred to in our ordinary histories. 

Unfortunately it has proved impossible to similarly write these volumes. They 
are for the student and searcher after the Roots of Faiths, and may perhaps be thought 
in certain parts to come, as it were, under the category of medical works, treating of 
the radical diseases of early and many existing religions. They deal necessarily with 
those ideas and figures which the rude man first too grossly symbolized and worshiped ; 
for he prayed like us all for those objects he had most at heart, and these are still not 
far from the real worship of the world. He besought " the Great Father," " Creator " 
and "Fertilizer" to bestow upon him and his, all worldly prosperity, which with the 
ancient, meant simply fertility in his house and fields, flocks and herds. 

All the sacred writings of mankind, and more especially the Christian Bible, 
abound with matter quite unfit for the general reader, and such is often need 
lessly prurient and immodest, having no direct relation to worship or religion, with 
which alone the present volumes are concerned. Here are only to be found bona 
fide worships, not indecencies in lives or histories, but the fervid religion of earnest 
and pious men and women. Nevertheless unavoidable allusions have frequently to 
be made to sensuous but popular God-ideas which every student of religions must 
well consider. As a very learned author lately wrote, 1 " We have been obliged to gc 

1 The Zoology of Mythology. By Angelo cle Gubernatis, Professor of Sanskrit, etc., in the University 
of Florence. 

xxxv i Preface. 

back to an epoch in which idealism was still in the cradle, while physical life was in 
all its plenitude of vigor, when images were taken in preference for the things of 
a more sensible nature, and which made a deeper and more abiding impression." 

It is still necessary to tell the world some of these truths, and to remind it that 
Religion at its base is the product of imagination working on early man s wants and 
fears, and that it is in no sense supernatural nor the result of any preconceived 
and deliberate thought or desire to work out a system of morals. It arose in each 
case from what appeared to be the pressing needs of the day or season on the man 
or his tribe. The codification and expansion of Faiths would then be merely the 
slow outcome of the cogitations and teachings of reflective minds, working usually 
with a refining tendency on the aforesaid primitive Nature- worship, and in elucidation 
of its ideas, symbolisms and legends. Early rude worshipers could not grasp 
abstractions nor follow sermons even if they had been preached, and certainly not 
recondite discourses on what the West designates " Solar and other theories." These- 
were the outcome of a far later, purifying and spiritualizing period of man s life, and 
were not such as the multitude could readily understand. This accounts for the 
common remark that " it is astonishing how little the actual conduct of a people is 
affected by their so-called national faith; that ancient Greece and Rome will bear 
comparison with the present, and that Banares has as large a percentage of good men 
and women as London." 

A word now as to Orthography. When the first proofs of parts of this work 
were struck off in India several years ago, the spelling of foreign words was in a 
transition stage, and the popular English system was adopted. Varztna was Varoona, 
because the u and a are used indifferently in English, and here deviation seemed 
unnecessary as the reader could thus correctly pronounce such words as Vishnu and 
Rudra. Diacritical marks and diphthongs were avoided, but as the work progressed 
and began to deal with a great variety of tongues, it became necessary to adopt some 
such system as that now authoritatively laid down by the Government of India; and 
these changes were radical in regard to all words not too firmly fixed in the popular 
mind, voice and eye, and where the pronunciation was sufficiently correct. 

Of course it is impossible to accommodate thirty-eight distinct English sounds 
to our twenty-six letters ; how much more so, some fifty sounds, if one would rightly pro 
nounce all the words dealt with in such a polyglotal work as this. At the same time, 
spelling reformers were everywhere making their voices heard, and Oxford may be said 
to have theoretically sided with them in 1876, when Professor Max Midler wrote his 

Preface. xxxvii 

celebrated article in the April Fortnightly, declaring against the supposed sacredness 
or etymological use of our present bap-hazard system. The Philological Society of 
London and many abroad have definitely committed themselves to lines of improve 
ment, and more action would have followed but for the too radical changes which 
the more earnest spelling reformers advocated. Moderate men desired that we should 
advance only a little quicker and more regularly than in the past, for it appears that the 
progress has been such that the 1st Chapter of Genesis, as written one hundred years 
ago, has one hundred and twenty mistakes according to the present orthography. 
It seemed sufficient that sound and simplicity should lead to a general shortening of 
words, as by avoidance of double letters and all or most unsounded ones ; also that 
when moderately correct sound could be assured, the spelling should revert to the 
most ancient language in which the word or root appeared. Thus, that in Europe we 
should pass over the Latin c, s, &c., where they had substituted these for the Greek Jc, 
z, &c., and refuse a soft ch for a k or %, and a ck where Jc was sufficient. At the same 
time it was felt imperative above all things that no changes should be made in a 
work of this sufficiently difficult kind which would draw oft" the reader s attention 
from the subject in hand, or even distract his eye or ear ; whilst as one ever a warm 
advocate of spelling reform, the author felt bound to aid, however slightly, in what he 
hopes will yet be one of the greatest revolutions of the next generation a gradual but 
general reformation of all the orthographies of Europe. He has no desire, however, to 
bury his own books and all the literature of the past which a too radical change in 
the forms of letters would infallibly do, were the rising generation to be exclusively 
or generally instructed in a system of fonetiks, or were our words even altered to the 
orthography of a Chaucer. 

We can best aid substantial reform by quickening natural laws, as in encourag 
ing fonetik growth and decay where these simplify orthography, and by writing all 
infrequent words according to the accepted principles of the moderate reformers. Of 
course our Brahman friend is horrified when he hears or reads of Maina a month, 
for his Mahtna, and would even prefer another h or n, but India now practically 
refuses to recognize the three syllables and calls their use pedantry. 

In this work a very slight endeavour has latterly been made to move in the direction 
of the London Philological Code of "General Principles," but with too little effect 
owing largely to the persistency of friendly readers and our printers, who have not 
only often ruthlessly swept out the improved spellings, but seemed to rebel against the 
different modes in which we on principle often spell the same names of gods and 
i- / 

xxxviii Preface. 

beros; the object being to accustom the enquirer into old faiths to recognize the same 
person under diverse orthographies. On this principle also, so that the unsophisticated 
be not confused, a Vaishnava is here usually called a Vislmu-ite, and Saivaism, Sivaism 
and the followers of Solar Shams, Sh-m or Shem, Shemites, and not Semites. 

A volume might be written on the use and abuse of aspirates, which it is agreed 
are " one thing in Sanskrit, another in Greek, a third in Latin, and a fourth in Teu 
tonic." The h is a necessity or fashionable addition in some districts, but is scorned 
in others. We tread gently upon Herbs, Hostlers, and Honorables, and in searching 
after roots do well to look indifferently on t and th, p and ph, k and kh, g and gh, 
d and dh,j and dj, &c., &c. These sounds and many others, require special and cautious 
handling, for what one locality favors, another deoounces, and the literate and illiterate 
are here usually at war. If we would find out roots, words and mythological 
matters, we must probe most deeply on the side of age and custom, and call present 
meanings and etymology severely in question. The learned, be they Rabis or gram 
marians, intentionally or otherwise harden and alter old forms to suit euphony or their 
own laws and ideas, and lose sight of or take little account of the old fashioned rustic 
notions, fears and symbolisms which the words anciently embodied. They scorn the 
indifference of the illiterate as to quantity and long and short vowels, and lay the 
greatest possible stress upon these, even when working in dead languages, the original 
sound of which they confess to have more or less lost. Throughout Asia, as in England 
and Scotland, we find people only separated from each other by a stream or mountain 
range, who would call the English where and dare, tvhdr and ddr, just as the Turk 
makes the Persian and Arabik Adit into Adeet, d into ou, and freely doubles con 
sonants. So Dravids do not respect the Sanskrit a, and freely alter the severe rules 
of its northern grammarians to their own ideas of euphony or propriety. 

There is nothing gained by continuing, like Irish Kelts, -to write adh and pro 
nounce it oo, or as Scotch Kelts do av or agh, and why should we follow them in writ 
ing ao when they say they mean ai or ee f We are tired of such " a blessing " as 
beannughadh, although told to roll all the last syllables into oo, and have no time to 
manufacture syllabaries or rolls of letters for every drawl which shepherds and country 
folk all over the world address to one another. Let us rather educate them than deform 
spelling, and prevent them rolling their words about by giving them and all old races a 
correct and sufficient character and orthography for properly pronounced words. Among 
the immense educational benefits which missionaries have conferred upon the world, 
perhaps the most conspicuous and lasting have been their efforts in this direction. 

Preface. xxxix 

They have often bestowed on rude old tribes not only a character but a literature which 
has improved and educated them, and all the more because they have only given 
them sufficient symbols for proper pronunciations, teaching them, as English school 
masters do our own youths, not to call " coming," " Kodmen," " own," " a-w-n," or 
sing out their words as the uneducated do on the hill sides. 

For some years back, scholars have very properly spelt Greek names as Greeks 
spelt them, but we have not yet gone far eDough, as in rejecting the Latin y our 
t, c, ai or ivai, where the Greek put his u or upsilon, which no doubt at times 
came near to the y of Latin days. The u is, however, too much connected with 
important mythological matters, and is too much like a consonant in ancient tongues 
to be so set aside. Thus we almost lose sight of the ancient Phenician Fire-god 
of Western Asia Pur, Pru or Phru, in his ever sacred Puratheia or Pry-taneum, 
that Agastdn or holy hearth of every Eastern race. Even a Presenter or Pres- 
Imteros is clearer than a Presbyter, and Skuths and Kushites than Scyths, Cuthites 
or Cythites. 

With Easterns, the real vowels were originally mere breathings, which they did 
not trouble themselves much about. When these therefore appear in diacritical, 
Masoretik or other pointings, as in Hebrew, Arabik, Persian, &c., it has been thought 
best to avoid them, for, as Sir William Drummond wrote, "they are impertinent 
impositions," by which scribes and pedants of comparatively modern times have tried 
to force upon us their own local or favourite pronunciations. Nothing has done 
more to prevent the public seeing the old ideas, particularly when instead of these 
mere markings, Western Aryans slipped in bona fide letters when transcribing the 
words into Aryan languages. 

Of course vowel markings promoted uniformity of pronunciation, and are specially 
favored by Westerns when learning Eastern tongues, and vice versa, but it has been 
questioned whether languages like religions would not have got on better without 
tying down the young to Creeds and Articles grammars and lexicons. Here at 
least both must be somewhat in abeyance whilst more ancient matters are being 

Parkhurst and learned Jews have wisely excluded the Hebrew pointings and 
given us general rules for guidance, which, however, no Eastern scholars require, 
knowing that where vowels or symbols exist in a language, as for a, e, i, o, u, &c., he 
has no right to interpose such sounds, but only a breathing a or e. Especially must 
this be the rule where the object is to find the earliest pronunciations at or before the 

xl Preface. 

great writing era of the sixth and seventh centuries B.C. Any other rule leads to all 
the confusion and diverse spellings we notice in so many words, as in Elohim for 
A 1 e im, Jehovah for Y h u e, Mecca for M ti k #, Muhommed, &c., for Mh m d, until 
Arabik has become one of the most distracting of languages. The evil is far reaching, 
for it veils, or protects, as indeed was often intended, various old deities from 
invidious comparisons. 

Elohim seems to cut off all possible connection with Allah, Ilios, &c., and by 
doubling the d in Budha, for the sage of Buda Gayd, we get still further from the 
old Nature God of India, the Bud or Bod. 1 The Aryan had already elevated him by 
an li when his attributes rose to be ethereal in the Mercury of the heavens, and 
another d has been deemed necessary in the West, when he became " Wisdom," 
moral and spiritual. Yet we must here remember that the base lies in Toth the 
Pillar-God, who also became "Wisdom and Learning." 

It is, of course, necessary in instituting comparisons between words in different 
languages, and especially in different classes of tongues, to seek for the very oldest 
forms and sounds, and know how to reach them, that is, to remember the laws so 
familiar to every speaker of different Eastern tongues which govern all ordinary 
interchange. For instance, the Chinaman has difficulties with a B and dh, and calls 
Budh or Bodli, Foil or Fo, and Di or De (us), Tl or Thl; the Indian prefaces a vowel 
to our English word steiv, calling it estti, the Barman makes the s into t or th, and dis 
likes r s, saying Bymtt, lyawtidi and Yakain, where the Bengali says Barma, Irawddy 
and Arakan, and the half-caste (dropping the initial in the latter,) is usually content 
with Eakain. 

All these matters have been carefully considered, and it is hoped, borne in mind 
throughout these volumes though like more important subjects seldom referred to, 
because the reader s attention could not profitably be distracted from points requiring 
his undivided consideration. In so large a work, extending over several years, and 
written as well as printed amid many interruptions, there must of course be many 
imperfections. The author is conscious not only of unequal writing (a matter of 
little moment where he has made his meaning clear), but of not having supported his 
arguments as strongly as might have been. In arrangement also he would wish to 
have broken up the long chapters into sections and subsections, but the marginal head 
ings, tables, &c., will, it is hoped, in this respect, render some assistance to the reader. 

1 See Bud in our Indexes, and Vol. II. p. 409. This and like subjects will be fully treated of in 
the Glossary. 

Preface. xii 

111 conclusion the author offers his grateful thanks to the many European and 
Indian gentlemen who have so frequently given him important aid, and always 
entered most fully into the spirit of the work. Without his Indian friends he 
never could have proceeded, at least with such confidence, through several of his 
chapters, especially those treating of the non- Aryan and early Aryan races, much of 
which yet remains to be published. He looks back with pleasure to many morning 
and evening hours spent with all classes from Maha Rajas to princes, nobles and 
commoners, learned Pandits in every department of literature (and in India this means 
religion also), to obscure Brahmans and illiterate pietists, who nevertheless knew 
half their sacred books by heart. With all, the Chart even in its early crude forms, 
was a never-failing source of interest and discussion, which sent them back, they said 
(though this was sotto voce) to their scholars and books with extended views of 
the whole scope of religions, and a determination to study other faiths so that they 
might know their own aright. The author trusts that this also will be the spirit 
in which the West will receive these volumes. 

He has not been authorized to mention any of his friends by name, although 
under deep obligations to several, not only in correction of proofs and preparation of 
indexes, but also for help in many obscure translations, and for a host of illustrations. 
He is especially indebted to English friends, many of whom, and among them some of 
the kindest and most interested, have passed away to that silent shore where at least 
for them have been for ever solved the great problems of Life. 

EDINBURGH, December 1882. 






IN introducing to the public the accompanying chart of the Keligions of the world, I 
do so simply with a desire to help those who have not yet studied these subjects, or 
who may not have had such good opportunities as have fallen to my lot of seeing the 
Faiths and Rituals I purpose depicting, in full practical development and progress. 

Neither the chart nor what I write is for the instruction of the learned in ancient 
Faiths and languages ; from them I look for correction and further light than I have 
yet attained to ; but imperfect as all knowledge here is, it would vastly tend to pro 
gress and enlightenment, if we all wrote and published what facts we know ; or as 
Max Miiller puts it, throw abroad the chips from our various workshops. 

If the matters of Man s early and present Faiths are difficult, they are of all- 
enthralling interest ; and for my own part, all the leisure moments of a busy life have 
been more or less devoted for the last thirty years to studying these and cognate sub 
jects ; or, perhaps, I should rather say, to watching and noting down the valuable 
freight, which ever sweeps, in a strong, full, and deep current, past all who study 
the literature of their time. Sometimes we see this stream of religious and literary 
thought calm, but oftener far, troubled, if not tempestuous ; sometimes the floating 
craft is the compact and fully garnished vessel of the man of calm reason and high 
intellectual culture, but oftener do we note upon the stream, the crank and leaky 
barque of the bigot, the zealot, or the religious enthusiast. The earnest student must 
fish in many waters, and in all he may catch something. I am still a searcher for 
pebbles on the shores of the streams of Faiths, and moments snatched, few and often 
far between, from an anxious professional life, are not favourable to a subject like mine ; 
the threads are delicate as they are numerous, and as it were mere lines of thought, 
which here and there only attain to a rich maturity ; but which, in every age and clime, 
will be found twining out and in with each other in endless maze. As a rule the 
whole tangled web of a Faith springs from a grand spiritual idea of a devout Leader, 
which, worked upon by various minds, commonly bursts out later into a practical 

I. A 

2 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

violence which would have shamed and horrified Him whose name his followers have 
perhaps adopted ; whilst in their precepts, dogmas, and rituals, they differ as much from 
the spiritual worship which that Leader taught and practised, as frozen seas from 
torrid zones, as the delicate tracery of a Phidias from the formless stones bedaubed 
with red which all the ancient tribes around me worship ; and which is yet but 
a feature of that same Faith which the artistic Greek threw into the stones of Athens, 
and which is also precisely that Faith which, as Raskin puts it, reared " the stones of 
Venice," which shines out no less in the obelisks of Egypt than in the columns, poles, 
and hangings, which beautify the Piazza-di-san-Marco, and which we can everywhere 
still trace throughout the world. It is then for the student of these things, who is 
aided by the vast light which literature and philosophy are everywhere casting on his 
path, to as keenly collect, as to severely sift, the ends and beginnings of the flossy mass, 
divided and sub-divided as he will find these lines of thought to be, whether by the 

o J 

subtle brains of ancient philosophers, devotees, and fanatics, or by the old poets and 
painters of nature and of art, who always follow these, and who work up the stiff, cold, 
coarse outlines into glowing tints and lovely images. 

As an instance of how closely we must watch for the traces of man s Faiths in 
his doings and sayings, T may note, that Mr Fergusson, the great writer on architec 
ture, and the author and compiler of that beautiful volume on " Tree and Serpent 
Worship," says that, keen observer though he ever was of ancient architecture, he had 
seen many of the beautiful temples and sculpturings he depicts, for a dozen of years 
past (I quote from memory), and never observed the serpent or a trace of serpent- 
worship, although now that his attention has been called to it he finds it everywhere, 
twining in and out, and over-shadowing with up-reared hood, the oldest ideas of man 
on stone and rock. 

The more we study Faiths the more shall we perceive the very close union of 
their essences and origins. Thus a great tree first springs up and stands apart, 
beautiful and noble by itself. The beasts of Earth and birds of Heaven come to it for 
nourishment and shelter, but they bring with them the corruptions of many nations, 
and the lovely branches of the tree get coated and encrusted with many parasites, some 
good and lovely as itself, but many also poisonous and corrupting. The substance of 
the great Tree is eaten into, and its mighty branches are disfigured and weighed down, 
all this it can bear ; but at last a delicate, tiny, gentle creeper calls to it from the 
ground for support, and taking it up fondly, the tree nestles it in its mighty arms and 
feeds it with its own life, soon, alas, to find that it is to be repaid by the grasp of death 
in the mighty and evertightening embrace of the many-folded destroyer. So sinks the 
great Parent Faith into the Earth from which it sprang, and in its place rises the 
tangled and mazy mass which we find all old Faiths to be. 

Originally, then, all faiths are but the ideas of a great man, or men great in faith 
if not in intellect, and not at all necessarily so in culture; men to whom ideas are 

Introductory Chapter. 3 

realities, and who are willing to die for those ideas. It is their enthusiasm of Faith 
which converts the multitude and leads to triumphs and power ; and then up come the 
creepers from grovelling in dirt and every worldliness, men of ambition, and of older 
Faiths, who see the influence and power which the strong enthusiast has raised, and for 
the sake of these they gradually twine themselves about the goodly tree, killing off all 
branches (sectaries, &c.) which, as power is gained, no longer serve their mundane aims 
and purposes ; and thus makmg the whole a mere engine of their own or of their State 
with codes and articles, the Faith becomes in their hands the tangled mass I have 
sought to picture. 

I had better here state, once for all, that in a subject such as mine, where I have 
to substantiate certain positions taken up, I cannot pretend not to plagiarise ; that is 
to say, I must borrow views, facts, and materials in support of my own, and of my 
chronology, from the storehouses of the learned of all classes, which I have been able to 
meet with ; nay, worse, I shall often not be able to name, and so to kindly acknowledge 
the writers from whom I quote ; for I find in going over my note-books, containing 
many years of detached studies, that I can only guess at many of my sources of infor 
mation. I beg, therefore, the kind consideration of those from whom I borrow, or whose 
writings I err in quoting or understanding ; I am here only anxious to enlighten the 
ordinary reading public, perhaps I should say of the male sex, for to our sisters, the 
origin of Faiths and of the various rites they continually see around them, must long 
remain mysterious, except perhaps to that advanced, strong-minded and ever-increasing 
phalanx, who dare to enter upon all those themes which form the broad domain of social 
science. This work, then, is for men, and indeed only for that class of my brothers who 
venture on strong food, and have permitted themselves to look beyond the swaddling 
bands of youth. My readers must be persons capable of standing some amount of mental 
and psychological incising, which is absolutely necessary if we are to go to the roots of 
the hopes and fears and faiths of man. For he was an animal from the beginning, and 
but here and there, in these later times, has risen to be a spiritual animal. No maudlin 
sentiment of false delicacy must in this case keep us from calling a spade a spade. The 
knife of the dissecting surgeon must cut down, deeply and firmly, and expose the 
bone and its ailment, and thus only can we hope to eradicate the fell disease. 
Those who cannot read medical works of science, and who would open this with prurient 
eye, should not read it, for the subject and occasion is grave in the extreme, and none 
must blame the physician for being bold and clear in speech. If he be correct in his 
facts, he is bound to tell us these, and the conclusions they point to, and we must not 
find fault with him for opening up the festering wound, which was none of his making. 
This Chart then, is to try and place before ordinary reading men the facts of Faiths 
which learning and scientific criticism have established on good and firm ground, and 
to bring such up to the present time. I wish to address people who would not dream 
of opening a work on the Vedas and Tripitaka ; who never heard nor wish to hear of a 

4 Rivers of Life, or FaitJis of Man in all Lands. 

Bernouf or a Saiiit Hilaire, nay, who think the exquisite and intensely interesting 
lectures of Max Miiller extremely heavy, and for many reasons to be avoided. Before 
such persons I wish also to try and put plainly and in a brief and compact manner, 
so much and no more of the writings, history, and nature of all Religions, as we at 
present have data for, and are agreed concerning. In doing this, I do not mean to say 
that there are not differences of opinions, but merely that science and research have 
established or are establishing what I shall here treat of and have depicted in this 
Chart. Even if I be not right in all I urge, I shall have forwarded a very important 
matter, by pointing out and illustrating many analogies in rites, customs, languages, 
and ideas, which others who have here so oft stumbled at the very threshold, may 
be better able to follow up than I am ; for the tangled skein has never yet, that I 
have observed, given fully forth its ends to those who in Europe have sought to unravel 
it, and who, if but once they picked up the ends, could abundantly have led the way. 
Knowledge, says some one, is in the abstract but the reminiscence or recovery of ideas, 
and I hope to point out in this volume many a forgotten form and idea. 

Writing as I do from the cradles of our race, where religious fanaticism and 
intolerance still flourish in all their strongest archaic rudeness, I may unwittingly be 
doing what others have long ago done better than I ; it is necessary therefore that I 
here state, that I have never come across an attempt like this, to show in a plain, 
historical, and I hope popular way, the origin and streams of man s Faiths, as they 
poured down from the great fountain-head, as the ancient Aryan would tell us, from 
" The Great Father/ the Brahm, the AUM, the Ormazd of the east, or as the Jewish 
Genesis puts it, from the Elohim, or RuacA Elohim, upon the fertile but till then 
uncultivated soul of his creatures. 

I am the more induced to try, though at great risk of error, to render fixed at 
least within some definite, though it may be wide limits, those rising, ebbing, flowing, 
strong, but sometimes ephemeral thoughts of ancient men regarding their Creator, 
because we meet on every side, even amongst well educated and tolerably well read 
persons, the most astonishing ignorance as to the very existence of the great religious 
Leaders of our race, nay, even total ignorance of the very names of the great, and with 
some allowance, of the grandest Faiths of man. 

Max Miiller opens one of his excellent Lectures (Chips, I. 182) with Paul s text, 
" Prove all things ; hold fast that which is -good," and asks what number of theologians 
or laymen have ever taken it to heart. " How many candidates for holy orders," he 
says, " could give a straightforward answer if asked to enumerate the principal religions 
of the world, or to state the names of their founders and the titles of the works which 
are still considered by millions of human beings as the sacred authorities for their reli 
gious belief ? " To study such works would be considered mere waste of time I Let 
us hope that matters are mending since this was written, in 1867 or thereabouts. 
There is no doubt that these subjects remain far too much stored in the granaries of 


Introductory Chapter. 5 

the learned, and many who could not only speak but write regarding them, will not, 
too often, probably, from the intolerant element in our own little stream of Faith, 
which looks upon enquiries into the devout thoughts of others as a pulling down of 
its own cherished groves and altars, and the bringing towards an equality all the 
nations of the earth. Should it be so ? 

Can the pious heart not find, 

In each new Faith of human kind, 

Some grace that wins, some ties that bind 1 

For God sees Faith in all. 

Lecky is justly strong on this deadness which men feel in the cause of truth : 
He allows that "Hypocrites, who from interested motives profess opinions which they 
do not really believe, are probably rarer than is usually supposed," but adds, "it would be 
difficult to over-estimate the number of those whose genuine convictions are due to the 
unresisted bias of their interests. By the term interests, I mean not only individual 
well-being, but also all those mental luxuries, all those grooves or channels of thought, 
which it is easy and pleasing to follow, and painful and difficult to abandon. Such 
are the love of ease, the love of certainty, the love of system, the bias of the passions, 
the associations of the imagination, as well as the coarser influences of social position, 
domestic happiness, professional interest, party-feeling or ambition. In most men the 
love of truth is so languid, and their reluctance to encounter mental prejudices is so 
great, that they yield their judgments without an effort to the current, withdraw their 
minds from all opinions or arguments opposed to their own, and thus speedily convince 
themselves of the truth of what they wish to believe." He, then, who would write as 
I am about to do, must expect to incur obloquy and every manner of reproach, and to 
hear applied to himself every usual orthodox opprobrious name ; for it is not in Europe, 
and certainly not amongst Saxon races, that man may yet speak the truth and not 
suffer for it. Thanks to education, which priests have too commonly tried to thwart, 
the fate of a Sokrates is not now the European award of him who follows truth, yet 
Europe has still got a Golgotha for those who expose her fallacies, more especially those 
of her "faiths ; and the lover of truth must, even in the midst of the civilization of this 
century, take up his cross to follow her. 

Come what may, however, let our motto be to " cease to profess what we have 
ceased to believe. Let there be perfect veracity above all things, more especially in 
matters of religion. It is not a question of courtesies which deceive no one. To 
profess what is not believed, is immoral. Immorality and untruth can never lead to 
morality and virtue ; all language which conveys untruth either in substance or in 
appearance, should be amended so that words can be understood in their recognised 
meanings without equivocal explanations, or affirmatives. Let historic facts have their 
true explanations." 1 Yes! if men would but act thus! then, would all the religious 

1 Westminster Review, January 1873. 

6 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

world be at peace, just as the real world of science is, however much its philosophers 
sift and pull to pieces each other s theories until thoroughly verified by facts. No 
virulence or contention, however, startles the votaries of that shrine, save \vhen with 
jaundiced eye there steps into the arena some one who longs to hold to his clear old 
pious myths, as of God s sudden creation of the world " out of nothing in six days," 
and his destruction of all in forty 1 This is to weave a link of straw in a chain of iron, 
and to grumble because the iron links and their mechanists, cannot see its value. 
To know the truth, we must, owing to the past faultiness of our education and circum 
stances, begin, as Descartes said he found himself compelled to do, by unknowing and 
questioning everything. Yet are there havens for anchorage. "Truth," says G. M. 
Lewes, in his History of Philosophy (I. xxxi.), " is the correspondence between the 
order of ideas and the order of phenomena, so that the one is a reflection of the other 
the movement of Thought following the movement of Things." Thus, from the 
order of our ideas regarding a falling body, and the order of its phenomena which we 
constantly observe, we obtain a Law of Truth. 

The man of business and even the man of ordinary lore will still exclaim that my 
subject is abstruse, and of no practical interest, just as not many years ago he said the 
same of the poor chemist manipulating in his laboratory with a magnet and some 
acids, from which, however, has sprung the girdle which now all but encircles the 
earth. Why yet should riot one faith in the one great Father of all men and 
nations " fill the earth " ?* 

To bring about this we have only got to look and speak of Him alone, and to put 
aside our own little national gods, Fetishes and idiosyncracies, and not condemn or 
contemn each other in those things of which we are still so ignorant. On the one 
broad basis of the eternal Brahm and of his two eternal moral laws, " to love Him, and 
to love our neighbour," known long ere inscribed in Christian writ, all men and all 
nations are theoretically agreed, and it but remains that we educate and persuade each 
other to love Him and all His creatures. " A Belief" especially such as theologians 
mean by this word, is not ours to control. 2 It follows laws as fixed as those which 
govern the world of matter, and as it is not in our power to will a belief, far less to 
will a true belief, so no just God can punish us for that regarding which we are 
irresponsible. We can be, however, nay are, held justly responsible for the diligence and 
care we exercise or fail to exercise in arriving at the truth, reasons, and causes of our 
beliefs ; we are responsible for accepting them simply because of the locality or circum 
stances of our birth, or because " we feel they are true," or because we like the leaders 
or followers of the Belief. He only then sins, and that heinously, who refuses to use 

1 Colenso truly says: Let us "receive de- present clay, "each good and perfect gift coming 
voutly " not only the revelations of the past, but down from the Father of Light." 
also welcome joyfully the revelations of the 2 See " Reign of Law in Mind as in Matter" by 

Charles Bray. Scott s Series, 1874. 

Introductory Chapter. 7 

all the powers of intellect and reason he is gifted with, or can acquire, to investigate, 
not once, but always, and every thing against as for " the Faith which is within him." 
The late lamented Professor Augustus De Morgan wrote, "Belief is a s tate, not an act, 
of the mind ;" "I shall believe has no existence," he says, "except in a grammar." 

All Beliefs then must change with every additional light or fact which literature and 
learning bring before them. Circumstances may be their parents, but education, learning, 
and travel are their fond preceptors. Beliefs may be silent, but move on they must, as 
night gives place to dawn, which again will gladly yield to solar light and heat. We 
must remember that progress is always blasphemy in the eyes of those who don t like 
to progress, and the churches have long inscribed on their banners the motto which was 
applied to the laws of the Medes and Persians "they change not, neither do they learn." 

We all know, however, of another motto, "the blasphemy of one age is the 
orthodoxy of the next," and that Christ, though called a blasphemer, was by no means 
the first so called. He has been followed by thousands, down to Luther and Voysey 
but I am digressing. 

I cannot for a moment admit what the unread world may say of my subject- 
that it is somewhat fanciful, its dates, localities, and decipherings loose and indefinite. 
To the wide, well read and writing world, I confidently appeal, for it is from them I 
borrow, and on them I build. I shall also, however, have a class of readers who call 
themselves religious, and they will probably say the theme is atheistic, for many think, 
like Israel of old, that disbelief in their God is a disbelief in any God ! Some readers 
also do not like to know that other faiths are the Parents of their own. History and 
facts, however, cannot be gainsayed. The "Eternal Father," called by whatever name, 
has moved us steadily and progressively, ever manifesting Himself according to man s 
abilities to understand Him, and lie is in all Faiths. Miiller says, " as we study, we 
begin to see what ought never to have been doubted, that there is no religion without 
God," or as even the necessarily one-sided Saint Augustine expresses it, " there is no 
false religion (as if all faiths had not some false elements), which does not contain some 
elements of truth." 

We now however know, that our Heavenly Father has ever manifested Himself 
to his children in every clime and age in that precise way which He intended, and 
knew to be then best for them, because such as their infant minds or intellectual 
culture enabled them to comprehend. He knew, and so now do we, that no poor 
untutored follower of an Abraham or a Zoroaster, sprung from amidst the lands of Sun 
and Fire, of Grove and Serpent worship, and calling his Gods (for the plural is gene 
rally used in those days of man s infancy) Elo, Elohim, Brahm, Vishnoo, Ormazd, or 
Indra, could have understood the one pure and spiritual Father, whom we now adore, 
and whom we can demonstrate to be an immutable, and unchanging Power, whence 
sprang not only this globe, but others, far beyond the blue " Firmament " of Genesis, 
which divided the little Jewish heaven from their little earth, and which, child-like, 

8 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

they fancied, as do the Polynesians of the present day, was a leaky covering, " divid 
ing the waters from the waters." What could the glazed eye of infancy see of a 
" Herschel s starry depths," and so comprehend, if even indeed desire to know, of a 
God ruling those mighty systems, which travel their millions of miles an hour, far out 
into space illimitable ; and ever move by mysterious force, as with mathematical precision. 
God understands his children best, and ever gives milk to babes and meat to strong men, 
and so it is now and ever will be. " As thy civilisation or culture is, so shall thy gods 
be," seems written on man s horoscope. 

" All things," says a powerful writer, " are the product of their conditions, and all 
conditions have a right to exist, therefore the products have a right to exist also ; and 
the Maker of the conditions cannot in justice refuse to be satisfied with the products 
of conditions which he has permitted." x The poor soil and the arid sky are as much 
a part of the universal order, as the rich garden, soft rain, and warm sunshine. It is 
just that the one should yield a crop which the other would despise. It would be 
unjust that both should yield alike. 2 

Look for a moment at the heavens of different faiths. The good Theodore 
Parker somewhere states, that if the Buffalo imagined a heaven, it would be a rich 
wet meadow, covered with luxuriant grasses, in which roamed a large fat buffalo- 
God ; and Max Miiller tells us that the Greenlander believes that when a man dies 
his soul travels to Torngarsuk, the land where reigns perpetual summer, all sunshine 
and no night ; where there are good waters and birds, fish, seals, and reindeer with 
out end, that are to be caught without trouble, or are even found conveniently cook 
ing alive in a huge kettle ! The Greenlander s soul s journey is however difficult 
it slides, says Miiller, five days down a precipice stained with the blood of those who 
went before. It is specially grievous for the poor soul when the journey must be 
made in winter or tempest, for it may then suffer what they call " the other death," 
when it perishes utterly and nothing is left ; so that reaching this heaven is, after all, 
only a chance, and like the predestination doctrine of the Christian faith, is a matter 
foreordained by great Jove or Odin, and so beyond the creature s power to control ! 

The New Hollander s heaven is an abode of two good divinities, a delightful 
place with plenty of game and food ; no excess of heat or cold, rain or drought, no 
malignant spirits nor sickness, no death, but plenty of " rioting, singing, and dancing 
for evermore ! " Like Christians, the Australian believes in " an evil spirit dwelling 
in the nethermost region," though he declines to tell us what sort of place this is, or 
where : His Satan, however, has, like that at his Antipodes, horns and a tail f 

All religions begin with offerings and sacrifices to some great spirit this in 
Europe became Mercury, or Bode, or Wode, and to him the Teuton and Gaul, or 
Celt, offered human victims, had open or uncovered temples, consecrated groves, wor 
shipped oaks and the ash, and performed auspicial rites. 

" Cantab.," Scott s Series. 2 " The Pilgrim and the Shrine." 

Introductory Chapter. 

" Thus," says an unknown but clever writer, " does religion vary in its de 
velopment, as the following table, which represents pretty correctly the progress in 
religion from the lowest to the highest degree of a religious civilisation, abundantly 
proves." 1 



Tripai*tite or semi- 

Unipartite barbar 

Civilized but not 
scientific, with 
idol worship. 

Civilized but not 
scientific, without 
idol worship. 

Civilized and scien 


If any, it is Fetish. 

Worship of a spirit 
with idols. 


Idol worship. 

Fire worship. 

Miraculous Mono 
theism and Tri 
nitarian Chris 

No idols. 


The Deification of matter, wor 
ship of stones, sticks, rams 
heads, &c. 

Ditto, with human sacrifices. 

Worship of birds, snakes, and 
beasts, and of images, half 
man and half beast, &c. 

Representation of the Deity in 
the form of man, that is An 
thropomorphic religion. 

Anthropopathic religion ; that 
is, imputing to God human 

Belief in an invisible, infinite, 
self-existing Deity, perfect in 
goodness, wisdom, and power, 
without any passion save love, 
and without any image or 


West coast of Africa, &c. 

West coast of Africa, Mexico, 

Ancient religion of Mesopo 
tamia, of Egypt and Asia, 
except Confucians. 

The ancient pagan religions of 
Greece and Rome. The 
Mariolatry of Papal Chris 

Parsees, Jews, Mahomedans 
and Christians. 

The scientific Theologian of the 
nineteenth century. 

This writer then goes on to show that, though religions may have different creeds 
and ceremonies, they have all certain common fundamental principles, 2 such as : 

" Scrutator," Trubnef, 1867. 
2 Since this was written I observe that a Ro 
man Catholic, the Canon of St. Genevieve, of Paris, 
has published a book, " Le Catholicisme avant 
Jesus Christ," in which the author, " M. 1 Abbe P. 
J. Jallabert, means to prove that the belief and 
traditions common to Pagans, Jews, and Christians, 
draw their origin from what he calls primitive 
revelation. According to him the same symbols 
are found by all nations ; their worship is identical 

in all its essential parts ; the traditions conveyed 
in the Sybilline verses, Hermes Trismegistus, and 
Zoroaster, include the general expectation of a 
Redeemer, and show the fundamental unity of dog 
matic and moral belief in Asia and Europe." If 
the writer means by this word " Redeemer," a 
Prophet Imam or King, or Messiah, such as 
the Jews looked for, and which we trace in Boodha, 
Confucius, Laotsee, Christ, and Mahomed, then he 
is undoubtedly right, and the fact of the Catholic 

io Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

SACRIFICES. In the most barbarous ages everywhere human, vide Egypt, and 
Abraham. The sons of Saul given by David " to the Lord " to appease a 
famine ! See also the story of Jephtha s daughter, &c. 

MASSACRES. The Mahomedan Sheeas, by the Mahomedari Soonites. The Christian 

Protestants, by the Christian Romanists, and similarly in every land and age. 

PILGRIMAGES. Alike by Brahmans, Boodhists, Jews, Christians, and Malio- 


MIRACLES AXD IDOLS. In every religion, save that of the great Chinese philo 
sopher Confucius. With worship in their presence, as the bull-calf of 
Egypt and of the East, the gorgeous tree, the symbol of creative power, the 
living energy in Sun and Fire, Isis, Horus, the Virgin and Child, and 
symbolic cross. 

BIBLES AND SACRED BOOKS. Lastly, all religions have Bibles, before whose 
words, nay, even in many cases before whose names, not only the voice but 
the head and the knee of man are bent, and even this would be a small 
thing, were it not that intellect and reason, God s highest gifts to man, 
which alone raise him above the rest of his animal creation ; are bent, 
crippled, nay broken, and ordered to be subservient to the foolish dicta, 
words, and ideas, often found in these books called Bibles, and this for no 
other reason than because there written ; thus do nations turn such books 
into fetishes. It is forgotten or ignored, that though placed there by good 
and holy, though in our day what would be called ignorant men ; who when 
their spirit was fired with holy thoughts, wrote " Thus saith the Lord ;" yet 
we know, for our reason and conscience, if not historians, tell us, that the 
words and dogmas we are told to bow before, have been too often written by 
conquerors and tyrants and bad men, who thus desired to justify then- 
unjust acts. 

Who can tell what misery, blood and money a single text 1 in one of these so-called 
revealed bibles has cost mankind, simply because men thought each text a direct 
command from God ? It is vain to argue or reason with the v poor Biblicist, for those 
who most implicitly follow, are always those who have taken no pains to enquire into 
or to verify the book and its pretensions. "To doubt is to be damned," is the Biblio 
later s cry, and it is urged that the more- foolish and unreasonable the doctrine, the 
more certainly has it come from God, " expressly to try our faith ! " 

Past results and expediency, as well as reason, common sense and morality, have 
no place in the head or heart of a thorough Bibliolater. An editor of an Indian daily 

Church producing such a book (I judge it only all other religions as well as our own will yet 
by its title and the publisher s circular note), exercise even on Catholic priests, 
testifies to the power which a true knowledge of * Mahomedans will not paint, nor will many 

engrave or photograph, on account of a single text. 

Introductory Chapter. \ i 

paper lately ventured to write judiciously about missionaries being permitted to annoy 
Hindoos and Mahomedans, by preaching at their doors against their Faiths ; and a 
missionary in the true spirit of a Bibliolater retorts " You and I are never likely to 
come to any agreement as to the utility of street preaching. We practise in obedience 
to a command which is quite regardless of all rules of human expediency, and if it 
could be demonstrated that we never by this means made one convert, our perverse 
body would still cling to their authority, and act on it( ! ) ; men believing in a Bible 
do not ordinarily look to results to confirm their belief, but live and die faithful 
unto the end ! we do not value the example of our lives (the editor had said 
they were good) except as means to an end." This then is the " unreasonable 
service " of the Christian bigot, and what are its results ? After a residence of nearly 
a third of a century in India, and Banna, and a close and intimate acquaintance 
with Christian missionaries of all sects, I can only state that I have never yet seen a 
converted man, i.e. one who has been reasoned over to Christianity from his own 
faith. I have seen many who for a time and an object, or owing to certain circum 
stances have adopted Christianity, but no independent reasonable man : As a rule the 
Christian " converts " are those reared from childhood in the Faith, or old and weakly 
men and women, who have lost their relatives from one cause or another, and desire 
to make friends of " the Mammon of unrighteousness ;" or, the converts are wild, 
ignorant, superstitious Sontals or other barbarous tribes, ready to adopt anything 
which respectable-looking people urge upon them. 

I read in the " Bombay Statesman " Newspaper of June 1872, in the letter of a 
pious correspondent, most probably a missionary, who is not satisfied with the progress 
of that large society " for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts," that the 
society has existed " for nearly twelve years in western India, and it has not been able 
to my knowledge to prepare a single efficient agent from the heathen community .... 
its purse is always full, its staff of European workers is not of a mean order, and yet 
there is not a single convert from heathenism whom they can call their own." Now 
if for its paid and permanent officers, where it proffers a permanent provision with 
house and salary, this large missionary body have been unable in Bombay, Poona, &c., 
with their English speaking communities, to draw a single convert in twelve years, where 
and when are we to expect converts ? The fact is that Christianity, like all faiths 
resting on miracles and bare assertion that " its truths are direct and miraculous 
revelations from God," has nothing to recommend itself to man s reasoning faculties ! 
For safety s sake it must avoid reasoners and all who are sceptical, and all wise Christians 
do so. I speak as one who for years preached publicly and privately to natives, until I 
came to see the weakness and unsoundness of my then foundations. . Educated natives, 
no longer fearing Government influence, are now openly opposing missionaries when 
preaching publicly, and in Bombay, October 1873, this matter attracted much atten 
tion. Opposition preachers were set up, and notices cast widely abroad against the 

12 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

missionaries and Christianity. One placard was headed, " Leave these fanatics . . . 
they cannot answer a simple question seriously put to them in connection with what 
they say ; they senselessly abuse you and your faiths without having studied them at 
all ; they are hirelings, w r orking against truth and common sense and against the 
dictates of conscience for a paltry piece of earthly bread. . . . You know well, and 
it is a patent fact, that their harangues cannot stand discussion. Do not waste 
time with impostors ; serve the God of the Universe heartily : He alone will save 
all who so serve Him.". This phase will yet much intensify. Christianity 
will have to try and stand and defend herself, which she is ill able to do 
dialectically and historically. At present she says take me on trust, or, as its 
advocates and those of Mahomedanism and Boodhism say, "by Faith," yea the 
blindest and most unreasoning faith. None can prove their three prophets to be Gods 
or even to be miraculously sent from God, nor their Bibles inspired revelations nor 
even historically correct : No ; this and all such statements must be accepted blindly, 
and then of course any other gulp is easy, and the unreasoning convert can speak glibly 
and freely of " the peace and joy of believing," and of the misery of those " hard 
hearted unbelievers" whom his new God in his mercy, has foreordained from all eternity 
" to everlasting misery with the devil and his angels in the fire which will never be 
quenched." He can set forth all the beautiful traits in Boodha s as in Christ s and 
Mahomed s life and character, and point to the many good biblical morals which no 
one denies, but which are perfectly useless so far as the establishment of the faiths go. 
Let me here quote from Professor Huxley what he has experienced in his scientific- 
researches as to the way in which Priests justify their unjust acts : " Everywhere 
have they broken the spirit of wisdom and tried to stop human progress by quotations 
from their Bibles or books of their saints In this nineteenth century, as at the dawn of 
modern physical science, the cosmogony of the semi -barbarous Hebrew is the incubus 
of the philosopher, and the opprobrium of the orthodox. AVho shall number the 
patient and earnest seekers after truth, from the days of Galileo until now, whose lives 
have been embittered and their good name blasted, by the mistaken zeal of bibliolaters ? 
Who shall count the host of weaker men whose sense of truth has been destroyed in the 
effort to harmonize impossibilities ; whose life has been wasted in the attempt to force 
the generous new wine of science into the old bottles of Judaism, compelled by the 
outcry of the same strong party ? It is true that if philosophers have suffered, their 
cause has been amply avenged. Extinguished theologies lie about the cradle of every 
science, as the strangled snakes, beside that of Hercules ; and history records that 
whenever science and orthodoxy have been fairly opposed, the latter has been forced 
to retire from the lists, bleeding and crushed if not annihilated, scotched if not slain. 
But orthodoxy learns not, neither can it forget, and though at present bewildered and 
afraid to move, it is as willing as ever to insist, that the first Chapter of Genesis con 
tains the beginning and the end of sound science, and to visit with such petty thunder- 

Introductory Chapter. 13 

bolts, as its half-paralysed hands can hurl, those who refuse to degrade nature to the 
level of primitive Judaism." " Religion," he also elsewhere writes, " arising like all other 
knowledge out of the action and interaction of man s mind, has taken the intellectual 
coverings of Fetishism, Polytheism, of Theism or Atheism, of Superstition or Rational 
ism ; and if the religion of the present differs from that of the past, it is because the 
theology of the present has become more scientific than that of the past, not because 
it has renounced idols of Wood and idols of Stone, but begins to see the necessity of 
breaking in pieces the idols built up of books and traditions and fine spun ecclesiastical 
cobwebs, and of cherishing the noblest and most human of man s emotions, by worship 
for the most part of the silent sort at the altar of the unknown and unknoivable. 
.... If a man asks me, what the politics of the inhabitants of the moon are, and I 
reply that I know not, that neither I nor any one else have any means of knowing, 
and that under these circumstances I decline to trouble myself about the subject at all, 
I do not think he has any right to call me a sceptic." Again, "what are among 
the moral convictions most fondly held by barbarous and semi-barbarous people ? They 
are the convictions that authority is the soundest basis of belief ; that merit attaches to 
a readiness to believe, that the doubting disposition is a bad one, and scepticism a sin, 

and there are many excellent persons who still hold by these principles ;" " Yet 

we have no reason to believe that it is the improvement of our faith, nor that of our 
morals which keeps the plague from our city ; but it is the improvement of our natural 
knowledge. We have learned that pestilences will only take up their abode among 
those who have prepared unswept and ungarnished residences for them. Their cities 
must have narrow, un watered streets full of accumulated garbage, their houses must be 
ill-drained, ill-ventilated ; their subjects must be ill-lighted, ill-washed, ill-fed, ill- 
clothed ; the London of 1665 was such a city ; the cities of the east, where plague has 
an enduring dwelling, are such cities ; we in later times have learned somewhat of 
nature, and partly obey her. Because of this partial improvement of our natural 
knowledge, and of that fractional obedience, we have no plague ; but because that know 
ledge is very imperfect, and that obedience yet incomplete, typhus is our companion 
and cholera our visitor." Former generations, and indeed many among us still say, it 
is the hand of God, let us humble ourselves before these his awful judgments, let us 
have days for prayer and fasting ; all this is ignorance and superstition which we are 
getting ashamed of. But to return to Bibliolatry or the worship of sacred books and 

In my Chart I have denoted this vast phase of faith by a blue band. It will be 
seen in every stream commencing with the reverence for the Vedas. The books are 
shut to the people till the days of printing, when I show one open Bible. I will here 
give the dates of those sacred books in the order of the Chart, that is, chronologically, 
according to the best writers of the present day. 

14 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 


BRAHMANS the Yedas, B.C. 1500 to 2400 JEWS and CHRISTIANS Old 

ZOROASTRIANS Zenda Vesta,orVesta-Zend, 1600 Testament, TIME OF CHRIST. 

JEWS, parts of Talmud and some JEWS Mishna (Rab. Jordan s), A.c. 190 

Psalms, 800 to 1100 CHRISTIANS New Test. Origen s collection, 250 

Do. first 1 4 Books, Old Testament, 630 Do. Jerome s Vulgate, 400 

LAOTSEES or TAOTISTS Taotseekeng, 560 JEWS Gemara " Babylonian," 427 

BOODHISTS Tripitaka, 543 Do. Talmud proper, "Jerusalem," 470 

CONFUCIANS Lykeng, 470 MAHOMED ANS The Koran, 630 

JAINS The Sootras, 450 SEEKS The Granth, 1500 

JEWS and CHRISTIANS Part of Old CHRISTIANS Printed Bible, 1516 

Testament, the LXX., 280-180 

Of these books I shall have much to say hereafter, but here I must allude to them 
briefly to bring out clearly what follows. They all contain much that is true and good 
and lovely. They picture, as in a mirror, the whole growth of our race, more espe 
cially when we look closer into the families of man ; some are poetic and cultivated, 
others though noble in parts, are yet elsewhere often coarse and grovelling, all are 
growths with many features in common. 

The "All Father" God stands prominent throughout, as far back as history yet 
permits us to trace Him. He becomes somewhat hid by other gods, and especially in 
all nations by a Trinity of which we have the essence in Vedic days, or about 2200 
years B.C., and later by prophets or great men, of whom Zoroaster leads the way, in 
1600 B.C., and the long list, which many in Hindoostan, Arabia, England and America 
hope will yet be longer, rests for the present with Mahomed, the Seek Gooroo, and 
similar leaders. 

Through all Faiths these mighty men, the leaders of thought in their age and 
country, run the same course ; first hated and despised, then reverenced and beloved, 
they are finally worshipped as Divine, if not by the learned men of Earth, at least by 
the ignorant masses. 

Every Faith is full of incongruities, inconsistencies, and anomalies, and to say 
otherwise, is to say it is unnatural. The Church of England says in one of her 
" articles of Faith," that the true God is " without body, parts or passions," but in 
another, for infringing which she has just turned out one of her most devout clergy 
men, that " we are to worship Christ as God," for does not a writer in the New Testa 
ment say that He is " one with the Father " (though he does not mean what the Article 
here does), created all things, and will return to judge all the nations of the earth. 
Yet he had parts and passions, and grew in body, mind, and learning ; he ascended, says 
the New Testament, into heaven with his body of flesh and bone, clothed in man s apparel, 
and the Christian is told that "this same Jesus shall so come in like manner." 

The -writer in Dr Smith s Bible Dictionary shows us under the head " Septuagint," 
that in the 3d century B.C. the Jews had become somewhat ashamed of their personal 

Introductory Chapter. 15 

Jehovah, and that accordingly, in the translation of the Hebrew text into the Greek 
(as Christians now have it), "the strong expressions of the Hebrew are softened down, 
where human parts are ascribed to God." It would have been as well if Moses remarks 
in Exodus, chapter xxxiii., and elsewhere, had been blotted out or still more softened 
down. The Jewish faith is a commercial one, and Christians have adopted the same 
views of rewards and punishments, though their Heaven and Hell are quite foreign to 
ancient as also to modern Israelites. Both, as a mass, are far behind the great Pytha 
goras, who more than 500 years B.C., said, that " virtue consisted in seeking truth and 
doing good," the very same thing that advanced thinkers of this day say is the essence 
of all religion. Tersely put, true religion now seems to be, " Do good, and be good, 
and seek diligently after Truth." 

The "Old Testament Law" ("Decalogue") the Jews believe was written by the 
ringer of their God JHVH or Yhavh (second god, their first being Elohim) on stones, 
on the top of a mountain. Moses, says the writer of Exodus, vi. 3,Jtrst knew God as 
Jhavh, though elsewhere we may observe that Abram also uses this name. The 
Hebrews describe Jhavh as a god who commonly travelled about and talked with their 
great leaders; they say he had parts, "Moses seeing him face to face," and arguing, and 
occasionally peevishly finding fault with him ; early Greeks called JHVH, IAH. 

This god appeared to Abraham and others, who however sometimes called him 
Elohim, El-Elohe-Israel, Adoni, and Adonai-Jhavh, (Adonai being the third person 
in the Phenician Trinity. Love, or Creation, the offspring of Belus and Uranus) 
as in Genesis xv. 2 ; at other times El Shadai, and El-Elohe, as when he sits in 
the tent door and eats, and makes the great covenant (Genesis xvii. 2) on which Jews, 
as also Christians, so much build. He is clearly a man-God. He argues with men, 
and is often turned from his purposes by their arguments and entreaties, and can even 
be vanquished by " chariots of iron," for though he went with Judah and commanded 
the expulsion of the inhabitants of the valley, yet the chariots of iron prevented his 
will and purpose from being carried out. 

The God of the Zendavesta, Ormazd, delivered that Bible to Zoroaster also " on 
the top of a mountain ;" so in the later Jewish tale, we may perhaps see the origin of 
what the Jews committed to writing (be it remembered), only in the seventh century 
B.C., if so early, more probably in the later days of Ezra and Nehemiah. There is no 
just comparison between the grand Ormazd and the Jewish Elohim and Jhavh; 
Ormazd is ever the Great, the Eternal, the Almighty one, as is the Hindoo Brahm,(fto 
Brahma) and later, according to many writings concerning him, is not far from our 
spiritual conception of God. 

The Zoroastrians or Parsis see little in common between their .Ormazd, and the 
burning, jealous, and angry anthropomorphic Jewish God. They point to his cause 
lessly "loving Jacob and hating Esau;" to his being a "God of battles" and "of 
wars," of whom the Jews write a sacred book called "The battles of the Lord." 

J 6 Rivers of Life, or Fait Its of Man in all Lands. 

They say justly that he authorized the most horrible massacres and immoralities, 
which indeed also characterize most of the tales and lives and characters of so 
many of the various early rulers and writers, whom the Hebrews called " men of 

The Koran has also its tale as to its origin. A " pencil of light" wrote its sacred 
words, and the angel Gabriel, whom Hepworth Dixon shows us is almost a fourth 
person in the Grecian church calendar of their Deities (Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
Gabriel, Virgin, and last, but not least, the powerful Satan-God), revealed God s (Ala s) 
writing to Mahomed ; Al is of course El or A R or RA, the Sun. 

The Bible as a whole, says Protestant Christendom, was written by the Holy 
Ghost, one of the three persons of the Christian Trinity ; he only used the pens of 
various men, and made known to them past and present events, which it was impos 
sible for them otherwise to know. History forms, however, a large portion of the 
Jewish and Christian Scriptures, and the relations of events in these do not tally with 
other histories, or with each other ; and the researches of modern criticism, never 
before scientifically applied to what have been ever held up as " sacred writings," 
have shown discrepancies, omissions, and insertions, which have led learned and pious 
writers on the subject to decide against the facts, and to declare the writings unhis- 
torical, as the authors are uncertain, and in many cases quite unknown. 

The volume called the Christian Bible was for ages a series of disconnected 
manuscripts, transcribed, added to and curtailed, again and again," from 630 B.C. to 
the days of printing 1 5 1 6 A.D., or say for 2200 years, and this was no doubt done by 
interested and often not perfectly reliable transcribers. Criticism has now shown 
that the first portion of the Old Testament only came to light, and that in a very 
curious and suspicious manner, in the days of Jeremiah, see Robertson, a strong 
writer on this subject " the Finding of the Book," in one of Mr Scott s very excel 
lent series. The establishment of the documents as " the law of the Lord" was done 
through a noted high priest, Hilkiah, against whom the prophets wrote somewhat. 
Hilkiah was, however, evidently determined to establish priestly rule and church 
revenues ; for Solomon s temple, then and for seventy years before, dedicated to Phallic, 
Sun, and Fire worship, required all the hierarchical paraphernalia, as tithes, offerings, 
vestments, and sacrifices, which that " book of the law " would give to Hilkiah, if he 
could but get it established as the "law of the Lord." This, the writing called 
" Chronicles " accordingly states, and on the authority of some woman called 
" Huldah the prophetess," never heard of before or since, Hilkiah s book became sacred 
and his church rich. Many of the Old Testament books contain the writings of 
generally good men, who denounce the vices of their times, and of their own people 
in particular, and foretell, in flowery language, what they thought of the rise and fall 
of the men and nations with which they were acquainted. 

The Old Testament, .as Christians have it, is, according to Jewish writers, imperfect, 

Introductory Chapter. 17 

but after some weeding out it was bound up as it is, along with various floating 
manuscripts, telling of Christ, his life, and sayings, in the fourth century A. a, and 
called "The Christian Bible." 

The Brahmanical Bible, the Vedas or " Books of Truth," are said to be written 
by God in the person of Brahma, the form in which Brahm executes his purposes of 
creation and providence. Unlike the Christian Bible, the Vedas do not command 
proselytism, nor allude to all being damned who do not know and acknowledge it, its 
gods, dogmas, and ceremonies. There is but one great and Almighty God, Brahm, 
or AUM, or OM, in the Hindoo faith, whose name is rarely, and then only very 
reverently whispered, as among the Jews. He is male and female, and the female 
energy, Maiya, Queen of Heaven, is more heard of than the Almighty. This is pro 
bably true of all faiths to the present day. I read in the Home News of January 
1873, that Dr Fraser, Bishop of Manchester, rebuked one of his clergy, but very 
mildly, for carrying a banner, on which was emblazoned the name of " the Queen of 
Heaven ;" he remarked, that " though he was glad to see a revival of reverence, 
devotion, and piety, it must not be forgotten that there was a limit beyond which 
they must not go in imitating the practice of the thirteenth century." 

In Hindooism, BRAHM manifests himself early in a Trinity. 
As a Creator, in BRAHMA. 
As Religion and Truth, in VISHNOO. 

As Matter or Passion, in Roodra, afterwards called SIVA, who was no 
doubt Rood or Ra, the Sun or Fertilizer. 

There are consorts or wives of these energies of God, having distinct names, 
though never creating in connection with the male energy. They are often called the 
Arks or abodes of the male deities. 

After these in heavenly order follow Devas, archangels and angels too often 
worshipped by the ignorant ; even Christian churches invoke Gabriel. They are a 
long list, emanating from Dyaus, India, Sun, Fire, &c. These deities take a deep 
interest, and are ever interfering in the affairs of men; not from them, however, does 
man spring, nor, though with female energies, does aught spring. The New Testa 
ment writer, borrowing no doubt from the Eastern tale, correctly says of them, "they 
neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven." 

The Zendavesta and Tripitika, I may here briefly say, inculcate a good life and 
a reasonable belief in One Holy, Eternal, and Almighty Spirit, though parts of the 
latter, relating to metaphysics, speak of Nihilism, which is, however, at utter vari 
ance with the life and doctrines of both its priests and people, as I, can attest, after 
seven years residence and close observation in a land of the purest Boodhism in the 
world ; I look upon such as a serious blot on any faith, though it does not, I think, 
lead to immoral or careless living, as some Christians fancy. The Old Testament Jews 

i. c 

i8 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

had no heaven nor hell such as later ages describe, and but such faint glimmering of 
a future life as their Eastern neighbours seem to have given them. 

I must enlarge here a little on Boodhism. In a book lately published by Mr H. 
Alabaster, Interpreter to Her Majesty s Consulate General in Siam, Boodhism illus 
trated by a Modern Boodhist, he says, " It is a moot point whether the religion does 
teach Atheism and Annihilation, for it is doubtful what these words mean." He would 
not venture to apply such terms to Boodhists, as Atheists, &c., for they are terms of 
reproach, and involve infinite consideration which we are little able to comprehend. 
So far as his experience goes, he says, " Boodhists do not deny the existence of a God," 
but many reverentially abstain from defining that which it is impossible to compre 
hend. " Southern Siamese Boodhism," he adds, " does not recognise any personal 
eternal God, acting interestedly in the world, and it regards as the highest aim of 
man, a peace resulting from the utter absence of all that we understand to be con 
nected with existence." " Judged, however," says a Westminster Keviewer, " by 
the maxim, by their fruits ye shall know them, Boodhism lias a good standpoint. 
Boodhism and Christianity have many similarities and contrasts, as miraculous gesta 
tion and birth, temptation of the destined Deliverer by the fiend, ascension into heaven, 
and generally speaking, self-devotion for the sake of the redemption of the human 
race, are features of resemblance in the portraiture of the two Saviours. Above all, 
the purport of the precepts of the two religions appear to be essentially the same. 
Bible religions, as expounded even by their intelligent disciples, fail to grasp the prin 
ciple that virtue is its own reward. Boodha is not the Saviour or Deliverer which 
Christians hold Christ to be ; his saving or delivering consists in his showing mankind 
the path they are to follow, each one for his own deliverance. . . . but by no means 
in his (Boodha) becoming a substitute or sacrificial propitiation on behalf of others. 
The whole sacrificial theory of the reconciliation of the Divine Being to sinful man by 
means of a bloody offering on his behalf, is utterly and thoroughly repugnant to the 
Boodhist. There is no common ground of reason whereby such a doctrine could be 
made acceptable to him ; and," concludes the reviewer, "it is an inevitable fact, from 
Mr Alabaster s work, that it is perfectly futile ever to expect conversions from Bood 
hism to Christianity by means of reason and conviction." I can go farther, and add as 
my experience all over Barma, that the result in regard to Boodhism is precisely the 
same as I have stated in the case of Hindooism. I have closely watched the working 
of all missions to Boodhists, and have never seen a single lasting conversion to Chris 
tianity as the result of reason and conviction, but a good number by what the West 
minster seems here to term "the artificial and social methods." Old men or women, 
and boys and girls are persuaded to join the Christian missions, when knowing 
nothing of their own faiths and incapable of reasoning ; and middle-aged persons I have 
occasionally seen join from interested motives, and remain so long as these lasted, often 
for life, because their relatives cannot take them back into religious or social fellow- 

Introductory CJiapter. 19 

ship. Now these facts are true to reason ; for no missionary attempts to convince by 
proofs of Bible historical authenticity, or he is no true follower of Christ and the 
apostles, but rather by declamation, invectives, and excitement of the feelings, through 
our passions and fears, such as a Knox knew well how to manipulate. There is no 
calmly sitting down to compare history with history, passage with passage, "fact" (so 
called) with " fact," and so to substantiate the Bible, and then similarly to pull down 
Vedas and A vestas. This is not even the way in which a clergyman addresses ourselves, else 
would he fast swell the already rapidly increasing band of " seriously religious sceptics." 
No, the "gospels were not intended by their writers," says a learned and orthodox 
author quoted by the Westminster, to be " books of evidence, to convince persons who 
did not believe, but to supply records of events, to edify and establish in the faith 
those who did." Throwing thus the gospels aside as evidence, what has the poor 
Christian preacher got to rely upon but excitement of the feelings ? which should, and, 
as I have said, does, act only on the old, and those weakly in intellect, or peculiarly 
and not over-much educated. There is no doubt that Sir P. Perring 1 is right, and 
that the gospels are rather records of an existing belief which swallowed down any 
thing concerning its object, than records of facts on which such a belief was grounded; 
for, says this same reviewer elsewhere, " The historical truth of the (Christian) Creed 
is not as yet proved to the satisfaction of the modern inquirer," arid in consequence, 
when a real historical foundation is not obtained for any facts, on which any dogmas 
or opinions are based, such must fall to pieces either bit by bit in slow disintegration 
until the whole structure totters to its fall (this, provided the pullers down be mild and 
reasonable philosophers and scholars), or, it will come down with crashes before the 
assaults of an ignorant rabble. 

Boodhism differs from all early Keligions, in being the first missionary faith on 
earth ; and as every true and good man desires to impart to others what he knows is 
good and true, and so to do his fellow-men good, and as he also recognises as brothers 
the whole family of man, which Boodhism does, it is a better faith than any of its 
predecessors, and falls little short of its best successors. Even at the present day, when 
2500 years old, it stands in numbers at the head of all the faiths of earth. Max 
Miiller tells us that the numbers belonging at present to each faith are, taking the 
world as one hundred, thus : 

Boodhists, 3 1 2 per cent. 

Christians, 307 But this is a wide word, eniDitvcing many who deny 

the Godhead of Christ, and Bible Inspiration. 

Mahomedans, 157 

Brahmans, 13 4 

Heathens, 87 This means Fetish worshippers without a book -faith, 

not without a god. 

Jews, . 3 

Zoroastrians, O Ol 

1 Churches and their Creeds. 1871. By the Rev. Sir P. Perring, Bart. Cambridge. 

20 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

With tins short comparative sketch of what I call the Biblical faiths of man, T must 
now ask my readers to look a little closely into the details of my Chart. It is arranged, 
it will be seen, in chronological order, every inch in length denoting one hundred 
years, except at the top, where, to save space and long blanks, I give only the years 
in which the learned can yet see their way to placing any fact or even myth, for myths 
may be treated as undeveloped history. On the left of the coloured bands of Faiths, I 
have tried to keep the principal characters and events of history, more especially of 
religious history, and on the right of the streams I have noted the Bibles and prin 
cipal Poems, Hymns, theologies, and dogmas, and also the languages in which these 

Among the streams will be seen in prominent red letters the gods and goddesses, 
Avatars or Incarnations of gods, the long list of Trinities in which the Almighty One 
is shrouded, and the great prophets and mighty men who at various times led their 
fellow-men. Theirs were the mighty thoughts which stirred mankind to the grandest 
depths and heights of learning, of happiness and of misery, to turmoil, war, and blood 
shed for untold times. I have called the Chart, as will be remarked, a student s Chart, 
for we all are, or should be, learners, ever hoping to know more, and only sure of one 
thing, that we are always open to correction, and never standing still ; nor must we 
ever refuse to receive light, come from wheresoever it may from ancient Ind or Iran, 
from the banks of the Jordan or the Nile. 

As a motto at the head, I borrow from Max Miiller " The real history of man 
is the history of religion," which word religion I consider means, and therefore here 
add, "his attempts to know, to serve, and to love, his God." 

The following is the principle upon which the Chart is -coloured. A distinctive 
colour is given to each of man s first faiths, thus : 

To the Tree Green. To Fire Purple. 

To Phallic Yellow. To Sun Red. 

To Serpent Black. To Ancestral Sepia. 

These colours are maintained throughout, and bring us down safely from chaos or 
unknown time to the Kandas Vedic era, when we first begin to hear of reverence to, 
and devotion for, if not worship of, books, first of the Vedas, then shortly after of the 
Zend-Avesta, the Bible of the great Zoroaster, and again, but after a long interval, 
of the sacred " Law of the Lord," which the Jews say they received from their Jhavh 
on a mountain of the desert. This is then followed by quite a new phase of man s 
beliefs, viz. the worship of the writers of these books, who are called Prophets or 
" Men of God," as Zoroaster the " son of Ormazd," Moses the " servant of Jhavh," 
Jesus the " Son of the Father," &c., with sacred books in all cases written by prophets 
or "holy" and "inspired" men, but said to be written by God. I have, therefore, to 
denote this seventh worship, which is done by a band of blue. Still, however, we 

Introductory Chapter. 21 

require another colour, for with the rise of the Rig Veda sprang up, though crude and 
dimly, the noblest and purest worship of man Theism, or the worship of one God, 
our spiritual Father, without parts, .passions, or competitors. It is, therefore, necessary 
to bring in here an eighth colour, which I do by a band of red. For reasons to be 
hereafter given, I do not show here Fetish and Animal worship, as these more or less 
prevail throughout all the streams of Faith, and are not distinct streams, with temples 
and sacred books of their own ; but of this I shall have more to say hereafter, especially 
when speaking of Skandinavian Faiths. 

I must now say something as to the rise of these streams of Faith. As facts are 
at present known to the learned, we might put them any distance back into the blanks 
of Chaos or Kronos, for the figures seen in my Chart as years before 2800 B.C., or even 
much later, might, in regard to Faiths, be put down as doubtful blanks, and blanks in 
general history also, which it would seem we can never fill up, at all events until 
geology, at present a comparative science, resolves itself into an exact one. A 
remarkable work, entitled Pre-Historic Nations, by J. D. Baldwin, A.M., London, 
1869, amasses an enormous amount of evidence to show the vast antiquity of civilisa 
tion generally, and to demonstrate the existence of a cultivated race in Hindoostan 
long before the conquest of that peninsula by the Aryan races. He adduces, says 
Inman (and in this I fully agree with the learned Doctor), good reasons for believing 
that the Linga and Yoni worship in India, the veneration of the people for Siva, and 
the use of Cavern Excavations for religious purposes, preceded both Brahmanism and 
Boodhism, and was the form of worship found among the Dasyoos and other aborigines 
of India. This is now well established, and I will confirm it further when speaking of 
these races. This author clearly demonstrates that a very ancient civilisation existed 
at a period which the majority of authors describe as one of utter barbarism, in fact 
that, go where you will, you find the remains of a once powerful people. 

But, beyond this Aryan flight, history and facts are almost silent, and are dim 
even here ; yet the world did not commence then, nor are scientific men, especially 
philologists, resting here ; they are busy now tracing back the Aryans to their earlier 
homes in upper Asia and Europe, and in searching out the early tongues and faiths 
of the aborigines of all lands. For the present, however, we must rest content with the 
dim ages and dark shadowy forms of men and races which existed before those days ; 
and in my Chart I then only show all the six streams of colour strongly tending easterly 
to form the great Hindoo body of faiths, and westerly to Asia Minor and Egypt. Let us 
leave science and philosophy still to strive alone here, and avoid trying to cramp their 
cautious, critical, and ever wisely sceptical spirit, concerning ancient as well as modern 
priests, their tales, and theologies. Where God has not yet granted us light let us 
wait, though not sit idle ; nor yet let us concoct our own crude stories of a genesis 
" of the heavens and earth," because we have not light or revelation ; for there are many 
more earths than ours, and He is the one unknown and all-creating Almighty power. 

22 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

Darwin, then, for our present purposes may range at will, speculating as to what 
we were some 3000 years B.C. ; and the English Dr Hales, writing in 1700 c., 
may assure us that 3500 B.C. was Kronos birth ; his co-religionist, Archbishop 
Usher, writing a hundred years earlier, with fool-hardiness even for a priest, though 
all Biblicists here follow him, asserts that " the world was created on Sunday, October 
23d, 4004 B.C., and Adam and Eve on Friday the 28th May," some say that the time 
in each case was four o clock in the afternoon ! and he adds, like the unknown old 
Hebrew writer, " Adam and Eve were in the image or likeness of God," but of what 
God ? The ancient Hebrew, which the Jews were unable to decipher in Nehe- 
miah s days, or fifth century B.C. (so far as we know of that Hebrew, for, as before 
said, it had only "cuneiform signs," and no vowels), says in the Jewish Genesis, 
Eloliim (gods plural, and male and female) "created the heaven and the earth" at 
some unknown time, called here " the beginning." Now philologists all tell us that 
El was the sun-god, and my studies place his name as prominent about 1500 B.C. 
El- and HIM, 1 our early monosyllables, form a natural plural ; and as we read on 
we find El and " Him," the plural gods, called Eloliim, which is the androgynous or 
bi-sexual male and female god, so commonly adored then in Egypt as in India, and un 
doubtedly then worshipped in Syria by Israelites as well as Canaanites, of which further. 
Keeping at present to Genesis, we can gather the proof of the double god ; for the 
"Gods" say in the 2d verse that the Logos (translated the Spirit, or as the more 
full and learned literature of India says, "his creative spirit"), the "spouse," " the 
dove," &c., " moved x>n the face of the waters," which last word should be noted, for 
Salacia is the goddess of water or lustfulness ; and in much that follows, it will be 
seen that waters and seas are the signs of Isis, Astarte, Mylita, Maiya, Juno, Venus, 
Ceres, 2 Eve, Frea, Friga, and many another name, denoting the original female creating 
source. It is the fertilising stream which God as Brahm moves upon : as Mahadeva, 
in his creative capacity, he shrouds Maya or Sophia the spirit of wisdom. 

Genesis, i. 26, is still more explicit ; there God speaks to his Spirit (for she 
or it must be there, as he would not speak to himself), " Let us make man in our 
image, after our likeness," and accordingly " male and female created he them ; " 
therefore Elohim was either androgynous, or this Spirit was the heavenly goddess, 
who by "him" created all things. In proof of the bi-sexual gods of ancient peoples, 
and of the constant identity of one god with another in Vedic days during the reign 
of Brahmanism in the east, and of Greek and Latin supremacy in Europe, I will 
here quote from the beautiful and very ancient poem, " De Mundo," 

" Jove first exists, whose thunders roll above, 
Jove last, Jove midmost, all proceeds from Jove ; 
Female is Jove, Immortal Jove is male ; 
Jove the broad Earth, the heavens irradiate pale; 

1 Dr Inman, and see iny glossary Elohim and God. The title used in Genesis is DTPS nil, 

2 This C may be G, but riot K, the root being Ge, the earth : She was Ge-Meter. 

Introductory Chapter. 23 

Jove is the boundless Spirit, Jove the Fire, 
That warms the world with feeling and desire; 
The Sea is Jove, the Sun, the lunar ball, 
Jove king supreme, the sovereign source of all. 
All power is his, to Him all glory give, 
For his vast form embraces all that live." 

To return to the world s age, and to the impossibility of our getting any religious 
historical glimmering, beyond the days when the mighty Sanskrit-speaking race swept 
in a torrent from the west and north into India, I may note here what some autho 
rities say on this subject. The Chinese say that their race is several hundreds of 
thousands of years old. 

Some astrological records of ancient Kaldea say, . . 474,300 years. 

Plato, writing 350 years B.C., says (and puts this down as the 

date of Zoroaster s birth) " before his time," . . 9,000 ,, 

The Septuagint (Greek translation) of the Old Testament, 

executed in third century B.C., says, before that translation, 5,872 

The Jewish Talmud says it took place before its time, . 5,344 

Josephus writing about the days of Christ says, . . 4,658 ,, 

and so on guessed the men of old ; but what says modern philosophy ? which, without 
implicitly believing or denying, we should, as reasonable men, respectfully listen to. 
Surely the science and research, and earnest love of truth which characterizes the 
philosophy of our times, should be received with much more deference and respect 
than the old tales, loose and often garbled quotations from old writings, which 
have come down to us, often we know not from whom, or whence, or from what 
times the philosopher only asks us to pause and reflect on his sayings, not to frame a 
dogma and utter an anathema against those who cannot agree with him. 

Professor Agassiz estimates the age of the human skeletons in the coral reef of 
Florida at 10,000 years, and adds that 135,000 years are needful for the formation of 
the post-tertiary southern half of that peninsula. Another writer says that the Falls of 
Niagara have been cut back at least six miles since the Champlain Epoch, for the lake 
deposits formed by the old extension of Lake Ontario, and containing similar shells to 
those now lying near the entrance of the lake, are found both at Goat Island and on either 
side of the gorge near the whirlpool. Six miles then at least of the gorge have been 
excavated since the formation of these deposits. Dana says, " Taking the rate at one 
foot a year, the six miles will have required over 34,000 years ; if at one inch a year, 
which is eight feet and one-third in a century, 380,000 years." The former was Sir 
Charles Lyell s estimate, which, if considered too great, is probably outdone in the 
other extreme of one inch a year ; if, however, we take the mean of these two 
estimates, namely, six inches a year, the time would then be 62,000 years since the 
probable close of the Champlaiu Epoch. The human skeleton beneath the fourth 
cypress forest of New Orleans must, it is said, have been buried there 50,000 years 

24 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

ago ; works of Egyptian art have been dug from soils which must have been submerged 
30,000 years ago ; and bricks are found sixty feet deep under layers which it would 
require 14,000 years to cover; yet, says Mr Lesley, in his Origin of Man, these are 
" mere modern matters in comparison with the diluvium of Abbeville, and this again 
can bear no comparison in antiquity with the least of the true tertiary strata. My 
own belief is but the reflection of the growing sentiment of the whole geological world, 
a conviction strengthening every day, as you may with little trouble see for yourselves 
by glancing through the magazines of current scientific literature, that our race has been 
upon the earth for hundreds of thousands of years." Sir Charles Lyell estimates the 
accumulations of mud and sand at the foot of the celebrated statue of Rameses (the 
middle of whose reign Lepsius moderately calculates was about 1361 B.C.) at 14,000 
years, allowing 3^ inches for a century. 

The pottery under the second cypress forest of New Orleans, Mississipi, is estimated 
at 28,000 years, and the human bones under the fourth are calculated by Dr Bennet 
Dowler 1 to have been there for 57,600 years, or a little more than that given above by 
another writer. There are ten distinct cypress forests, overgrown by aquatic plants, 
and now covered with live oaks, and for the replacement of these Dr Dowler says we 
must allow 158,400 years. My Chart gives many similar calculations. 

Look now at the celebrated Kent cavern, and, to try and aid the eye and memory, I 
give in their recurring order the various deposits with their remains. The very greatest 
labour and thought of all the savants of Europe, representing every diversity of opinion 
and theology, have been here brought to bear, and the results in years are still subver 
sive of all orthodox ideas, for if we exceed 4000 B.C., and therefore Biblical genealogies, 
we may put the Jewish story aside altogether. 


I. BLACK-MOULD, from one inch to one foot f Roman and pre-Roman remains, pottery, bronzes, and 

thick. \ bones, but no extinct animals. 

II. STALAGMITE FLOOR (depth 12 feet), withf Flint tools, bones of extinct mammals split for marrow 

the years 1615 and 1618 scratched on it. (_ and gnawed by hyenas a human jawbone at base. 

A black band here occurs, which, though three feet thick, cannot be considered a geological sti-ata; it is 
only some 100 square feet j in it has been found some of above articles, with a needle, pin, and 

III. CAVE EARTH (depth 4 feet). ^ As. above, and bones of extinct animals. 

IV. 2d STALAGMITE FLOOR (depth 1 6 feet) very f Cave bear bones, but none of the later animals, as 

thin layers and highly crystalline. \ hyena, &c. 

V. FLOOR of BRECHIA, hard rock like Con- f Cave bear bones, but of no later animals, 3 feet deep, 

crete, very brown. -c flint flakes, near teeth of cave bear showing human 

V. workmanship. 

VI. 3.d STALAGMITE FLOOR-^-Granular. -^ No foreign objects yet found here. 

1 Types of Mankind. 

Introductory Chapter. 25 

The water which formed these stalagmite floors was, of course, drippings with lime 
in solution. The lamina is extremely thin, and though a portion of the stalagmite 
was removed from under the dripping twenty-two years ago, yet not a vestige of 
fresh laminae can be traced, but over the figures 1618 and 1615, well under the drip, 
a thin flake of less than 1-2 Oth of an inch is apparent, which gives us the period 
necessary for this upper coat, 720,000 years. By another calculation this goes as high 
as 900,000 years. Taken by itself we might incline to reject such calculations, but 
when so much else points to the extreme age of the earth, geologists are justified in 
here showing us what these floors really mean. What stopped the drip for so many 
thousands of years and again renewed it ? Had not a new, perhaps polar temperature, 
passed over this portion of the globe at that period ? If so, then at the present rate 
of progression, Mr T. Lumisden Strange, whose excellent paper on the "Earth s age" 1 
I received when writing the above, tells us that two and a fourth millions of years 
would be required between the formation of the first floor and beginning of the forma 
tion of the second stalagmite base. Mr Strange also gives us several calculations of man s 
astronomical efforts, which go back to the time when the second cypress forest of New 
Orleans was probably being submerged. We have two very ancient zodiacs ; one at 
Esne on the Nile, above Dendera (where are two somewhat modern ones), and one in 
India. Sir Wm. Druminond goes minutely into that of Esne, and calculates from its 
vernal equinox being between Gemini and Taurus, and therefore giving a retrogression 
of 3 signs or 1 deg. 20 min. from their present places, that the age of this zodiac when 
he wrote in 1811 was 6450 years, and therefore in 1873 its age would be 6512 years. 

Dupuis thinks that Virgo is the zenith of the Indian zodiac, and that its age is 
therefore nearly 1000 years more, or 7430 years ; but by assuming the vernal equinox 
between Libra and Virgo, the Egyptian zodiacs would date back to 14,955 years, and 
the Indian one with Capricorn in zenith to 13,083 years. The only other alternation 
would involve putting the Indian zodiac back to 22,575, and the Egyptian one to 
30,100 years, so far as the signs of the zodiac are concerned. The precession of the 
equinoxes and real astronomical zodiac seems to have come to Europe through Hip- 
parchus, who flourished 150 B.C. The Chinese had discovered the zodiac and various 
astronomical cycles in the time of their great emperor Hwangti, who flourished 2640 
B.C., and a glance down my Chart will show that hosts of busy minds were bent on 
these subjects all the way down to Hipparchus days. 

In regard to the theory of all men springing from one stock, its advocates should 
note that Egypt gives us, in the year 3060 B.C., or thereabouts, pictures of Asiatics and 
negroes, and that a very ample time indeed must be allowed for the conversion of the 
white man to the negro, or vice versa. I must here, however, very briefly call atten 
tion to another great class of facts, which every year is bringing more forcibly before 
us. The great Creator of the Universe does nothing but for some wise purposes, and 

1 In Thomas Scott s Series, vol. viii., and Strange s Development of Creation, &c. 
I. D 

26 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

works always on fixed plans. What means it, then, if ordinary theologies be true, that 
a cycle of the zodiac requires 25,810 years? that is, this enormous time to complete 
one of its revolutions ? that a cycle of oscillation of the angle of the ecliptic requires, 
says La Place and Herschel, 20,250 years for completion? that the cycle of eccentricity 
of the little orb we inhabit round its central, or rather non-central sun, requires for its 
completion possibly half a million of years, or accurately 515,610 years? that a polar 
cycle or the precession of the ecliptic, from equator to pole, which alone explains our 
palms and mammoths under present eternal snows, may take 2,700,000 years to com 
plete ; that though light travel at the rate of 184,000 miles per second, there are stars 
whose light must have left them^GOOO years before it reached us ; that the time required 
for the orbits of comets, whose supposed erratic approach our astronomers will tell us 
to within a fraction of a second of time, varies from about 14,000 years to nearly 
123,000 years? and, lastly, what means this, that we, revolving in our own orbit at 
the rate of 68,000 miles per hour, or 600 millions of miles in our year, are also swung 
along towards some mysterious point in illimitable space at the awful speed of 
150,000,000 of miles per annum ? These are figures which we can calculate and write 
down, but which the mind of man is quite incapable of grasping. We and ours, aye 
our paltry planet, with its 8000 miles diameter, sink here into utter insignificance, and 
so surely also do all its theologies, which have ever hitherto spoken of the phenomena 
of the mighty framer of these mysterious worlds and their ways. 

Without wandering away from our own little crust, we can, by some study, read 
off millions of years from its latest fossils to its lifeless ages, by marking those of frozen 
and tropical zones, and calculating the possible times which each growth required 
for its rise and fall. From the glacial epoch, at the close of the tertiary period, to the 
fossils of the carboniferous epoch, now buried in an arctic zone, requires, we are told, 
nine ecliptic rotations, or 24,300,000 years, and Sir Charles Lyell says 240 millions of 
years are required for the Cambrian formations. We would like to know what ages he 
would assign for the upheaval of the great Indian continent or lower Himalayas, which 
in the Miocene formations of the Sivalik ranges lying at their base, have disclosed to 
us huge extinct animals, amongst which is a strange four horned deer (the Siratherium), 
and a tortoise some eighteen feet long and seven feet high, with others, as giraffes and 
the ostrich, denoting vast plains instead of the rugged mountains which now cover all 
these parts. When were these lofty mountains a sea-bed which nourished the num- 
mulites, testacea, and other salt water creatures, now forming their earths and lime 
rocks, and how long did it take to cover such lofty up-heavals with their now so prolific 
vegetable and animal life ? Sir Charles would no doubt answer us, as he long since 
did similar questions, that " we require, when speaking of geological epochs, to get 
the poverty out of our bones before we can take into consideration the eons of time 
that are required during which primeval people and language existed, and since which 
dispersion and segregation have been going on." 

Introductory Chapter. 27 

With tins explanation as to the early days of my Chart, when the gods moved on 
the waters of life, we shall resume the passage down our Streams of Faiths. 

Mr Lesley would place Ancestral worship as man s first faith, just as others would 
place Serpent before Phallic, and others again, strong in Kaldean history, claim the 
first place for Sun, and the classic scholars of Latin literature say the same of Fire ; 
my own travels and studies in eastern lands have however convinced me, that the order 
in which I here place these four early symbolic objects of man s adoration is in the 
order in which they mostly flourished, though the idea of the second is in the first, and 
abundantly in all that follow. 1st, Tree ; 2nd, Phallic ; 3rd, Serpent ; 4^A, Fire ; 
5th, Sun ; 6th, Ancestral ; being the adoration and worship of Ancestors, their tombs 
and writings : a faith deeply impregnated with all other streams, and with the worship 
of a representative man, as Amon, Herakles, Brahma, Abram, &c. 

To the above, some writers would add worship of Fetishes and Spirits ( Demon - 
ology) and Animal worship, which is said to have flourished in Egypt 3100 years 
B.C. ; but although I admit a sort of worship in all nations of particular birds and 
animals, yet this is rather confined to the various sects of the main Faiths, and may 
be here understood to be carried along with, and included in, one or other of these six 
great streams, just as that of Apis is included in my second stream. 

Thus the ancient monkey, our gorilla, is the most intelligent, and called the most 
powerful of intelligent mammals. He has disappeared from India, although his 
name has attached itself to the great Hanooman monkey of our denser forests of the 
East. He was an attendant upon Ram, the 7th Avatar or incarnation of Vishnoo, of 
sub-Vedic times. He lent all his power to Earn, and is represented as bringing back 
to him his heavenly spouse, here as elsewhere, the female power of God, Maya or 
Mary, called in the poems of the Mantra era, " Sita," a " field furrow," or seed 
vessel, female or Sakti, the name given by Hindoos to each consort of the gods, 
or to God manifested as Logos, Yoni, Juno, &c. In admiration of Hanooman s 
aid and devotion to Ram, he was venerated and then adored, and is at this time an 
object of worship by some Hindoo sects which are seen embraced in my sub-Vedic 
stream ; just as I do not show separately in the Christian stream those who adore and 
kiss the toe of Peter, Christ s powerful though not always faithful or very truthful 
attendant and exponent, so I do not show monkey worship as a Faith. Some followers 
of Hanooman worship, when they come into power, are seen to revive the animal 
symbol of their sect, as in western India, where wealthy nobles, in the days of Siwajee, 
A.C. 1650, gave great grants of land to be devoted to the maintenance of monkeys : 
there we find them daily fed at the gates of these villages : all the revenues left after 
maintaining the estates are devoted to this purpose. This monkey deity is the son of 
Maroot (see Vedic Devas), the god of storms and wind, and of Anjooni, a woman of 
the mountains, probably some real person. 

Ram himself is only a great deified chief, whose true parentage is hid far back in 

28 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

the myths of time : many great Hindoo chiefs claim descent from him, notably so one 
of the greatest in this land from which I at present write, the Maha Kana of Oodepore. 
For the benefit of students of Professor Darwin, I may here state that all the races of 
Europe are said by the Hindoos to be the descendants of Hanoomau, who is very com 
monly called after his father s clan, Marooti. He asked a favour of Sita when restoring 
her to the arms of Ham, and she desired him to go and choose a separate part of earth, 
and there reside, and added, that " he would beget a very powerful race of men who 
\vould eventually conquer most of the world ;" thus, says the Hindoo, have we lost in 
the east the powerful race of monkeys who fought for the gods, and there, says the 
African explorer, stand the few remnants of that race in the Gorilla of Africa ; but the 
Hindoo knows not that he is still there, and says the European is his offspring, and 
like him of old, more powerful than all men. 

Everywhere we find beasts and birds the helpers or opponents of gods as also 
men ; from the eternal snows of the north to the south pole it is the same tale. The 
story of the ravens who assisted the Hebrew prophet, the " man of God," who could 
call upon God and all the winds of heaven (the Maroots) to assist him, is but a 
similar tale to this man of god, Earn, who claimed supernatural aid from the monkeys 
of ancient India, The eagle of the banners of Persia and Europe is the chariot of 
Yishnoo (Garooda), " the great God of Gods," and is represented in the sacred bird of 
Jupiter and in the outspread eagle of Christian churches as the fitting carrier of " the 
book of life." It is as a charm and as a battle cry that it appeared at the head of 
every Roman legion; and became the symbol of so many other nations and potentates : 
in all this we find relics of a sort of bird worship, similar to that of the stork and 
vulture veneration of Egypt. 

The peacock on the banners of so many Asiatic kings and princes is generally a 
symbol of a past or present faith in the Sun. Barmese mythology exhibits it with a 
Hare, symbolising the moon ; both adorn the canopies of great Boodha s temples, 
although the wise and severe ascetic thought he had blotted out this old cultus. On 
the Phallic pole beside his temples sits Brahma s vehicle the goose, on which Vishnoo 
winged his flight to awake the drowsy Creator. 

The sceptre of the Pharaohs had for handle the head of Athor, the bird of love, 
or Egyptian Venus, resembling the eastern Hoopoo : all other sceptres of our days, and 
the shields of all earth s nobles hand down to us the Totem adoration of our ancestors : 
still does the ancient banner of one of the most powerful of our Indian princes, Sindia, 
display the Cobra de Capello, or holy hooded snake, and over all the walls of his holy 
places, and the sculptured rocks of his fortresses, have I traced the great old symbol 
of this wide faith. The serpent sometimes shares a sculpture with the fertile fish and 
sun as the fecundating Ba-al god, although these two more abound along Sindia s 
western frontier, amidst the Chiefs of Rajpootana. Even the iconoclastic ruler of 
Oud, ancient Ayoodya, could not, however he abhorred the Serpent, shake off Maya s 

Introductory Chapter. 29 

symbolic fish, whilst the whole Mahomedan world still, month by month, watches for 
respectfully, and salutes with reverence, Isis new crescent moon, as she first appears as 
the horns of the cow : nay, they place it boldly on that proud banner which rules so 
many millions of peoples from the pillars of Hercules to the sea of Okotsk. This reminds 
us also of the great people who here flank the Asiatic continent, and whom I shall show 
further on are not yet ashamed, in their most progressive form of the present day, to 
denote the old faiths of serpent, tree, and shield, as well as of the sun god, from which 
springs her very name Japan (Ja or Je, Sun) upon the new coin of the Empire. All, 
whether the Sun-god, " Sun of righteousness," Dagon, Isis, the symbolic flaming 
candle or humble fire-vessel, on the altars of the devout, the Fleur-de-lys, modern or 
ancient crosses, all and every one of these, tell alike the same story in the eyes of the 
pious archeologist, seeking for the roots of man s faiths. 

Totem and fetish worship is indeed a most important portion of the study of all 
who seek for these roots and straying branches ; yet I cannot look upon Totemism as 
a stream of faith, though Scrutator properly puts it first as " man s nature of religion, 
in his purely barbarous state." We do however find nearly one quarter of the world 
yet deifying, or at least reverencing, " sticks and stones, Earn horns and charms," and 
I therefore feel inclined to exhibit this fetishism and demonology by a deep wash, 
forming a ground colour with my streams of faith. It might then be fined off in 
colour as the streams become broad and well defined, but it should in this case be 
continued to the present time. It is equally Fetishism which adores relics such as the 
tooth of Boodha, and bits of the cross of Christ, as that which bows at the sound of his 
name and venerates holy books ; many sects bow lowly in opening their Bibles, and 
surely it is making fetishes of these books, when men and women bend the knee and 
head to these, or touch them with the forehead as Hindoos, Mahomedans, and others do, 
and call upon their God to enable them to receive as direct from Him everything they 
may there hear or read, no matter how perverse or shocking to intellect and moral sense. 

We see a strong phase of Fetish worship in the little charms of Urim and 
Thumim ; in the Eduth, (a lingam) or " the Testament ; " and in the Ark of present 
synagogues ; and we know now that this Urim and Thumim were only parts of the 
paraphernalia used in the arts of divination and sorcery, although the origin I believe 
to be strictly Egyptian and Phallic. The root Thum we learn is the Hebrew and 
Arabic for Thmei, the Egyptian for " Truth," corresponding to (few) Themis, the 
Greek for Justice. The Alexandrian translators of the LXX give us as the Greek 
translation (A^UA;) Delosis, manifestation, and ( AX^g/a), Aletheia, Truth, and the 
Alexandrian Jew Philo tells us that the sacred breastplate of the Hebrews contained 
images of the two virtues or powers. (See Francis Newman s Hebrew Monarchy, 
p. 34.) I therefore see Maiya in " Truth," and the reason why the mirror was her 
symbol, and thus why " Truth " became the " manifestation " of the generative or great 
creative power in the Thumim or Delosis. The ideas were enigmatically shown in 

30 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

the two Ds, Delosis and Delta, as usually put in ancient days, A v, or xx. See Inman 
for details (I. 107) of these two forms. The Jewish ark itself was only a larger charm, 
fetish, or talisman, which brought bad or good luck, prosperity or death and destruc 
tion, to those who possessed it, nay, to those who even touched it. In all ages and 
faiths, we have such fetishism starting up and running side by side with, but not I 
consider forming a distinctive stream of, one of man s faiths. 

It is with reluctance that I have even allowed into the stream of Faiths the 
worship of Ancestors, as it is found in every Faith, and near its very source. As 
naturally as the child loves and the man often adores his parents, so have nations 
adored their ancestors, their tombs, and writings. As however we clearly follow up 
this ancestral adoration, we find it go through all the usual phases of a Faith, viz. it 
attaches miracles to its object, raises the parent into an idol, causes sacrifices and even 
massacres and wars for the land or places where he lived, or which were loved by him ; 
and makes pilgrimages to his shrines, as the East and West exhibit daily. Travellers 
on the Euphrates still find hundreds of Jews going to the Tomb of Ezra in ancient 
Kaldea. Ancestral worship usually frames a Bible out of the revered ancestor s 
sayings or writings, as the Hebrew has in the case of Moses, and the Mahomedan 
of those of his " Peers." It is, then, because I find all these in Ancestral worship 
that I include it as a stream of Faith, else would I class it as a sect or phase of a Faith, 
or a partial heresy, and liken it to animal and fetish worship. 

Bible or Book Fetishism, I am compelled to show as a prominent part of every 
stream of Faith, from the days of the Vedas and Zendavesta to the present hour. I 
shall also hereafter have much to say of reverence for, if not partial adoration of 
animals, and Fetishes, and of Demonology ; meantime, I think what I have to say will 
come better after I have devoted a little time to each of my six early and direct 
sources of man s Faiths. 

Fig. 1. THE FICUS INDICA or BANIAN, with Idols sketched from Nature. 



THERE is no doubt in my mind that the first breathings of the human soul were 
manifested naturally, not I think on a desert hill-side, the trackless ocean, or amid 
the dark monsters or creeping things in caves and caverns, but under the sweet shade 
and shelter of one of nature s most lovely objects the Sacred Tree or Grove ; espe 
cially do we here in the East understand how loved its refreshing shades are ; when 
escaping from the furious rage of another but a later god, the weary pilgrim, 
labourer, or traveller throws himself down for rest to body, eye, and soul, amidst 
the cool green darkness of the grove. 

Are not sacred groves, the grand old gnarled oak, the wide- spreading beech of 
Europe, the holy elm of Korasan, or far grander Banian of India, the theme of much 
of present and of ancient poetry and history ? The grove is called the " retreat 
beloved by gods and men," on the tree also hangs the, to us, mere refreshing " fruit 
of the gods," but in the times I am speaking of, there hung the principal part of 
the food on which the infant race depended, for they knew nought of the stores laid 
up in soils and seas for a higher stage of their growth. 

The tree was "a thing of knowledge, and of good and evil," and later, in " the 
loved god Homa " of Vedic times, long ere Jewish fathers could have recorded Jewish 
myths, was perhaps as often the source of evil as of good ; though doubtless as Homa s 
fumes ascended into the human brain, it was thought by the infant race to be not only 
the tree of knowledge but of life. As the great Spirit-God Homa, God under various 
names, created many of the mighty gods seen in the early stages of my Stream, so 
from the loves of Bacchus and of Jupiter sprang many mighty ones in the later ages 
of Grecian faith and poetry. From the most ancient times, as ^Eneas tells us, " the 

32 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

most delightful green retreats and blessed abodes in groves," were what the gods loved, 
and " the first bright sight he saw " when coming " from the nether world." 

What place, indeed, especially in intertropical lands, could be more grateful to 
the man bent on pious thought than the secluded woodland retreat, or the dark 
recesses of a forest, or of some ancient grove, hallowed by many pious memories of 
the past, in connection with Fathers whom he and his now worshipped as gods, or at 
least reverenced as demi-gods ? What so favourable to the devotional spirit, and so 
inspiring to prayer and praise, as whispering winds on the rustling leaves of 
half-idolised old moss-grown monarchs of the woods, sweetened perchance by 
the soft cadence of that dear murmuring brook, whose winding stream recalls 
so many sad as well as joyful reminiscences, and all quickened into a "dream 
land " by the melodious songs of the woodland choristers, as these rise ever 
and again into wild pathos, or sink into a sweetness grateful to the thought 
ful soul ? Alas ! for poor emotional man if the spirit be bold and brave, and the soul 
fired beyond the guidance of reason ; for the pietist has then too oft madly sprung forth 
and declared that he has been in the presence of his God. In all ages there have been 
men who have felt this in far more fullness than I can describe it, and have rushed 
forth to the world from their retreats, be they the groves of Bood-gaya or the wilder 
nesses of Western Asia, determined to declare what they have deluded themselves into 
believing that God has spoken to them. In his excellent little book on Symbolism, 
under the head Sacred Trees, Mr Barlow has expressed what I have long felt. He 
says, " the most generally received symbol of life is a tree as also the most appropri 
ate. . . . There might be an innate appreciation of the beautiful and the grand in this 
impression, conjoined with the conception of a more sublime truth, and the first prin 
ciples of a natural theology, but in most instances it would appear rather to have been 
the result of an ancient and primitive symbolical worship, at one time universally pre 
valent." (The italics are mine.) As men came to recognise in themselves two natures 
the physical and spiritual, the life of the body and life of the soul " so these came 
to be represented either by two trees, as sometimes found, or in reference to universal 
life, by one tree only." (Barlow, p. 85.) Some thousands of - years before even the 
age imputed to Genesis, there were sculptured on the Zodiac of Dendera Egypt two 
sacred trees, the Western and Eastern ; the first was truth and religion the sacred 
palm surmounted by the ostrich feather the latter, the vital or generative force of 
nature, beyond which Egypt thought she had risen, therein surpassing her Eastern 
parent ; at least so I feel inclined to class them chronologically. "Besides the monu 
mental evidence furnished," says Barlow, "of a sacred tree, a Tree of Life, there is an 
historical and traditional evidence of the same thing found in the early literature of vari 
ous nations, in their customs and popular usages." All grand, extraordinary, beautiful, or 
highly useful trees, have in every land at some time been associated with the noble, won 
derful, lovely, and beneficent ideas, which man has attributed to his God or to nature. 

Tree Worship. 


We can recognise the early worship of trees in the reverence of thought which 
attaches to the two in the centre of man s first small world, or garden of fruits and 
shade. All unhistorical though the tales may be, there is a deep poetry underlying 
the story of the sacred garden. We naturally picture it as a " grove," for man was 
not yet a cultivator of the ground ; amidst the deep shades of Eden, we are told, 
walked the great Elohim, with the man and woman naked as created by Him 
through his Logos, Ruach, Spirit or Spouse, but yet " without the knowledge," which 
" the sacred tree of knowledge " was soon to impart. Here, as in all Eastern faiths, 
this last is accomplished under the instigation of the serpent symbol of male 
virility. The Hebrew writer makes him address himself to the Virgin Mother of man, 
called Eva, Yuna, or Yoni ; but other Eastern legends perhaps more correctly put it, 
as the serpent in man, tempting him to forget his Creator and all that he had been 
taught of purity and holiness. We must remember that the very names, Adam and 
Eve, or A-dam and A-dama, are purely terms denoting gender, and to this hour, one 
at least is so retained by all the Mohamedan races around me, who know no other 
name for the symbol of Siva and Mahadeva, in the temples of India, but "the A-dam," 
for ancient words denoted purposes. 1 

These gender-ic names, if I may coin a useful word, pass through every faith, 
as with 






Asher, the " red digger." 
Beltes, " the field." 

These are details, however, for which I must refer the inquiring reader to special 
books like Dr Inman s valuable 
volumes, " Ancient Faiths em 
bodied in Ancient Names." 2 From 
it, by his kind permission, I here 
give what is called "the Temp 
tation," with the tree and serpent, 
and dogs of passion, all in lustrous 
symbolism, as we shall hereafter 
more fully understand. The idea 
is the Eastern one, and the 
original is by Colonel Coombs, 
from a cave in South India. 
It reverses the Jewish idea of 

1 As Penates and such words from pen-penetro, 
a penetrator. The representative gods are called 
Penates. We have also the Hindostani word 
Chinal, an harlot, from China perforata, root, 
ched (a cave). See also the Vedic name for the 


wife of the gods, Sita symbol, a field furrow ; 
her sister in the Earn ay an is Urmila, "the waving 
seed field, and their father s banner is a plough. 
2 Triibner, London, second edition, 1872 

34 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

the temptation, but is in my experience the one most generally accepted in the 

The numerous tales of holy trees, groves, and gardens repeated everywhere and in 
every possible form, fortify me in my belief, that Tree worship was first known, and after 
it came Lingam or Phallic, with, of course, its female form A-dama. The Serpent being 
Passion, and symbolic of the second faith, followed, we may say, almost simultane 
ously ; thus we find the sacred garden-groves of all Edens first mentioned, then the 
instructor, the serpent, and latterly creative powers in Adam and Adama, or in Asher 
and Ashera, which last female worship the Old Testament translators call the "Grove." 
We are told it was always set up with Asher, Baal, &c., under "every green tree," by 
ancient Israel, and up to a few hundred years before Christ, and not seldom even after 
Christ. Many writers who are thought to be authorities have not given this question 
of priority all the attention it deserves, and place Serpent worship, I think wrongly, as 
the first of man s faiths. . 

All Eastern literature teems with the stories told of and under the sacred fig-tree, 
Ficus Religiosa, Gooler, or Ficus Indica. Under its holy shade, gods, goddesses, 
men, and animals disport themselves, and talk with each other on sacred and profane 
themes. From it, as from many another holy tree, ascended gods and holy men to 
Heaven, and it and many others are to be yet the cradles of coming Avatars. To the 
present hour we find thousands of barren women still worshipping and giving offerings 

throughout the year to this Peepal, or male fig-tree 
of India, to obtain offspring : nor is the female tree 
the Ficus Indica neglected ; at stated periods this 
Bar, or true Banian, must be also worshipped with 
offerings by all who wish such boons. Under this 
sacred tree did the pious Stikyamooni become a Boodh, 
or enlightened one ; and it is from the rubbing to 
gether of the wood of trees, notably of the three 
rig. 3.- THE FICUS LEAF AND FRUIT. Banian figs Peepal, B&r, and Gooler (Ficus Syca 

mores), the favourite ivoods for Phallic images, that holy fire is drawn from Heaven, 
and before all these species do women crave their desires from God. 

On the fifth day after a young Hindoo s birth, the female members of the family 
assemble in the mother s room at night, and there are brought three branches of different 
trees, chosen very much according to locality. The three probably represent the Triune ; 
one is the plum-tree, and the others, generally any species with elongated leaves. 

At the feast of the DSsera which follows the rains, and is looked upon as an 
auspicious time for any expedition, the worshippers, accompanied by a Priest, go in pro 
cession to the foot of the Apta tree, which is on that day called ". gold." It is then 
consecrated by the Priest, after which all take branches and distribute to their friends. 
Others besides Jews have seen divers reasons why the Ficus is said to have 
been used to cover the nakedness of the early race. The Symbolic trefoil or 

Tree Worship. 35 

Jleur de lys with its seed springing from its stems, is still used as a Phallic ornament, 
and the leaf, especially of the Bo, is very like the old form of <p Ph : It has a long 
attenuated point, and is ever quivering on the stillest clays. 

The tree has many peculiarities, not only in its leaves and mode of leafing, but 
in its fruit and modes of multiplying, which could not fail to make it of a very 
holy and important character, in the pious, poetical, and imaginative mind of the 
East. Among others the fruit or seed hangs direct from its limbs, yet it is 
commonly said to be germinated by seed from heaven ; birds carry off the seed and 
deposit it on all high places, and in the trunks of other trees ; these this Ficus splits 
asunder and entwines itself all around, descending by the parent trunk as well as 
aerially, by drooping suckers until it reaches Mother-Earth, by which time it has 
most likely killed the parent tree, which has up to that period nourished it. Thus 
the Ficus tribe is often hollow in the centre, and if the hollow exist near the base, 
it is always a very holy spot where will usually be found a Lingam or Yoni stone, 
or both, or a temple of Mahd-Deva or Siva the great God of Creation. 

Not only throughout India, but in all the Polynesian Islands, the Ficus Indicus and 
the Ficus Sycamores are most holy, and a " basket of Figs " was one of the most sacred 
objects in the procession of Bacchus, whose symbol was always made of the wood of 
the Ficus. Its boughs and leaves were an important accompaniment of the proces 
sion of the god in Egypt, and the whole genus Ficus was most holy to him. The 
fruit was looked upon as the virgin uterus, in contradistinction to "the deity of 
Damascus," or Pomegranate, or gravid uterus. The fig and stem was the Sistrum 
of the temples, the harp of the gods, and the fig was as exhilarating as the vine, and 
to " sit under one s fig and vine " was the greatest of joys. We must remember the 
purpose for which not only Jews but many Easterns, long before the story of Eden 
was heard of, or at least penned, wore the trefoil leaves. This leaf is always a triad ? 
and the fruit a monad, and Jews who held it sacred above all Western Asiatics, 
called the fruit njxn taanah, or connection, the root of which is still more forcible 
for the mystical Arba is here. (See Ancient Faiths, II. 462.) Hebrews usually say 
that it was a fig, and not, as generally thought, an apple or citron, that Eve coveted 
and " fell by," a fact which if substantiated would make the fall a natural sequence 
in the eyes of those holding the above signification of the fruits. 

I will now briefly state some details in regard to the celebrated Bo tree or Ficus 
Religiosa of Ceylon : It is the Peepal, and has long, fleshy, heart-shaped leaves on a 
slender stalk. That of Ceylon is attached to the ruined shrines known as the Brazen 
Monastery, and is one of the holiest vestiges of the past in the eyes of every Boodhist. 
Though now amidst ruins and wild forests, and though having stood thus in solitary 
desolation for some 1500 years, yet there it still grows, and is worshipped and deeply 
revered, by more millions of our race than any other god, prophet, or idol, which the 
world has ever seen, could have or at least has commanded. Let us realize the fact, 

36 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

that there it has stood for over 2200 years, the oldest and best worshipped idol of man, 
and after all, what is it ? Only a beautiful tree ; yet in its sweet shade, says tradition, 
were matured by the good young Prophet, those high principles, generous and pious 
resolves, which overthrew all the great faiths of India in the short space of a genera 
tion or two, and indeed of all the East in a very few centuries, and which have 
stamped more or less on every succeeding faith the highest ideas of an exalted virtue 
and self-abnegation, of good works, and noble-mindedness. 

This wonderful Idol has furnished shoots to half Asia, and every shoot is 
trained as much as possible like the parent, and like it also enclosed and tended. 
Men watch and listen for signs and sounds from this holy tree just as the Priests of 
Dodona did beneath their rustling oaks, and as many peoples even of these somewhat 
sceptical days still do, beneath the pulpits of their Pope, Priest, or other oracle. 

The worship of this Tree was as complete in all its parts as even the organised 
theocracies of our day. Where the Eoman Catholic Bishop put a cross (tree of Life) 
before his signature, the High Priests of Ceylon affixed the image of one of the trefoil 
leaves, and that sign constituted every document or other object on which it was 
affixed at once holy, 1 set apart or consecrated, and so "royal" like our "broad arrow." It 
has been customary to attribute the worship of this, and indeed from it of all trees 
to Gotama Boodha, and to say that this celebrated tree sprang from the parent branch 
which the Prophet tarried under at Gaya, and that " it planted itself in a golden vase ; " 
that it is " always green, never growing, and never decaying ; none of which traditions 
we care to dispute, yet this I must in toto dissent from, that it is the parent of 
Tree Worship. On the contrary I hold that its birth and worship is but a thing of 
yesterday in comparison with the adoration of Trees. Tree worship was, I think, very 
old and all over the world, long before Gotama Boodha s day, sixth century B.C., and I 
cannot think that in this isle of lovely trees, the " Eden of the Eastern Wave," and of 
every kind of spirit, and demon, and elemental worship, that the Bo tree was anything 
more than the worship of a tree which the holy ascetics of Boodha Gaya, as persons 

1 I very much incline to think that this word fierce god of love. We have the female in Latin 

holy comes from a physical base in connection with as Eona-dea ; and elsewhere Agatha, Belus, tfcc. 

passion. The virgin is the one specially set apart, In Hebrew we have the important word Kadesh, 

or the Holy One, and ctyvog is that which is holy or PHp? to which Inman gives full attention at II. 

chaste as Diana, or goddess Ana, (Dia-ana) to .168, and as a not \incommon Indian word, Kadeem, 

whom the Af/nus-c&stus is sacred, because it does that which is sacred as from custom, also "revered." 

not permit of the " bite of the serpent." The The result appears to be virginity and sacred or 

Agnus-castus is also a. fish, that is a nun, and hot-ftre. Sanskrit quite bears out all Dr Inman 

woman generally, as well as "a chaste tree" says as to Kadesh, and shows in Katdksha and its 

The word requires probing down to the root, as to roots Kati and As, from whence Asher, more than 

Ag, fire in Sanskrit and its analogues; love, goodness, I can here mention. Fiirst s Heb. Diet, shows us 

and compassion are all the most holy of passions, that the Kadesh might be a temple-male as well 

whether in male or female . Thus we have the as female, also that Kadesh means a place or seat 

Serpent god of love, Agatho Daimon, ayadodaifAuv of holiness and a well or font. The original mean- 

whom Easterns occasionally call the demon or ing of Holy Ghost was thus only Hot air or Breath. 

Tree Worship. 37 

who ever loved dark woods and lonely places, sent to this island because an object 
which they were certain would be there gladly accepted. 

It is a matter of history, that the three Boodhas who preceded Sakya Mooni 
knew Ceylon and by separate names; 1 and a] so that all had like Gotama specific sacred 
trees ; his being known as the Bo of Bood Gaya, long before the days of Asoka, or the 
third century B.C. The Malidvdnso says that the Ceylon Ficus was a slip from it 
received about the middle of the third century B.C., and planted in the centre of the 
then great and royal city of Anoo-rada-poora, a curious name, the ancient significa 
tion of which we would like to know ; Anoo is an elephant in Tamil, and Barman 
Boodhists worship the white elephant. In the eyes of all the millions who, as I 
have said, have here worshipped for twenty-two centuries, the tree represents their 
great prophet, and is the type of a faith which they consider is " ever young," for 
like the serpent of Apollo, the Banian ever " renews its youth." Colonel Forbes 
Leslie, in his Early Races of Scotland, gives us a beautiful drawing of it as spreading 
in wild and graceful profusion over raised and prettily built terraces, and not looking 
by any means an old tree. The local traditions are that Dharma-Soka, king of India, 
sent the original slip to the King of Ceylon by the hand of the priestess Sangha Mita 
in 307 B.C. 

Sakya is said to have reposed under the parent tree on his becoming Boodha after 
his long sojourn and fast in the wilderness for forty-nine days. He had then mastered 
all deadly sins and every fear, having overcome death and entered upon the joys of 
perfect quiet and peace ; then it was he saw his way to enter upon the duties of 
his mission. 

Boodhists often have a sacred shrub in a pot to represent this tree, or to remind 
them of it, at least so they say, but the fact I believe to be, just as in the case of the 
Hindoos with their sacred Toolsi and some other shrubs, that the potted shrub or tree 
is an emblem of the old and first worship of man, of which many traditions have 
departed, and the very memory of them passed away. 

Colonel F. Leslie tells us in a note at foot of page 174, vol. I, of Early Races, 
that Vance describes a sculpture of a tree in a flower-pot, as dug out of the ruins of 
Hagar-Kim in Malta, which is considered " an emblem of Phenician worship, such as 
that still practised in Sardinia, where the vase and the plant of corn growing in it 
represent a part of the worship of Hermes, in ancient times called the garden of 
Adonis ;" for which we are referred to Forrester s Sardinia, p. 334. This is exactly 
what might be expected. Adonis is the Sun of fertility, the god of Love ; Hermes is the 
pillar or Lingam god, and the stems of all trees represent him, and are very commonly 
called the Ldt or pole, or sacred Toth of Boodhism ; from Ldt we still have the 
common words Ldtti, a walking stick, and Lakree, any stick or piece of wood. The 

1 It was called Oja, Warad, and Mada, in the times of the three Boodhas Kakoosanda, Konagama, 
and Kasyapa respectively. 

38 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

"garden" signifies merely " a place of pleasure " or of love, so that I cannot accord to 
either Gotama Boodha, or even the previous Boodhas, the origin of this very old 
Phallo-tree cult. We have many traces of it in and about the cradle of the Aryan 
races not confined to the Bo or Ficus Religiosa, though in most cases Boodhism has so 
very early appropriated all such trees and shrines, that it is difficult to separate the 
faiths. Cunningham, in his Ancient Geography of India, p. 79, tells us of a celebrated 
Ficus (Peepal) which Sang- Yang the Chinese pilgrim of 500 A.C., there calls the Bodi 
tree. He says it was always held in the highest veneration, if not worshipped. 
Kanishka, the great king of North- West India, built here his magnificent Stoopa, and, 
report says, planted it about 30 B.C. ; but another tradition says that Sakya Mooni sat 
under it and predicted the rise of this great king to propagate Boodhism. The 
Emperor Baber in 1505 A.O. says he "immediately rode out to see this stupendous 
tree of Begram " which is one and a half miles to the south-east of Peshawar. The 
Stoopa of Kanishka beside it, is described by two different pilgrims as 400 feet 
high, and a quarter of a mile in circumference, and as adorned with all sorts of 
precious things. The tree is said to be 1500 years old, and the Stoopa to have been a 
celebrated place of pilgrimage for a century or two later. Boodha, it is said, prayed 
and meditated for seven weeks under four different kinds of trees before starting on 
his mission, which I fancy rather refers to his seven years of meditation and prayer ; 
it is a somewhat mythical and rather too solar-looking a number to be accepted as a fact. 

At Alahabad ancient Prayaga there exists the celebrated " undecaying Banian 
tree," or Aksliaybat, which to this hour is an object of worship, as it probably was in 
Asoka s day 235 B.C. when he there erected his stone pillar. Was he, the Boodhist- 
King, then still pandering to tree and phallic worships? Further on I shall have occasion 
to show how this Prayaga tree " renews its youth " according to the manner of priests. 
A very holy Brahmanical temple is built facing the tree which the Chinese Priest 
Hweng Tsang (7th century A.c.) says "was surrounded by human bones,. the remains 
of pilgrims who had sacrificed their lives before the temple, a practice which had been 
observed from time immemorial. The tree was said to be the abode of a man-eating 
demon." This tree is now situated under ground, apparently at one side of a pillared 
court where the temple must have stood. A flight of steps leads down to the tree ; 
the court was probably open to the sky, but is now closed over head to secure darkness 
and mystery, priestly favourites. In Akbar s time the historian Abdool Khadir says 
that from this " tree of Prog " people cast themselves into the river. Now this 
undoubtedly tells us that the temple was Siva s, for he loves human sacrifice. The 
fruitful tree faced the Phallic emblem as we so constantly see to this hour. 

To aid my readers in following me in these Eastern details, I here give a Sivaic 
(Hindoo) temple, with all the usual accessories, as Linga-in-Yoni, below and 
above ground, Pole and Serpent Streamers, Well, and Holy Tree, and Devotees. 
The Prayag Pillar was possibly there long before Asoka s day, indeed he may have 

Tree Worship. 


engraved his mandates thereon, as was his wont, and placed it in the middle of 
his capital. 

The cosmical Genesis of 
Boodhism confirms what I 
hope to establish in the course 
of this work that the Tree 
and Serpent are the oldest of 
symbolic faiths, and as these 
embrace my second, we have 
thus the three first streams. 

The Ficus, say Hindoos 
and Boodhists and all East 
erns, is more peculiarly sacred 
when entwining the palm, and 
hence they are constantly 

sown together ; when thus 

Fig. 4.- 


embracing they say Kdlpa is 
developed, for the Ficus is here the female energy, and the embrace causes the 
revolutions of Time, and the whole is " the Tree of Life." I have heard very modest 
young Boodhist priests explain this extraordinary marriage, and dilate on the 
importance of Kalpa in a way I shall not attempt here. 

Far back in mythic ages, says Boodhism, sprang up the Kdlpa Raksha, which 
produced all that early man, then immortal, required ; even sun, moon, and the five 
planets succeeded this Kalpa, which we may translate with Colonel Forbes Leslie as 
"an immensely extended period of time;" whilst Raksha, (or, as some spell it, without 
corresponding advantage to the philologist, and great perplexity to the reader who 
desires to remember what he reads, Wruksha), " the tree producing all things 
desirable" a highly Kal-IOnic meaning, of which more hereafter. This Kdlpa 
Raksha exists, says the Cosmogony, " at the foundations of the world, beside the great 
original Ndgas" those expanding Cobras di Capellos "possessing human intellects." 
It appears that with this " tree of knowledge" which "produced all things" man, as 
usual in such cases, "waxed wicked," when all things were for the fourth time 
pronounced by the Creator a failure, and as the Greeks said, "Zeus made Pandora," 
which the poet Burns expresses in a similarly brief way. It appears that then great 
varieties of plants sprang up, when men "eat of them, became mortal, and 
found themselves in darkness," and discovered that they were male and female, 
and that they were "liable to mental passions, such as envy, covetousness, and 
ambition, and in addition to corporeal passions," which is as discreet a way of putting 
before us strong subjects, as possible; it is added, "the race which now inhabits 
the earth became subject to all the evils that afflict humanity;" and "after their 

Rivers of Life \ or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 


an occult or difficult 

fall all was darkness," that so common manner of 

To show the worship of Tree, Serpent, and Sun, and therefore also of Phallic 
forms of faith, I give here, enlarged from Mr Fergusson s drawings, part of the 
sculptures of the fine Boodhist ruin known as the Amravati Tope, as seen in R. 
Asiatic Society s vol. III. It is only given as distinct as the state of the stone 

seems to authorise, but enlarged to shew 
what it is thought to be, and no doubt is 
intended to be, to the uninitiated, a tree ; the 
initiated, however, were supposed, I believe, 
to see more than this, viz., the fertilization of 
this Ark a flaming sort of vessel for Crea 
tion is here evidently the object of worship ; 
and the artists have most successfully laboured 
to show the Tree idea or the conjunction of 
Ge and Ouranos. 

Fig. 5.-TREE A FIRE WORSHIP-AMKAVATI BOODHIST TOPE. In the original, the Sun, o? " chakra or 

wheel " (superfluous words I think), are overhead, and over the Sun the Dagoba-like 
shrine, and serpent-crowned altar, which I here give as Fig. 6, from another part of the 
same holy shrine. In this second sculpture we see on the right and left the solar disk 
and tree, with altars to themselves outside, but on either side of the main altar, on 
which sits wreathed passion as upreared snakes. To show that there is no mistake in 
the ideas of this fable, I give a drawing of another portion of the sculpturings of the 


same holy Tope, also from Fergusson, where we see the ubiquitous Trisool, and ark or 
cist, with Queens of Passion rearing proudly their wreaths of hooded snakes, whilst 
others, as usual, fan the flames. The ark is unusually quiet in this case ; no snakes 
coiling in and out, as in the Phenician coins, but the Toth or Mercury is rendered 
like the Ashtaroth a flaming column, of which we have many samples. 

Tree Worship. 41 

It has been remarked by British archeologists that they do not find trees or 
tree worship in company with the stone circles usually known as " Druid " 
in Great Britain, but here we have it very clearly in India ; for adjoining the great 
shrine of Amravati is a stone circle on an adjoining mound ; of this Mr Fergusson 
gives us a plan, beside the account and illustrations from which I borrow the pre 
vious figures. In Armorika (Bretany), the tree occurs with the harp and horse-shoe 
of lOnic proclivities, and with the concentric circle, which is either lOnic or Solar. 
Amidst "the sculptured stones of Scotland the tree appears twice, in both cases 
raised on a terrace, and in one the tree has a serpent on each side," so that 
this stands for the stones which in Phenicia are on each side of the tree ; 
my plate IV. gives some samples of similar ideas. 

There is a striking resemblance betwixt the Carthagenian and Keltic trees, as I 
here give these from "Early Races" (PL vi., I. 47), as well as those sculpturings we 
see on Asyrian monuments ; as every nation worshipped trees, this was to be expected, 
so the Kelts had a tree-god, similar to the 
Scottish Duwkeli, or " hidden god," whom the 
Irish, Welsh, and Cornish call "him of the 
groves or thickets," or shades sha-des 
or Ades, or the West. The above trees are 
most peculiar in their bud formations. 
These are all triads of very decided Phallic 
forms, reminding us of the acorn-bearing 
trees of Phenician caves and sculpturings, as 
well as of many Asyrian "trees of life," 
of which numerous examples will be here 
after adduced. Were they alone, we might 
hesitate to draw any conclusions from their structure, but they swell a long list, all 
pointing to the same ideas. It is curious to find that the Gaelic and Cingalese for a 
grove are nearly identical in sound. Of the spelling I am ignorant. The Gaelic 
Koile is the Cingalese Kelai and the Cornish Keli. The Gaelic Keli-duw becomes in 
Ceylon Aboodho-Deyio; and Keli 1 or Gele is a youth and a guide among Kelts, whilst 
this Cingalese Kelai is " the god of .secresy and patron of thieves," and a close connec 
tion to, if not Aboodho-Deyio himself. Col. F. Leslie, author of " Eleven Years in 
Ceylon," tells us " that all whom he questioned there were afraid to even name this 
god otherwise than the unknown one" (Early Races, I., 1 79). Now Hermes was a guide, 
and the god of numerous little and many great evils and thefts, and he was also the 
stem or standard of the groves. 

The vine, sacred to Bacchus, another god whom we may call Jove under the 

1 In Sanskrit, Keli is "amorous sport" (Eeinfey). 

42 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

influence of the spirituous god, is but an old Aryan story of the great god Homa, 
enriched by the sculptures of a Phidias or the glowing pen of Olympic poetry. 

Homa or Soma is Oushddesh, Heb. cnp py, etz kadesh, holy tree, or king 
of trees, shrubs, and vegetables, and also of medicines, for all the vegetable 
kingdom is said to be medicinal. The plant containing the nectar of the gods 
is called after him Soma or Somavaly : it is said not to be a vine, but a creeper 
or runner which some say is now lost to man. It is represented as always 
the first thing used at all sacrifices. Fire was at once rendered sacred by a 
few drops of Soma being thrown on it, and the priest, after doing this, divided the 
balance amongst his fellows " to quicken their memories " in repeating their Vedic 
hymns (see Haug on this subject). The juice of the Soma is constantly mentioned 
with reference to giving great gifts of memory and intelligence ; and spirituality, or 
spirit, may be derived from this vinous foundation of the god Homa. Jollity is heavenly, 
and inspiration is from on high ; and its reverse is the dull dead level of ordinary 
mortals, requiring for its reception reason or common sense, and other mundane quali 
ties. The Zoroastrians looked upon their Homa rite with the same solemnity as the 
Hindoo on his Soma sacrifices ; and it is probably the Homa, and not the Vine, which 
European writers on Asyrian remains tell us is there everywhere shown in company 
with holy palms and firs. Layard says that " the Zoroastrian Homa, or sacred tree, 
was preserved by the Persians almost as represented on the Asyrian monuments until 
the Arab invasion" (Nin. II., 472, note). The plant, or its product, was called 
the mystical body of God, the living water or food of eternal life, when duly conse 
crated and administered according to Zoroastrian rites ; thus we observe the probable 
origin of the celebrations of Jewish " holy " or paschal suppers, and other Eucharistic 
rites. There is some confusion betwixt the Ficus and Homa, as I have read of its 
juice, and even the wood of the Homa, fulfilling many of the offices usually said to 
belong to the Ficus alone ; but the fact is, from both trees or fruits, an exhilarating 
and delightful beverage was made, much relished by gods and priests, who, like our 
medieval abbots, had their quiet convivialities, and relished good cheer. 

I may here note that though both flesh and spirits are denied to all Brahmans, 
yet, as with the Jewish Levites, the remnants of those used in sacrifices to the gods 
might be taken ; and as the priest directs the proper oblation, so he can get whatever 
he desires in this way ; especially do the worshippers of Bhavani exceed in the use of 
flesh and spirits. 

M. Reynaud thinks that Horn was, among the Aryans of Bactria, a great god who 
preceded Ormazd, just as El or Eloliim preceded Jhavh, " Ego dominus qui apparui 
Abraham, Isaac et Jacob, in Deo omnipotente ; et nomen meum Adonai non indicavi 
eis" (Ex. vi. 3), Thus Homa was, about 5000 years ago, the Word, the Tree, and 
the Water of Life, the Mystical Body of God, to partake of it was a "sacrament," 
and if rightly, it was the veritable food of eternal life, just as the bread and wine of 

Tree Worship. 43 

Europe is this day. See, in confirmation of this, the conclusions of Barlow in his 
"Symbolism." Borlase sees much similarity between the Magi and our Druids, and 
Strabo did the same ; both carried in their hands during the celebration of their rites 
a bunch of plants, that of the Magi was of course the Horn, called Barsom ; Asyrian 
and Persepolis sculptures substantiate this. The Horn looks very like the mistletoe, 
and the learned Dr Stukely thinks that this parasite is meant as being on the tree 
mentioned in Isaiah vi. 13. It is generally agreed that the Tiel tree of the translators 
should be rendered an oak, or a species of holy lime which has purple " flowers, like 
those of the vine, growing in bunches, with a fruit of ruddy purple, the size of a juni 
per berry." l It will be noticed that it is winter time with this tree, and the Doctor 
says we should translate the passage, "As an oak, whose plant is alive upon it," 
which, says Isaiah, " shall be eaten," so that here we have the same idea in regard to 
the All heal, or mistletoe, as in the case of the Homa. No doubt from the Homa, or 
sacred wine, arose the practices of consecrating or offering an oblation to a god, a tree, 
a ship; pouring wine over holy stones and hills, pledging oaths in drinking also over a 
bottle, a bowl, or a glass of wine. Madame Genlis says that in her day the Maypole, 
the summer Holly tree of our children, but formerly of very manly men, was commonly 
sprinkled with wine, and the same idea which so abundantly decorates it with tri 
angles or sevs, arks or teebas, is still seen in the rags and potsherds which rustics 
throw to solitary and mystic -looking trees. 

Canute, in the eleventh century, was induced to forbid Tree worship, but the 
councils of the churches may be seen inveighing against it down to the fifteenth cen 
tury. " As late as the latter part of the eighteenth century it existed in Livonia, and 
traces of it may still be found in the British isles" (Barlow, p. 118). 

Fergusson, in his beautiful work on " Tree and Serpent Worship," puts the Tree 
as the first of faiths, although not very clearly so. He says that "long before the 
Theban gods existed, Tree and Serpent faiths flourished. The Methidy tree was 
brought into the later religion, to shade with holy reverence the tomb of Osiris ; the 
Sycamore was holy to Netpe, and the Persea to Athor, whilst the Tamarisk played an 
important part in all the rites and ceremonies of Osiris and Isis ; and all who are 
orthodox will acknowledge that Abram seemed to consider that he could not worship 
his Jove till he had planted his grove and digged a well (Gen. xxi. 33). His Oak or 
" Terebinth," on the plains of Mamre, was commonly worshipped till the fourth century 
A.C., and it is revered by Jews to the present hour. Jacob did nought without erect 
ing his pillars, nor could Adonijah, the rebellious son of David s old age, make war 
without sacrificing by the stone of Zoheleth (1 Kings i. 9). When speaking of the 
caves of Western India (Arch. II. 33), Fergusson writes to the effect that long ere 
Boodha or his saints were represented by images and adored, long ere the caves and 
temples of that faith had sanctuaries for holy relics, the first actual symbol-worship he 

1 Marginal reading of Isaiah vi. 13. Baggier 1 s Comprehensive Bible. 

44 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

can trace, is that of the Bo tree, which he describes as upon a bas-relief in a cave called 
the Jodea-Gopa (Katak, Bengal), " proving," he says, " how early that worship was 
introduced, and how .pre-eminent it was among Boodliists of those days," and I would 
add before Vedic days. In comparison with it, the faith of the princeling ascetic of 
Oud was young, and could not, any more than its predecessors, clear or purify itself of 
the old loves of mankind. Not only did the holy tree find an early place in Boodha s 
pure faith, if indeed he ever entirely cast it off, but almost every temple and cave 
showed also its (the Tree s) allied Phallic faith ; see Fergusson s own drawings, which 
very distinctly embrace Tree, Fire, Phallic, and Serpent worship. The latter 
must of course follow Phallic worship, even as the shadow can only follow the 

Within certain limits the further a Faith is removed from the time of a Founder s 
era, the stronger is often the rush back to old paths. One has only got to glance through 
the beautiful pictures of temples and caves in Fergusson s volumes, to see this truth in 
Boodhism. Everywhere will be observed the long cist or vagina, with its " holy of 
holies," the womb, or Mundane Egg of eternity, and likewise, ever standing at the 
entrance, of these " Houses of God," the Phallic pillar or pillars. It is the old story, 
whether we turn to Solomon s temple, 1000 B.C., where some writers seem to have missed 
the pillars of which I shall presently speak, or to the Kaiii Boodhist temples which 
gaze down upon us as we sweep on the Iron- way up the Western Ghats from Bombay 
to Poona, and which date from about the Christian era. Fergusson is here a safe and 
unbiassed writer, and let us pause for a moment to see how he describes this holy shrine. 
The subject is not strictly Arboreal, yet it leads to Sylvan decoration without which 
architects could not get on, and so neither archeologists. 

The Kdrli temple as a Boodhist shrine, is supposed, by those w^ho ought to know, 
to have been elaborated as we now have it, in the first century A.C. Fergusson in his 
Architecture, vol. I. 24, says : " The building resembles to a very great extent an 
early Christian church in its arrangements, consisting of a Nave (navis, boat, or ark of 
life), and side aisles, terminating in an apse or semi-dome, round which the aisle is 
carried ; its arrangements and dimensions are very similar to" those of the choir of 
Norwich cathedral." 

Now listen to its Phallic decorations, which, were they not so very costly to 
engrave, and to be found in many special w"orks on the subject, I should very much 
like to give, and remark upon in some detail ; for pillars, elephants, males, and 
females are here very serious matters and always full of meaning. " The aisle pillars 
have a tall base octagonal shaft and richly ornamented capital, on which kneel two 
elephants, each bearing two figures, generally a man and woman but sometimes two 
females," all strictly Phallic representations of Power and Creation ! 

" Under the semi-dome of the apse and nearly where the altar stands in Christian 
churches, is placed the shrine," in this instance "a plain dome slightly stilted on a 

Tree Worship. 45 

circular drum" As my readers advance they will find many similar examples of 
"plain domes," and " circular drums," and even now, will doubtless be reminded of 
curious articles of the kind in Vesta s shrine on Tiber s banks, which I shall hereafter 
enlarge upon. 

Fergusson says, that " the great window which lights all this temple is arched in 
the form of a horse shoe " which is the Isian head-dress, and 
Maiya s holy sign, and after which the Koman church adopts 
one of Mary s favorite head dresses. I give here the Solo-phallic 
idea from Dr Inman ; he calls it the "crown of Venus Urania." 
Of the Phallic pillars in front, placed precisely as Solomon placed 
his Jakin and Boaz (1 Kings vii.), Fergusson says only one now 
exists at Karli, but he thinks that a small temple has replaced the 
other. He calls the column " a lion pillar, shaft plain, with a capital carrying four 
lions," representing Power and cat-like salaciousness. The general plan is unmistak 
ably Phallic. 

These pillars are a prominent feature of Boodhist sacred buildings, and are classed 
under the name of Topes, which also signifies towers and tumuli, and is a corruption of 
the Sanskrit word Stoopa meaning mounds, heaps, karns, or kairns. When the pillar 
is of a single stone it is called a Lat. It is common to find the pillar with the 
beautiful honey-suckle ornament of the Asyrian, which, says Fergusson, the Greeks 
borrowed from them with the lOnic order. This ornament is very suggestive, see 
Fergusson s drawing of it (I. p. 7-2), he says the " oldest monument hitherto dis 
covered in India, is a group of these monoliths set up by Asoka (the Constantine of 
Boodhism) in the middle of third century B.C. They were all alike in form, and all 
have the same inscription, being four short edicts containing the creed and principal 
doctrines of Boodhism." They all had the honey-suckle ornament which he calls 
" the earliest known monument of Boodhist art." There was also the Head and Reel 
ornament so familiar to us from Persian-Greek Architecture, and they are otherwise so 
similar to those at Persepolis as to leave no doubt of their common origin. It is 
almost certain that these pillars of Asoka stood originally in front of some sacred 
buildings which have perished. 

Cunningham in his " Bilsa Topes " tells us, that all the pillars were set up about 
the year 236 B.C., and the rock inscriptions cut 250 B.C., of which the oldest are 
at Ddnti in Kutak, at Gerndr in Goojarat, and at Kapoordigiri near Peshawar. The 
pillars are polished, always forty-five feet high, and are generally surmounted by a 
lion, symbolizing power and salaciousness, and thus making the pillar in eastern eyes 
strictly Phallic. The Chinese pilgrim Fahian, writing 400 A.C. says that Asoka erected 
such a lion pillar behind the " Boodhist Chapel " which he built at Samkiesa, and as 
Egyptian fleets used to anchor in his great sea-port, Barygdza, which we call 
Braroch or Broach, we can easily perceive where Europe, and especially Venetian 

46 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

sailors borrowed their lion pillars. We know that the great Tope of Sanchi had one 
or two such monuments in front of each of its gate- ways. 

As time rolled on, the pillar ornament became still more prominent, and the 
pillars much more numerous. Fergusson gives a. pretty picture (vol. I. 42) of the 
Tlmparamya tope in Ceylon, which one writer states "has 184 handsome monoliths 
twenty-six feet in height round the centre holy moiwd." 

Evidently, mound, pillars, domes, drums, lions, elephants, dagobas or sacred arks 
with relics, \vere all of the utmost importance in this faith, which in the sixth century 
B.C. had determined to reform India. It vigorously, purely, and successfully set about 
to do this, but not so easily was our first faith to be here wiped out, and more than it 
was firmly located in this " Eden of the eastern wave," before Boodha s day. Ceylon 
was not only par excellence the land of tree worshippers, but possibly even then of all 
our earlier streams. We know from many sources that the Cingalese specially 
believed in spirits good and bad of the woods, and of particular trees, as the Barmese 
and most races do to this day, reverencing, fearing, and making offering to these Spirits 
or Nats. Fergusson says that " Serpent and Devil worship harmoniously blended," 
but this was rather an after falling away from the Faith of the great Ascetic, for 
Boodhism ever tried to abolish not only Serpent but Ancestral worships, substituting 
Sepulchral Tumuli as depositaries for saintly relics, and elevating as the faith 
degenerated, the sanctity if hot worship of groves of trees, amidst the deepest and 
most beautiful of which Boodhists love to pass their days "on holy thoughts intent." 

It has been said that the great impetus which Boodhism gave to Relic worship, 
was owing to the careful distribution of Godama s remains. This was no doubt a 
politic movement on the part of the new missionaries, and one which all after- 
proselytisers adopted, for man is naturally a worshipper of relics, hair, clothes, crosses, 
pictures, books, images, and such like. Eight great cities had this Prophet s most 
valued remains distributed to them, and went mad with excitement over them, just as 
Europe would do to this hour, if any good authority could show to it a bit of a robe 
or shoe, &c., which Christ or Mary, or even an apostle wore. The most celebrated 
relic of Godama is his Tooth which, till within the last few years the British govern 
ment guarded as the Palla-dium of Sovereignty over the Island of Ceylon. 

It is of importance to note, in regard to the original purity of Boodha s faith,, that 
Mr Fergusson, as an architect, affirms that "-on no Boodhist architecture of Azoka s 
days can he discover either Tree or Serpent worship, nor even the worship of Boodh 
himself." In the Prophet s teachings he sees the very highest purity, morals, and 
goodness such as had never before been heard of, and which has never been surpassed 
though mixed with many errors three comparatively venial, one of which is that 
" asceticism was- the path to salvation." This primal purity has been common to 
most faiths, and so also humility to Prophets, although never as severely so as in the 
case of Godarna-Boodha. I cannot find that any prophets said they were gods, or 

Tree Worship. 47 

" one with the Father," except in the same sense as that they were one with their 
brethren, and desired that they, the brethren, also might be one with God. To return 
to our immediate subject. 

Some trees, as we have shown, were, it was thought, productive of passion or 
offspring ; and we read of others, as the Lugos, called by the Romans Vitex agnus 
castus, a sort of willow shrub inimical, to this. Under it the female devotees at the 
Athenian festival of " Thesmophoria " slept, when " desirous to avoid the bite of the 
serpent " thus showing clearly the true meaning of serpent- worship in the mystic 
language of that period. 

The Bael tree, as a representative of the triad and monad, is always offered at 
Lingam worship, after washing the lingam with water and 
anointing it with sandal-wood. The god is supposed to 
specially like all white flowers and cooling embrocations, 
which last sandal-wood is held to be ; and he is very com 
monly to be found under an umbrageous Bael, more especi 
ally if there be no fine Ficus near ; failing both, the poor 
god is often reduced to the stump of a tree ; and 
rig. IO.-THE BAEL. jf ^.] ia ^ g ^ Q QQQ^QQ^ jjjg votaries raise to him a karu 

or kairn of stones, with one prominent one in the centre, and plant a pome 
granate, bit of toolsi, &c., near ; and if water is available, a little garden of 
flowers, of which marygolds are a favorite. My readers must not fancy that 
this worship is indecent, or even productive of licentiousness. It is conducted by 
men, women, and children of modest mien, and pure and spotless lives, though at 
certain seasons, as in all faiths and lands, the passions are roused and the people 
proceed to excesses, 1 yet Sivaism is peculiarly free from this with reference to others, 
not excluding Eastern Christianity. Vishnooism, which we may call the worship of 
the left hand," or female energies, is perhaps the greatest sinner in this respect ; 
Sivaism is for the most part harshly, ascetic, as regards its office-bearers and 
orthodox followers ; yet all faiths give way at certain solar periods, and all Hindoo 
sects are as bad as Romans at the spring " hilaria or carnival," the more so if Ceres or 
Kybele is propitious, and more apparently so, in countries where writings have not yet 
supplanted pictures. Amongst all the rudest tribes of India, and even throughout 
Rajpootana, and with the strict Jain sects, who abhor Lingam worship, these still show 
their parent root, by devoting some fifteen days annually, after the harvests are 
gathered in, to the most gross form of Lingam worship, in which a complete naked 
image of man, called "Elajee" is built of clay and decorated with wreaths of 
flowers, &c, and placed in prominent situations. In most parts of Rajpootana, this 
male image exists at every city and village gate, but is not rendered conspicuously 
indecent until the hooly.or harvest enjoyments ; and. low and degrading as these are, 

1 See the naked festival of the Israelites when they got their golden calf, and of modern Shakers, &c. 

4 8 

Rivers of Life , or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

reminding us of our purely animal frame, yet no Hindoo practices of harvest times (in 
all countries the principal marrying season) are so gross, as I have seen practised at 
the harvest homes or midnight harvest revelries of our own country. 

As I have said, Hiudooism looks upon Siva worship from a purely spiritual 
stand-point, and this anthropomorphising of the god is peculiarly hateful to all good 
holders of the Vedic creed. Oriental scholars will remember how strongly Sir William 
Jones writes in support of what I here say: "Sivaik rites or services do not seem in the 
eyes of its people in any way immodest or connected with the passions ;" in fact, " the 
congregations " take no more notice of what is said and goes on in their " churches " 
than those of Europe do when the indecent parts of the Bible are read out, or the purposes 
of marriage proclaimed to large adult assemblies, who one might think could dispense 
with the information as much as the Sivaite with some of his pictures and ceremonies. 

Of Shrub or Flower worship, the most important in the East and South has been 
that of the Lily species. The lily of October the saffron was very sacred to the 
Karnean, or horned Apollo that is, the sun for horns usually stand for rays oj 
glory, as in the case of the horned Moses of our poets, artists, and ecclesiastics, who 
make him like an Apis of Egypt, because of the text which says, " his face shone " 
when he came down from the mountain. All lilies have more or less to do with the 
female or fecundating energies, and so even in Europe we have many stories of the 
crocus species, because it is said " of their irradiating light, having peculiar-looking 
bells, three-headed and crested capillaments, three cells, and reddish seeds," &c. The 
Jews placed such flowers on the vestments of their priests ; see Josephus, here very 
full ; 2 Chron. iv. 5 ; Ex. xxv. 3 1 ; and some parts of Canticles and elsewhere. I 
shall hereafter enlarge on this feature of faiths. A study of fire worship and Apollo- 
lOnic rites is absolutely necessary to the understanding of these matters, as well as 

the mysteries of candlesticks, lavers, &c. 
not to mention that of the never-dying fires, 
of all nations, and of Lev. vi. 1 3, and else 
where ; but I must pass on to the queen of 
flowers, the sacred Lotus and loved Kamal 
god of love and fertility. The Lotus is 
the seat of most deities, but notably so of 
the creator Brahma, who, thus enthroned, is 
called the Kamdl-a-yoni, or the great andro 
gynous god. The Lotus is the womb of 
all creation. It is said to originate from 
the great fertiliser, water, alone ; and 
dropping its great leaves on this fertiliser 
as on a bed, it springs upwards with a 
slender, elegant stalk, and spreads forth in a lovely flower. Even the grave and mighty 

Fig. 11 

Tree Worship. 49 

Vishnoo delights in the lotus, which is one of the four emblems he holds in his four 
fold arms. It is Venus sacred flower. 

The flower is shaped like a boat, is a repre 
sentation of divinity, and is shown as springing 
from the navel of the great god resting on his 
"milky sea." It always signifies fecundation. 
Inman, under the head Nabhi, navel, says, " The 
germ is Meroo (the highest pinnacle of the 
earth), the petals and filaments are the mountains 
which encircle Meroo, a type of the Yoni," and Sans 
krit for mons veneris. Amongst fourteen kinds of 
food and flowers which must be presented to "Ananta" (Sanskrit, eternity), the 
lotus is the only indispensable one, as he (Ananta) is then worshipped in the form of a 
mighty serpent with seven heads. For the force of the restriction, see Glossary under 
this head. 

Hindoo and other writers often tell us that the lotus originated the idea of the 
triangle, which is " the first of perfect figures, for two lines are an imperfection ; " and 
the lotus also gives us a circle on a triangle which is full of cells and seed, and so is 
more perfect still. Siva is, as Orientalists know, " the god of the triangle ; " and hence, 
in his palace in Kaildsa, we are told the most precious object on "his table of nine 
precious stones is the padma (lotus), carrying in its bosom the triangle, as origin and 
source of all things ; " and that from " this triangle issues the lingam, the eternal god who 
makes in it his eternal dwelling ; " which, however, is not quite correct on the part of 
M. Guigniant, whom Mr Barlow quotes (p. 11). The lotus is an inverted triangle, and 
is therefore the female sign ; the pyramid, or triangle on base, is Siva, or the Ray of Light, 
the sun-god. I cannot see what some authors urge as to pyramid, or pura-mid, or 
fire-tower, being a combined lingam and yoni, unless, as often represented, it has a 
circle or dot in it. The ordinary idea of its being a ray of Sol s fire piercing the 
earth seems the more likely one, for Asiatics are very strong on the subject of the sun 
being a Darter with piercing rays. 

Another reason why the lotus is in all lands so sacred is its androgynous or 
hermaphrodite character, a feature imperative in the case of all the great gods of man, 
though this is not very clear if we dive deeply below the surface, either in the case of the 
Jewish Elohim or the lotus; however, "Holy Writ" says that this lily is produced with 
out the aid of male pollen, and a truce at present to that "dry hard light" which always 
spoils the stories of our childhood. Brahma, the creator, whilst sitting on the lotus, as 
all great gods do, desired, says the " Hindoo Inspired Word," to create the universe, and 
for this purpose, became androgynous, or a Breathing -spirit (Ruach ?) prakriti or 
nature ; when creation at once commenced and progressed, much as we have it in the 
genesis of most faiths. The details of this mystic plant have much exercised all 

50 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

Asiatic and Egyptian minds. In its circular stamina it shows two equilateral triangles 
placed across eacli other, which Sanskritists call the shristi-chakra, also sixteen petals 
called the shoodasa ; and this, it is held, is a Revelation from the deity as to the proper 
age for the representative woman or prakriti, in the Sakti ceremonies. These triangles, 
with apex upwards and downwards, are the chapel or magic diagram which the pious 
are told to ponder over, for it has many significations and possesses numerous spells ; 
and hence we see it venerated in all early ages, and still an important article of Free 
masonry. The spells go by the name of the devi-chakrams, or goddesses of circles, 
no doubt having a solar signification. This will be made clearer when I treat of 
Hindooism. The Padma and Kamdlata, or Granter-of -desires, or " Consummator-of- 
our-wishes," are all terms applied to the lotus. It is the symbol of Venus or Lakshmi, 
or of her incarnation Krishna s wife, Radha, who is commonly a nude Venus or 
Sakti. It is also called " loves creeper," the throne and ark of the gods, and the 
water-born one. One author writes, that from far Tibet to Ceylon, and over every 
Eastern land and islet, the holy Padma is only a little less sacred than the Queen of 
Heaven Juno (lOni) herself. It is as mysterious as the Yoni is, like it, the flower 
of concealment, of night and of silence and that mysteriousness of generation and repro 
duction ; it is described as a sort of incomprehensible dualism which veils the 

Almighty One and his mysteries from our finite minds. Linnseus tells us it is the 
Nelutnbo, but R. Payne Knight is clearer when he writes to this effect. The flowers of 

Tree Worship. 51 

the lotus contains a seed vessel shaped like an inverted cone or bell which are very holy 
symbols with all peoples, and representative male and female. This inverted bell is 
punctuated on the top with little cavities or cells, in which the seeds grow as in a matrix, 
fed by the parent plant till they arrive at such a size as to break open " the ark-boat of 
life." They then emerge and float away, taking root wherever they find ground, and 
throwing down long tentacles or tendrills in quest of it. This idea is expressed by Brahma 
in his address to the angels, as given in the Linga-Pooran, beginning : " When I sprang 
into existence, I beheld the mighty Narayana reposing on the abyss of waters;" which 
reminds us of the Jewish Elohim-god who it is said generated all things by "brooding 
o er the deep." Of their Jhavh, also, it is said, " He sitteth on the flood," and is 
"enthroned on the deluge" (Ps. xxix. 10). 

The drawings and holy books of China and Japan are full of such groups of the 
sacred plant the Nelumbium Speciosum, as I here give, although it has been 
usual there to call it " the Holy Bean of Egypt and Japan." This group is the same 
plant as the single stem shown in figure No. 10. I wish my readers to thoroughly 
know the Lotus, and to endeavour to understand its symbolism, for regarding it 
much will occur in this work, and does occur in all ancient faiths. 

Among plants denoting fertility, we must not overlook the " Tappuach," or Apple 
of Proverbs and Canticles, which is now commonly held to be the Citron, an elongated 
fruit, which, with the Palm tree, is borne in procession by all Jews at " the Feast of 
Tabernacles," or their harvest festival fitting symbols, indeed, of Phallic lore. 

In connection with Jacob and his idol- worshipping wife Eachel, whose " idols " 
by the bye were "Lingams " according to the original, we have a very curious story 
in Gen. xxx. regarding Mandrakes or Dudai (" baskets," or fertilizing love "apples "), 
which Kitto and others tell us are the fruit of a plant called the Atropa Mandragora, 
of which I give here a drawing. Its root, we 
are told, is generally forked, and closely re 
sembles the lower part of a man ; its fruit 
is about the size of an apple, very ruddy, of 
an agreeable odour, and is still often eaten, as 
exhilarating to the spirits and provocative to 
venery. 1 Any plant or animal whose colour or 
appearances, and sometimes even whose hair re 
sembled that of any part of the human body, was 
in olden times considered to be useful in affec 
tions of those parts, like the Archis Mascida, 
which resembles the scrotum or dudai, and 
is probably the basket we see the priest 
always presenting in Phallic temples. This is a drawing of the Archis Mascula 
1 Kitto and Smith s Bible Dictionary. v 

IBI 11 1- MASCU.I 

52 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

shown in section. " Love apples " are a well-known offering to Venus ; 
and we see a loving couple presenting these to the goddess in a picture on 

the walls of Pompeii. A temple was dedicated to 
" apples" and Love was " comforted with " them, 
says Solomon in chapter ii. 5 of his Song. Canticles, 
chapter viii. 5 is still stronger. Properly translated, it 
reads : " I awakened you under the apple tree, when 
your mother lost her innocence." I hesitate to men 
tion this matter, but such " inspiration " must be put 
down. In Smith s Dictionary we are told that the 
Mandrake is intoxicating, of a very fetid odour, and 
that its apples are always ripe after harvest is over when it would appear the two 
sister- wives of the patriarch had their highly indelicate quarrel. 

It has always been the custom amongst rude races to imagine that likes cured or 
induced likes. No doubt, where they observed such effects, these must have arisen 
from the sympathy of the organs on the brain by sight or feeling ; still it is difficult 
to imagine how looking at a serpent on a pole could cure a serpent s bite, or how the 
Emerod images could have cured this disease in the Philistines. My own opinion is, 
that these tales of the desert wanderers, and what they relate of their enemies 
the Philistines and Beth-shemites, are a form of pictorial writing, depicting Phallic 
beliefs which could not be put more broadly. The serpent and pole we know ; 
the emerods have, it is believed, been purposely made obscure ; but we can see that 
they are " protuberances " of or on " the secret parts," and that the injury was caused by 
the Ark the female symbol. So has the word "Feet" been used as a euphemism in 
Isa. vii. 20, and elsewhere. The Athenians, we may remember, had to offer Phalli 
for neglecting the Phallic god Bacchus ; and for a male to look into an Ark, there 
was but one punishment, and that masculine. 

It was not only plants which produced mysterious procreative propensities on 
the females of man and beast ; for we are told of the genital organs of many creatures 
doing this, especially when in any respect peculiar ; nay, a creature in close resem 
blance to a man merely in the face, has, we are assured and this is believed by 
thousands often produced fertility. The Turtle, Beaver, and Otter have always been 
allied to these occult powers; and Herodotus, in IV. 109, speaks of others. The 
Skythians used the Beaver for all diseases connected with the womb ; and a friend of 
mine had to give up a Turtle, nolens volens, which he caught in the holy river Sftrjoo, 
off the ruins of . ancient Ayoodia, to the Hindoo ladies of the place, who at once took 
out the genitals, which are in this creature of an extraordinary size, fried them to 
ashes, and then ground them to powder for aphrodisical and other supposed properties 
in connection witli generation and gestation. But to return to holy trees and shrubs. 
I believe that in many cases we can discern in the prevalence of worship or 
veneration for the same tree or plant in different, and sometimes quite hostile faiths, 

Tree Worship. 53 

where no distinct evidence is forthcoming as to how the veneration first arose, a proof 
that the hostile faiths have drawn their inspiration from the same source that is, 
from an older faith. This is, I think, the case with the veneration of the Bo tree, 
Toolsi, and a dozen others. 

All Indians, Hindoos, and Boodhists carefully plant and tend the sweet-scented 
Basil, or Black Ocymum Sanctum, which both call Toolsi: this Sivaites particu 
larly honour, saying that Krishna, the Indian Apollo, turned his sky-nymph into 
it, as the Grecian god turned his into a laurel. The Toolsi is specially worshipped 
by women after bathing, and more particularly at the full moon of Kartika, if the 
bathing be in the Ganges. In 1873, this festival fell on the 4th of November, which 
nearly corresponds to the " Holy Well Day " of Christians, and the " Neptunalia " 
of Ancient Komans, see my tables of Festivals in chapter on Solar Faiths. 
All black, or blue-black shrubs and animals are sacred to the Indian Apollo, 
whose name signifies blackness, and whose lingam is always black, as Sivas 
is white, and the Etruscan s red. Siva s faith may have thus come from 
the north, but Krishna s is thoroughly indigenous to the Indian continent. These 
colours are very important towards the tracing of emigrant races and faiths ; 
and Dr Inman properly devotes much attention to the subject, see his Vol. 
II., 265, and elsewhere. Krishna s first great war was with a mighty serpent 
Kalya (suspiciously Kalaik or Sivaik) that is, with a faith which this serpent repre 
sented ; from this cause he was changed to Krishna, or the Dark One. We are told 
that the great Lingam which the Roman Emperor and his court worshipped in the 
third century of Christianity was black ; and if so, we may be pretty certain that it 
came from the Solo-phallic worshippers of India Krishnaites. The symbol was 
called Helio-ga-belus, which may be a shortening of the words Helio-agatha-belus, or 
the Stone of the Sun and Love, as we have the same idea in the Agatha Demon, or 
Lingam God of Egypt. The Roman Emperor married his " Black Stone " to the Moon 
Goddess of Carthage, Astarte, and of course both were Phenician or Syrian. Krishna 
is a great favourite with Vishnooites, because he is the Sun or fertiliser, so that in 
Siva or Krishna we have a sort of light and dark sect an Osiris and Nox. I fancy 
Krishna was a sort of heretic like Abram, as when this patriarch forsook Ur, or the Fire 
Worship of Kaldia, and came into Syria apparently desiring to worship only trees, wells, 
and his Phallic God, El, Elohim or Al-Shadai, the Tsur, or Rock, and Sun Stone, or Pillar. 

It has been urged that certain shrubs become sacred to certain deities, because 
the name of the shrub is similar to some other sacred object : as the Plialares, to 
Venus, because of the similarity to a Phallus ; the Kisos, or Ivy, to Bacchus, because of 
Kittos ; and Myrrh to Mary or Miriam ; but we are scarcely yet sufficiently in 
formed on ancient rites and myths to decide this positively. Such words as have their 
roots in Phal, Pal, or Pul, and in Ma, Mee, Mwe, &c., have yet to be much investi 
gated. Undoubtedly they all point generally to the male and female energies. 

54 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

We have still abundance of worship of trees and shrubs all over the world, 
especially in India, and more especially among the aboriginal races. In a paper by 
Mr Da-want, B.C.S., in the Indian Antiquary of November 1872, upon the Koch and 
Palias tribe of Dinajpore, Bengal who, it appears, are descended from a virgin 
mother overshadowed by Siva he says, that at all their holiest ceremonies they always 
turn reverently to the rising Sun -God, as Christians do to their Eastern or altar 
window. At marriages they plant four plantain trees, on which to erect their bridal 
house roof, and have as their choicest gifts Mango branches and water. As soon as a 
mother is purified, she takes her babe, places it on a winnowing fan, and presents it 
to the Toolsi shrub. She places it before this, and then reverently salutes the " holy 
basil " herself. A well is then rendered sacred by having a Mango branch placed in 
it, and the child is carried towards it by women, who proceed to draw the holy water, 
and pour it forth, " invoking the god to whom it is offered ; " which god Mr D. does 
not name, but who I doubt not is the Divine Mother, whose symbol water is ; it may 
be poured forth to the procreating Father God, personified in the Sun, regarding which 
see details under Aboriginal Tribes ; here we probably see the origin of Baptism. 

Mango branches are a prominent feature in all ceremonies. The Mango is the 
" apple tree " of India, which Man in Indian tale tempted Eve with. 

The leaves of the Margosa tree are thought by Brahmans to drive away devils, 
and are always placed over the pyre of Sanyasis, or men under a VQW of affliction ; 
salt is generally also placed with the leaves. It is said that salt was also used upon 
corpses in England : it is still used in parts of the Highlands of Scotland, and at 
Roman Catholic baptisms, as an exorciser. 

The stories of Keltic and Skandinavian peoples are full of the worship and rever 
ence of trees, shrubs, and parasites. Many of the Highlanders of Scotland to the 
present time plant the Mountain Ash, or Rowan tree, near their dwellings and fields, 
to keep away devils. If heath and flowers be added to Rowan wands, the, most im 
portant services may be anticipated, and especially if all be thrice carried round fires 
kindled at Bel-tine, or the May solar festival. 1 

The Rowan, or Mountain Ash, will be always found near holy places and circles 
or kldchans. It was absolutely necessary that on Beltane, or May-Day, all sheep and 
lambs should pass through a hoop of the Rowan tree, and that on all occasions Scotch 
shepherds be careful to drive their flocks to the hills with a Rowan wand. In all our 
isles, where malign influences are feared, it was necessary to put one of these over our 
doorposts (the Delta, lOna, or Yoni). No churchyard should be without the tree ; 
and pious persons were in the habit of wearing a cross of Rowan, or Mountain Ash, 
on a certain day of every year. 

The Ash proper is the Skandinavian " Tree of Life" the "greatest, the best, the 
inscrutable," "the life of all things" the "ygdrasil." It has a triple root, one of 
1 CoL Forbes Leslie s "Early Races," i. 101. 

Tree Worship. 55 

which enters the cloudy nifl-heim ; the 2d, Esir ; and the 3d, the " abode of the 
giants." The Fates, or Horns, sit at its base near the " fount of Undar ; " and there 
relate the awful things, past, present, and to come, and enact the laws, and establish 
the religions of mankind. The mighty tree dwells not on the highest summits of 
earth, but its going forth is over all the heavens, and its branches unto the ends of the 
world, and its sweet moisture gladdens and revivifies all living things. It is " an 
inscrutable power," male and female, a sort of Logos or Wisdom, and therefore a 
Parvati, Isis and Diana, and yet a " trinity in unity" Its fall was looked upon as 
something very serious, and to cut it down was death. When such language is 
used, we require to be reminded that the most sober philosophers acquiesced gene 
rally in all this. Even Pliny wrote, about the time of Christ, that " trees are the 
temples of the gods ; we delight to worship the same god in the silent groves as we do 
in our stately temples. The fairest trees are consecrated to certain gods ; " and not 
the trees only, but any parts of them which seemed to amplify or symbolise certain 
natural features of our frame. 

If the Kelt or Skand attached peculiar powers to, and saw certain occult 
matters in, many of his trees and shrubs, the South did the same. Many fruits, 
such as the apricot, quince, almond, pomegranate, &c., &c., represented great 
females or great female attributes, as I have pointed out in the case of this 
last fruit, the fig, and the lotus. The Pomegranate has long been reverenced 
alike by Pagans, Jews, and Christians ; its fruit was embroidered on the Ephod, 
and carved all over Solomon s Temple ; Bacchus metamorphosed the girl who died 
from love of him into a pomegranate tree. It is everywhere a prominent Church 
ornament ; and Empress Ann of Austria used the fruit, doubtless very ignorant of its 
Phallic meaning, as her device, writing underneath, " My worth is not in my crown." 

Dr Inman gives me this illustration (fig 15), of the fruit as it appears with bells, on 
ecclesiastical ornaments ; taking it from "Pugin s Glossary" (Lond. 1868), and sees in 
it the shield of David, double triangle, and Vesica piscis (Yoni), a favourite form for 
church windows, Pagan and Christian. The name would doubtless repay careful 
investigation, for the Eimmon (pen) was the great goddess of the most sacred temple 
in Damascus, and all roots like Ri, Re, Ra, &c., are connected with the Sun, Heat, 
Fertility, and such like ; Ra is the Sun, and Ri " she who sees," and therefore " the 
eye," as at page 72, in my figure for Ishtar. Ram in Sanskrit is "coition," and 
" delight " in respect to the act, and is the root of all words like Rameses, Rama, &c. 
(See Benfey s Sanskrit Diet.) Rama is " beautiful," " delightful," and I am told " the 
diligent one," a name very often applied to the Fertilizer and Sol. In old Pali 
the symbol for R was a simple stroke or pillar |, the Egyptian Toth. In 
Phenician and Old Hebrew, R is a circle or oval with a pillar, and almost 
the same in Greek, Etruscan, and Umbrian ; in Oskan and Samnite, the triangle 
of similar signification seems the favourite form. (Ancient Faiths, ii. 546). 
In Asyrian Ra is any god, such as 11, Ilu, El, or Al, Alia, &c., the root 

56 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

signification being the Light, Sun-God, or he of the Rock or Stone, irc Tsur, 
(allied in this faith to -us Ur, light), the Rock, " who begot us," and " whose work is per 
fect" (see Deut. xxxii. 4-18, &c., and 
Appendix V. to Dr Oort s Worship 
of Baalim, annotated by Bishop 
Colenso). The Egyptian Mahadeva 
is called Amon Ra, or the hot or 
heated Sun, and our Indian word 
Ra-ja means the Illuminated and 
Illuminator and Ruler, hence Ra, 
Rex, Re-gina, &c. Jah, according 
to Fiirst s Heb. Lex., is an increaser, 
so that here, as is so common with 
Easterns, the meaning is repeated, 
probably to strengthen what is 
meant, as in El-Elohe, &c. Every 
Hindoo temple has the pomegranate 
or Rimmon tree planted within, 
if not around the sacred precincts, 
and in company, if possible, with 
the ficus, almond, custard, and 
apricot ; and the priests of this 
faith never place such objects, 
nor put a scratch upon the stones 
of their sacred buildings without 
strong and well considered reasons. There is but little chance or hap-hazard in a 
line of Hindoo sculpture or painting, and whether we look at the face or prominent 
ornament of a god, or the number of beads or curves of his footstool, we must invariably 
bear this fact in mind. Volumes have been written on the volutes and convolutes of the 
pediment of the most ordinary Mahadeva, though erected as -an every-day matter of 
course, in the most rustic village retreat ; and how much more so, on temples to which 
multitudes of men, well versed in all these mysteries of their faith, annually resort ? 

All nations, and perhaps Aryans in particular, have considered tree planting a 
sacred duty, and we still see the noble amongst us fond of planting a tree to their 
memory, or to mark great events. Thus Abram planted his " grove " at Bee rsheba to 
commemorate his " covenant " or agreement ; and every Eastern to the present hour 
loves to do the same. These grand old trees became centres of life and of great 
traditions, and the very character of their foliage had meanings attached to it. Vienna 
seems to have been built round its sacred tree. Abram seems to have chosen Mamre 
because of its grand oak or pine (Gen. xii. 6, and xiv. 13), for the word usually 
rendered "Plain," is Terebinth, which Bagster s " Comprehensive Bible " tells us was 

JKCT. Fig. 16. 

Tree Worship. 


an oak or "turpentine tree," possibly of "stupendous height and bulk." The pine 
usually denotes a great living male, as does the Cyprus a dead male, and the rounded 
elm and sycamore a matron or maid. German agriculturists usually signalize a marriage 
by planting a walnut tree (all nut trees are holy in these matters), and give a name or 
motto to every tree they plant. This nation solemnly planted a lime tree over the grave 
of their poet Schiller, and revolutionary France commemorated that era, so far as revolu 
tionary people can, by planting " trees of liberty,"- which remind us of a name sacred at 
once to liberty, books, and Bacchus. Strange, but true, that the word "book" or bok is 
derived from the name of this god, which I have seen spelt in Keltic Mythi, "Bakas." 
The Latin word liber, which signifies a book, whence our word library or collection of 
books, was also one of the names of this god Bacchus. From liber is also derived our 
word "liberty," signifying in its higher sense, the freedom which knowledge confers, the 
freedom which was given to slaves, and the general liberty or licence, which was allowed 
at the festival or orgies of Bacchus, and when the youth became a man. Taken in 
connection with the other meaning that the name liber bears, we may see the origin of 
the custom formerly observed in this country of conferring liberty, or securing freedom 
or exemption from punishment to the learned, under the title, " benefit of the clergy." 
But liber signifies also the bark or inner rind of a tree, on which books were originally 
written. It is owing to this connection of a tree with a book, that we speak of the 
leaves of a book, as we do of the leaves of a tree, and the similarity is preserved in the 
Latin when we speak of the folios of a book, and of the foliage of a tree. Again, the 
word " edition," used with reference to books, derived, says M. Littre in his great 
French work, from the Sanskrit, to eat, 1 allies the idea of books with the fruit of trees ; 
thus the tree of knowledge becomes the "book of wisdom," and we have a "tree of 
life ;" so we have also the conception of a "book of life," and the tree spoken of in the 
Kevelations, whose leaves were to be " the healing of the nations," is simply a symbol 
of the "Book of Life." 

All Deities had representative trees or plants, of which we may note the following : 

Jupiter was 

the Oak Pine, Palm, Ash, 


was the Orange Flower 3 (the maid), 

Poplar, and such like. 

and Agnus Castus, 


Rose, Myrtle, 2 Poppy, 

which prevented " ser 

Anemone, &c. 

pent bites." 


Poppy, Pomegranate, 


, , White Violet. 

Wheat, and all Corn. 



M inerva 

Olive, Mulberry, &c. 


Saffron Flower. 


Pomegranate, &c. 

All the Muses 

Wild Thyme. 


Periwinkle, &c. 


by Fruit and Gardens. 


Southernwood or Arte 




Vei tumnus 



Adonium, Anemone, &c. 


The Laurel. 


Helenium, &c. 


The Poplar. 

Kybele or Cybele 

Pine Apple " Cybele Pomum." 


The Alder. 

1 In Latin "Edo is / give out, but "Edo is / eat. 2 Because its leaves resemble the Vesica Piscis. 

3 This bridal flower is highly phallic in its details, having long white or Sivaik cones and open flowers. 


58 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

All the goddesses loved that which was sacred to the "superior" gods, thus 
Cybele loved the pine, and Diana the poplar ; all goddesses also at times are, or 
assume to be water, for this has divers significations which I dare not fully enter upon. 
Neither Al, El, Al-shaddai, Yahve, or Jove could create without this. Occasionally 
Atmosphere seems to fill the place of Solatia, as in the case of Juno (lOna or 10), but 
usually " The Thunderer" acts by rain and storms, as the Jupiter Pluvius of Greece, 
and as did Indra, the first of Vedic gods, long ere Jove was heard of. 

In Skandinavia the Hazel tree represents Tor, the Vulcan of the North, who 
creates or fashions with his hammer, and hazel nuts still represent lovers, and are 
thrown to Vulcan or Ool-Kan in pairs, at Scottish festivals. Bohemians say that 
"wherever hazel abounds there will illegitimate children abound," and Scotland 
certainly excels in both. Hazel groves were favourite spots with our forefathers for 
their temples, and hazel rods were diviners of mysteries, and still work miraculous 
cures, it is said, but only in school-rooms. In Bavaria the baton of office must be of 
hazel. Should a snake breathe upon a hazel rod, the rod at once turns into a stone of 
bluish colour, which, if then thrown into water, will cure any animal of snake bite a 
true priestly allegory when we remember that water is the feminine energy, and Siva 
the bluish snake god, the Neel Kanta. The Bohemians tell us that Herodias daughter 
who sought to please Herod, in the ancient story, hovers between heaven and earth till 
all the world sleeps, and then descends upon oaks and hazels till cock-crow, when she 
disappears ; also that " wherever there are nuts, there are wasps, and the women are 
fruitful ; " so that Herodias and these trees evidently meant in Bohemia, more than 
mere matters arboreal. Bohemians could not have looked upon this story from the 
same point of view as Jews and Englishmen. 

Much very emotional poetry is everywhere mixed up with such innocent-looking 
things as "our modest crimson-tipped daisy," "forget-me-nots," the homely flax, the 
ferns which were of old plucked at a certain season for their seeds, the sweet " lily of 
the valley," which represents the Virgin Mother, her by whose aid we can ascend, says 
the Roman Catholic, to " a heaven of bliss," for is not its flower called " the ladder of 
heaven." Curiously, all Maries have had the lily or fertile iris as their symbol, whether it 
is that called the Lotus, Nelumbium, our garden Lilium Candidum, or the Gallic Fleur- 
de-lis, of most masculine section. The Rose, ever a lady and our national favourite, 
where others have preferred a male symbol, has thousands of tales of love and passion 
told regarding it, which I cannot here dwell upon, or I should have to wade through 
the mythologies of every nation on earth. The most precious gift from the Pope is a 
golden rose, and it is only given to Sovereigns. Dante calls " The Virgin Queen of 
Heaven the Rose, or word divine, which in her became incarnated." It is a favourite 
emblem of nations. Persians hold annually a great feast in its honour ; their sacred 
writings say that when Abram was cast into a fire by his persecutors, God made the 
flames a bed of roses for him. Cupid bestowed a rose on the god of Silence, and secret 
counsellings were marked by suspended roses. 

Tree IVorship. 59 

In Scottish clan symbols we see veneration for special trees, as the Cameron s 
Oak, and the Macgregor s Pine, &c. The Scotch and Irish, who fear what they call 
Water kelpies, or spirits of ocean, lake, or stream, particularly value as a protection 
from these, the Elder or Sour tree, which is, it appears, valuable also for some other 
matters, of which I cannot at present remember the details. 

Mahomedans attach much importance to the Lote or Tooba, which seems to be 
looked upon as a " tree of life." Mahomed, in the 53d chapter of the Koran, says 
that he saw Gabriel standing by the Lote tree, which is the seventh heaven, and at 
the right hand of the Eternal One. It is everlasting beatitude, and Moore says of it 
(Art Journal of March 1873), 

" My feast is now of the Toba tree, 
Whose scent is the breath of eternity." 


The Pine, as particularly sacred to Zeus, was beloved by Virgins. Chloe, in the 
pastorals of Longus, is adorned with a Pinea Corona as an emblem of Virginity, which 
Daphne takes from her, and puts on her own head. So in Virgil we read, " Pronuba 
nee Castos accendit Pinus odores ; Ovid calls the Pine pura Arbor." 1 Diana or maids 
mix its chaplets with the mastic, as a tree of all others most fruitful, but not with the 
myrtle, which, as sacred to Venus, may not appear in a professed virgin s wreath. 
The pine appears to have been the most sacred tree in Asyria, for all over her palaces 
Mr Layard shows us what he calls the " corner stone and sacred tree," and the corner 
stone is usually considered the principal stone of a building ; hence the Principle in 
each religion is called its principal or corner stone, and the fruit of this most sacred 
tree is the commonest and best gift to the gods. This is probably why we find this 
tree everywhere, and why Asyrian priests are usually shown as presenting a pine cone 
to their gods and altars. The seed cone seems, however, to be at times the cone of 
Indian corn, but M. Layard thinks that the pine or cypress cone is most used in the 
Cult de Venus. The Thyrsus of Bacchus, we may remember, has a fir cone, and 
the Bacchic Pole is usually held to be of pine, as very inflammable and odoriferous it 
is remarkably like the insignia of Boodhism and of most other faiths, as the Tri-Sool 
or three Thorns of Siva, the tridents of Neptune, and other deities. The Pine was 
called the Kybele or " Cybele Pomum " because sacred to Rhea and daughter. 


No class of trees yields more to man than the Palm, and none has therefore been 
more prized and sculptured. Nineveh shows the Palm surrounded by " winged 
deities or ministers holding the pine cone symbol of life, which there takes the 
place of the Crux Ansata." Greeks and Etruscans copied Asyrians or Egyptians or 
Phenicians, and Christians Jews and Latins copied these. Christians and Jews say 
that their righteous ones will " flourish as the Palm-tree," and that by the pure water 

1 Fast. 2, 25-8. 

60 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

of the River of Life there will grow the tree of Life, which yieldeth her fruit every 
month, for the Palm was held to be Solar in respect to marking every mouth, by 
putting forth a new shoot, and at the Winter Solstice fetes, it was shown with 
twelve shoots. 

At the Jewish Feast of Tabernacles, which is in consequence of the Autumnal 
Equinox and harvest, Jews are ordered to hang boughs of trees laden with fruit 
as oranges and lemons, round the borders of their tents or booths, not over them ; 
also boughs of barren trees, and when the worshippers go to the synagogue, they are 
told to carry in their right hand one palm branch, three myrtle, and two willows, all 
tied up together; and in the left hand, a citron branch with fruit on it; the palms and 
citrons are severely Phallic and are here indispensable. These they make to touch each 
other, and wave to the east, then south, then west and north : this was termed Hosana. 
On the seventh day of the Feast of Tabernacles, all save the willow bough must be 
laid aside. Of course, the same fetes would be observed at Pentecost, in the end of 
Yiar the second month, as in Nisan the first month, for this last was merely the 
end, as the other was the beginning of the harvest, which lasted over the fifty 
days as Pentecost implies. Plutarch says that the Jews also carried about javelins 
wrapped round with Ivy iugaoi as at the worship of Bacchus, usually shouting Iloz- 
anoth. Great libations of wine and water from the Shiloah river, were then brought 
and poured over the altar of the temple. Of the shouting we shall have much to say 
hereafter ; Germany, ever fond of its old Tree worship, is said to have introduced this 
into the Jewish synagogues of Germany, but this I doubt. Buxtorf says that there 
are two very sacred sticks attached to the book of the Law, called " the Wood of 
Life ; " and after the reading is over, all press forward to touch, with but the tips of 
two fingers, these two " Sacred sticks," with which they then touch their eyes ; for 
this touch cures sore eyes, and bad vision, and "is of singular service to all women 
labouring with child." These matters recall to memory sundry rites in Sivaik lore 
which this is not the place to dwell on. 

Many early Christian writers, as well as the Koran, tell us that the weary persecuted 
Virgin mother-to-be of " the Almighty God of all worlds," sat. down faint and perish 
ing under the root of a withered Palm-tree, without head or verdure, and in the 
wintry season, where at the command of the foetal child, she shook the tree (a difficult 
task for the strongest man in the case- of a "withered Palm," and unnecessary, one 
would think, in this case) when down fell ripe dates in abundance, for Gabriel " re 
vived the dry trunk, and it shot forth green leaves and a head laden with ripe fruit " 
(Koran, i. 63, ii. 130). The so-called spurious gospels have many similar tales, and 
those of the canonical writings have wonders no less strange in the " incarnation," &c. 

The Palm of Delos (" Palladia Arbore Palmaa ") was sacred to the second person 
of the Trinity, and all the Jewish temple was adorned alternately with cherubim and 
Palms ; Christian writers make Christ be ushered in to the sacred Akropolis with 

Tree Worship. 61 

branches of Palm-trees. Toth wrote upon Palm leaves, as we still do all over Asia, 
and thus in a measure, like his obelisk symbols, the straight Palm stem, and leaf, became 
also linked with all the learning and civilisation of the country. Toth and the Pillar 
were synonymous with learning. 

It is not known whether the mythic Phenix gave the name to the Palm or the 
tree to the bird, but the bird is often seen on the tree with a glory, symbolizing " Re 
surrection to eternal life ; " for the Phenix, was a beautiful bird which ever as the year 
swept round, came and died upon the altar of the sun ; but from its ashes a worm was 
developed, which in its season, became again a beautiful bird, and so was astronomy 
taught in the language of pictures and allegory. 

The four evangelists are shown in "an evangelium " in the library of the British 
Museum as all looking up to the Palm-tree, 1 and hence no doubt did Christians similarly 
try to instruct their illiterate masses, and so put a cross and Alpha and Omega on it. 
These Palms have curiously enough got two incisions on their stems such as we in the 
East would call lOnis ; it is a Chavah mn ; an Eve, and an Asyrian Goddess. On 
the top of the tree is a cross having suspended from its two arms the Greek Alpha 
and Omega, as I show in figure 16 of the Eastern Christian Palm. 

There is a strange resemblance betwixt some of the Skandinavian Tau, or Tor- 
trees, 2 and the Egyptian Phenix-dactylifera ; for on the two arms were commonly 
suspended all the fruits of the season a sort of "Christmas-tree" idea. The incisions 
above-mentioned, as on the stems of Palms, were almost invariably made on all 
holy Ficus-Sycamores, for without them says Barlow, " the inhabitants believed the trees 
could not bear fruit. ... On the upper part also of the tree was a bust of Netpe," 
who, in the tree of life, " is surrounded by a triple row of leaves somewhat of an oval 
form, and suggestive of the glory around . . . the Virgin Mary." Thus Netpe 
markedly personified the principle " of maternal nourishment " (Bar. p. 66). Dr Lep- 
sius says, " from the upper part of the stem proceeded two arms, one of which presents 
to the kneeling figure of a deceased person a tray of fruits ; the other pours from 
a vase a stream of water, which the deceased receives in his hand and thus conveys to 
his mouth. . . . Beneath the tree are two herons feeding from triangles " a very 
suggestive apparatus. Dr L. thinks that this Stele is anterior to the 15th century B.C. ; 
and mark, that this tree, which first fed the living, is now feeding the dead, and was 
then, and is now a cross ; and this symbol with its streams of " living water " became 
Christian, and the symbol of a dead Saviour. 

Mr Barlow states that from the " equi-lateral triangle, the Lingam and Yoni, and 
the Crux Ansata, is derived the Tau and the cross the present received symbol of 
eternal life, and one of the most ancient ; " 3 so that "sexual or universal life," as he 
calls it, is the root of this religious life ; it is a sad fact, but there is no use in disguis- 

1 Barlow s Symbolism, p. 73. 2 The Hindostany for a Palm is still Tar. 

3 Essays on Symbolism. Lond. 1866. H. C. Barlow, F.G.S. Preface vi. 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

ing facts, especially when put before us by a "learned, critical, historical, and philoso 
phical writer ; " it is but " kicking against the pricks," as the old saying of " the 
Pagans " put it, long before the age of Paul of Tarsus. 

The TAU, so common in the times ascribed to Abram, whether as the looped 
Lingam-in-Yoni, or the plain Bacchic cross of my PL v. 5, was, said Jews, that which 
checked the march of the angel of death it was in fact a sign everywhere, of salva 
tion or health (Ezek. ix. 4). The Greek said it was life, and that the was death, nox 
or immature life, or the silence of darkness ; but we are forgetting our Palms. 

At Najran in Yemen, Arabia, Sir William Ousley 
describes the most perfect tree worship as still existing 
close to the city. The tree is a Palm or Sacred date, 
which it appears has its regular priests, festivals, rites, 
and services, as punctiliously as have any of the pro 
phets or deities of earth. He writes on the authority of 
a MS. of the 9th century after Christ, and adds this note 
from a writer on Indian and Japanese symbols of divinity ; 
"Arboris truncum in cujus summitate sedet supremus 
Creator Deus. Aliud quiddam esset observatione dig- 
num : sed ego truncum arboris meditor, &c. At sive 
Japonenses, sive Indos, sive Tibetanos adeas, ubique tibi 
occurret, virentis arboris religio, ob synibola forsan crea- 
tionis, et conservationis rerum recepta, atque retenta ; J a 
passage which shows us clearly the Lingam signification 
of the trunk as this will hereafter be abundantly more clear. It is the high bare stem of 
the palm which added to the great usefulness of the tree, made it so sacred. It was the 
first offspring of Mother Ge, says the Odyssey (lib. VI.), and against it did fair Latona rest 
at the moment she gave birth to Apollo hence the Christian gospel tale. The Koreish 
tribe, from which the Arabian prophet sprang, were from earliest known times wor 
shippers of the Palm tree, and here as in other lands, had it been succeeded by the 
Lingam and latterly by solar and ancestral worship. The Arabs used to hang on the 
Palm not only garments or pieces of garments, but arms or portions of their warrior 
gear, thereby showing that they saw in the Palm, virility a Herakles or Mercury. 
They must long have heard from across the. water Sea of Soof, of Totli the pillar 
god or the obelisk ; and they saw in this natural pillar and fruit, the same idea as in 
Toth and Osiris. Another Arabian god, sometimes called goddess, was named Aza, 
usually written Uzzah, and she or he was worshipped under the form of a tree called 

1 Georg. Alphab. Tibetan., p. 142, quoted of the tree. Moreover, whether you go to the 
from Barlow, p. . 108. Translation "The trunk Japanese, or to the Tibetans, everywhere will meet 
of a tree on whose top sis Deus, the supreme you green tree woi^ship (which has been) trans- 
Creator. Some other object might be worthy of mitted and preserved as symbolic perhaps of the 
observation ; but I fix my attention on the trunk creation and preservation of the world." 


Tree Worship. 

Samurch. Her sanctuary was denominated a Boss, but beyond this I cannot learn any 
particulars of him or, I suspect, rather her ; the Boss is an umbo, see fig. 8 1 . 

The Palm has always borne a most important part in all the faiths of the world 
down to the present hour, and even amongst our European centres of civilisation. In 
the Eleusinian mysteries, as we may see in the Hamiltonian collection of Greek vases 
in the British museum, the woman who is a candidate for what we in India would call 
the office of a Sakti, or one who desired to dedicate herself to God or to the worship 
pers at the temple of her God, is seen brought forward naked to a sacred font in which 
her right hand is placed. She has been washed apparently there, or as we would say 
baptised, and now the priest raises his Palm branch, symbol of the power over her of 
the Maha-deva, and prays, declaring her pure or Kadastrtnp, and dedicated to him, and 
able now to assist in the mysteries of Bacchus. It is clear that the Palm has here the 
same signification as the Rod of the Egyptian priest, and hence of the Jewish and 
Tibetan or Shaman Sorcerer, all of which will be shown presently to be merely the re 
presentatives of Asher, the Obelisk or " pillar god," or Toth, and of his Greek idea, 
Mercury, with his Kaduceus or serpent rod. The Palm is a necessary accompaniment 
in all Phallic and Solar festivals, and the tree must have a prominent place on all 
temple sites, as well as in temple ornamentation. It was with branches of Palms that 
Jews went forth to meet their Messiah, which by-the-by is an old word for the Sun- 
Stone as " the Anointed One." Women shared the name of a Palm, perhaps from its 
grace and beauty as Tamar (Heb. Palm), the wife of Judah (Gen. xxxviii. 6), and the 
fair sister of the erring Absalom and others. The Palm is also one of the ensigns 
which the glorified spirits in heaven go about with in their hands (Rev. vii. 9). There 
is great justice in the laudation which all easterns bestow upon this tree ; every part, 
almost every atom of it, is of the greatest use to man from its juice he makes spirits, 
wine, sugar, and a kind of honey, and drugs of all kinds ; its fruits are meat and 
drink, the shells form vessels, dyes, paper, cloth, mats, &c., &c., and so also is the 
wood and foliage applied to a score of purposes. We have seen that the Jews gave the 
Palm a distinguished place at their festivals, so also in architecture. The tree and its 
lotus top says Kitto (Pic. Bible II., Chro. III.) 
took the place of the Egyptian column on Solo 
mon s famous phalli, the Jakin and Boaz. Dr 
Inman gives me this very clear drawing of the 
meaning of "the palm tree As-slier." I shall 
have to speak hereafter of the meaning of the 
arroW-head which is shown as piercing its centre. 
The figure is from a Babylonian gem, figured by 
Lajard, and tells us how clearly the Asyrian 

Understood Phallic lore, and this Symbolism ; Fig. IS.-THE MYSTIC PALM WITH ALL ORGANS, AND PASSION 

for here we see man and animals gazing and frolicking round " the tree of 

64 Rivers of Life, or FaitJis of Man in all Lands. 

Life." We have also here symbols of the Yoni and Isis, as well as of the 
fleur de Lis and spotted goat or fawn, regarding which much interesting matter 
will be found at pages 356-7 and 532-3 of Dr Inman s first volume of Ancient 
Faiths. He tells us here also of the usual confusing sexual facts, that " the 
palm tree Sarah is (also) an emblem of the celestial goddess," and that the male Tamaz 
becomes Tamar the palm See Vol. IT., p. 449. I show in figure 4 of a most 
interesting plate, No. IV., the Palm tree associated with the Phallus, around which i.s 
coiled the serpent, and on the other side of which stands the upright konch veneris ; 
all the coins here seen are borrowed by me from Dr Inman, and by him from various 
sources ; I shall have often to refer to the plate in this work. Of course religious 
iconography is a very difficult arid somewhat confusing subject ; vines, pines, cones, 
heads of Indian corn, branches of dates, and even cocoanuts, all come tumbling across 
our path in a most bewildering manner, still the general result which the races strove 
to depict admits of no doubt whatever in the eyes of any one who has studied eastern 
religions amongst, and in a free and kindly way, with its priests. We may hesitate to 
say with Barlow that Apollo drawn by Griffins is " properly the symbol of Christ " (p. 
76), though very much to strengthen this will appear by-and-by ; but we need not 
hesitate in declaring that the Crux Ansata followed the pine cone and the Palm, and 
led to the Christian cross, and all these quaint guises in which we find Christ, even to 
that of the Arglia-Nat or -Lord of the Vase, which we often see him placed in ! It 
would seem indeed as if from Bacchus thyrsus and vine, men took to calling Christ 
their vine and themselves the branches (Bar. 77). The true cross they said was " a 
slip cut from the tree of Life, which by the favour of the angel who guarded it, Seth 
was privileged to take and plant in the world " (M. Didron) ; this Seth was a far more 
important person than even Genesis makes him out, as we shall see in sketching 
Egyptian and Jewish Faiths. Of course he planted all the world in Hebrew estima 
tion, for he was their Adam, and Moses is often called his prototype. Let us now 
speak of the Oaks of the Druids, and Oracle of Dodona, which sent forth its decrees on 
its leaves. 


[\j E T P E The Oak was Israel s ancient " tree of the Cove 

nant ; " tli<? word actually means this, but at present 
I wish to draw attention to the Skaudinavian idea of 
the tree which we see in this illustration. .It was in 
this form that the Druids cut their cross out of the live 
tree, and called it their Thao, Tau, Tor or Thor, the 
Thunderer, or Fashioner, in fact Jupiter Tonans, 
though with these northerns, Odin and Balder 
more \>Q C < dm Q them than Mars or Apollo. I do 


Tree Worship. 65 

not know if their symbolism reached to a Crux Ansata, but this Tau was 
no doubt that holy sign of life which rendered, or aided in rendering, the Egyp 
tian Scarabeus so sacred, and what the Jewish Seer alluded to as " stamped upon 
the foreheads of the faithful." The Samaritan cross, which they stamped on their 
coins was No. 1, but the Norseman preferred No. 2 the circle 
and four stout arms of equal size and weight, and called it Tor s 
hammer. It is somewhat like No. 3, which the Greek Christians 
early adopted, though this is more decidedly phallic, and shows 
clearly the meaning so much insisted on by some writers as to 
all meeting in the centre. The later Greeks do not seem to have 
thought of these early crosses, as having any connection with their 
new faith the Christian, and it is now generally acknow- Fig . 
ledged that they had a solar origin. So far as I know, the cutting 
of a live tree into a "J" tau or Deity, is unique on the part of the Druids. Borlase in 
his Cornwall thus describes the operation. " The Druids all consenting, pitched on the 
most beautiful Oak tree, cut off its side branches, and then joined two of them to the 
highest part of the trunk, so that they extended themselves on either side like the arms 
of a man" (p. 10 8) ; the whole of this they called "Thau or God, that on the right Hesus, 
that on the left Belenus, and he the middle, Tharanis," which we may grant our valiant 
author of the History of Thorn Worship, meant the thorn, or upright divider. 1 

Maximus Lyrius tells us that amongst the Kelti, a tall Oak was considered not 
only an idol, but the very image of Jupiter. Pliny, in his Natural History, says 
that there were worshippers of the Oak throughout France, whom the Greeks called 
Drus. He calls them French Magi and Dryade, that is, priests of the Oaks, and 
sorcerers. The Oak was esteemed by Greeks and Romans the arbor Jovi sacra, the 
tree devoted to God, and so was it amongst the Hebrews, who called it El-on, as 
much as to say the Tree of God. 2 Turner shows that Deukalion, the Greek Noah, 
"preached or prophesied by or under an Oak or tree, not after, but before the Flood," 
as Abraham did under the Oaks of Mamre. Both Noah and Deukalion were instructed 
by a lOne or Dove the latter, I should say, for all evidence is converging to prove 
to us that Deu-kal-ion was Siva or Deva-Kala, or incarnation of this Lingam God. 
Deu-kal-ion and his were the beloved of God Dod-Donai, or Do Adonai ; and the 
Greeks, as is here well shown, had corrupted the traditions of the East! They called 
Dodona At/a ruv tixeavttuv, a sea-nymph, or goddess who had come to them by the sea or 
way of the sea. Sphanheim derives Dodona from (ruv in) Duda lona or Amabilis 
Columba, which is, I suspect, Kali, or the Yoni, and hence the myths about Arks, 
Jonahs, lonahs, and Doves ; in the mythology of " the Ark and tlje lonah," Holwell 
and Bryant s Mythology says, that there is a continual reference to the Moon : The Ark 

J London: Nisbet & Co., 1873. 
- Dodd s translation of Caliiinaekus Hymn to Delos. Note, p. 126. 


66 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

was Luna, Laris, Bceotus, Naus, Men, and the mother of all beings. Meno Taurus and 
Tauris Liinaris signified the same, and both were the Deus Arkitis ; hence the deity, 
Meen and Manes, which later became Magnes, and was so applied to great people. 
Noah was called the Deus Lunus, because the Moon, or Lunette, was his Ark, as it 
was that of all gods. 

Deborah the prophetess preferred dwelling under a Palm-tree, and Rebeka s nurse, 
Deborah, was buried under an Oak ; first a Beth-el, or altar, probably a Lingam stone, 
such as Jacob was partial to anointing (Gen. xxxv. 8, 14), being erected, and of 
course under the. Oak. On this occasion it was denominated a " place of weeping." 
All connected with these holy trees was deeply venerated, so much so, as to have 
left their impress even immortally in language, as in (Sanctus) Quercus, x<rof, and 
lucus, which still recall to us ideas of something sacred, just as our Bible " Testimony" 
and Testament does this, quite irrespective of the strange origin of such word. Every 
grand and noble tree was a god-like object, and the abode of deities, and where they 
might always be asked to make their presence manifest. No ancient races would start 
at being told that sprites or fairies had been seen dancing under a fine or quaint-looking 
tree, or that the voice of Jove had spoken to any one from amidst its branches. Xerxes, 
at the head of his army on his way to Sardis, paused respectfully before a huge Plane 
tree, and offered golden ornaments to the deity, and left a guard to protect it ; and an 
earlier, and perhaps as great a king as he, may be seen on a bas-relief of Koyoonjik 
(Nineveh), stopping in his chariot and devoutly saluting a tall Palm tree (Bar 
low, 99). Nor have Persians yet forgotten such ways, although for eleven centuries 
they have been strict Islamees ; it is still common in Persia to see grave men address 
ing Darakti-fasels, or sacred trees, and many of these are still said, as in the days of 
Moses, to show fires gleaming in their midst. Jeremiah, in ii. 20, alludes to the tree 
adoration of his people, and Mr Bruce tells us that the Abysinians worshipped the 
Wanzy tree "avowedly as God." "In Arabia, Africa, India, China and Japan," 
says Barlow, the same stories still reach us, and still the deity sits " on the summit of 
the trunk, sufficiently near for the attendant spirits below to transmit to him readily 
(he used in Egypt to be generally she, the goddess Netpe) the prayers offered up by 
the faithful. We see the same idea in this deity on the Lingam stump, as we do in 
the Pythoness sitting on the serpent-column over Delphi s thermal fountain ; and 
Mr Fergusson tells us he sees the same oh the panels of the gateway of the Sanchi- 
tope. He considers also that it is only Tree Worship he sees in the altar with angels 
depicted by me in fig. No. 5 ; but I see a good deal more than this. Captain Wilford, 
in 1 Oth vol. w Asiatic Researches," says that the tree of life and knowledge is a 
Manicheian cross on a Calvary, and as such it is called the " Divine tree " or " tree of 
the gods." If it is a trunk without branches (which is a simple lingam), it is said to 
be " the seat of the Supreme One" Maha Deva. When two arms are added, it becomes 
" the Tri-moorti," or Brahma, Vishnoo, and Siva, who are then said to be seated there ; 
regarding which, says M. Guiniaut, in his Religions de I Antiquite, p. 147 : " Quand 

Tree Worship. 67 

se furent formes les quatorze mondes, avec 1 axe qui le traverse et au-dessous le mont 
Calaya, alors parut sur le sommet de ce dernier le triangle, Yoni, et dans 1 Yoni le 
Lingam, ou Siva Lingam. Ce Lingam (arbre de vie) avait trois ^corses: la premiere 
et la plus exterieure e*tait Bramhma, celle du milieu Vishnou, la troisieme et la plus 
tendre Siva ; et, quand les trois dieux se furent de tache s, il ne resta plus dans le 
triangle que la tige nue, desormais sous la garde de Siva." 

" Wisdom/ says the Jewish Proverb, " is a tree of life to them that lay hold on 
her," and the serpent is often this symbol of wisdom, as Sophia is in the Greek Church. 
The Kelt had his Tri-Sool, or the tliree-tliorned One, or Trimoorti, or Bel in his 
Thar amis, which the Skandinavian denoted by Odin, Balder, and Tor. Theramis was 
Tor or Jove or Indra. Esus was Mars, the irresistible torrent, which some say is 
derived from the Roman Eas or Es. Belenus, Balder, or Bel is the good and the 
beneficent, who shines on all alike ; but Odin is the Jewish " God of Battles/ a Tor, 
who, as Jeremiah says, was " a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces " (xxiii. 29) ; 
he is "the mighty One," the "bruiser," the very Oak himself, "the Covenant God"- 
Pillar or Terebinth-stem, before whom (Gen. xvii. 1-3 ; xviii. 1) this God swore and 
the Patriarch agreed ; thus in connection with an Oak (Gen. xii. 6, 7) Jews and Chris 
tians received their glad promise from Jhavh-Elo-him, and on Mahadeva the two 
patriarchs executed their most solemn oaths (Gen. xxiv. 2, 3 ; xlvii. 29), and beside him 
the pious Josiah had to stand in making his new covenant (2 Kings xxiii. 1-3). His 
very name is an oath and " a strong one " ( n ^), 1 and a " testimony " as that for which 
the Ark was built, viz., an Edutli (Ex. xxv. 16, 21), which I shall have occasion here 
after to dwell upon. No place is so holy, no shrine or grave so sacred as Deru s 
sanctum, said Sklavonians and Kelts, and so also thought Jacob, Joshua, and great 
Jhavh himself. 2 (See Gen. xxxv. 4 ; Joshua xxiv. 26 ; and Judges vi. 11-21.) 

" In Palestine/ says Barlow, to whom I am indebted for reminding me of some 
of the above, " the Oak is the semblance of a divine covenant, and its shadow indi 
cated the religious appropriation of any stone monument erected beneath it ; it was 
symbolical of the Divine presence." a Many a decree or covenant besides those of the 
Jewish Patriarchs have been ratified and sealed throughout Europe " sub Quercibus," 
or " sub annosa Quercu." Not only was the Quercus, and so the Quercetum or grove 
of Oaks, the " Sancta Quercus," but the " Holy Oak " of -pre-Christian times became 
the gospel tree of Christian days, as I hope to make clear in the course of this work. 

It was Drusus or oaks that sheltered Zeus on -Mount Lycseus, and there, in con 
sequence, was erected its universal female accompaniment a holy well or a fountain, 
and afterwards a temple. The oak was the patron, nay teacher of hospitality, for 
its shade was as sacred as the medieval church navis, which indeed took its place. 
The wisest men, no less than the ignorant masses, saw in it a god ; Jews, Pagans, 
and Christians, nay the enlightened Sokrates, all swore their most solemn oaths under 

1 Heb. Alah; Arabic Alat = Phallus. 2 The Vulgate prefers to read here "God." 3 "Symbolism," p. 98. 

68 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

this monarch of the woods, and the martial Roman coveted a wreath of it as the 
highest of all rewards. In these respects it was even more to the West, than the 
Ficus, et hoc genus omne was to the East; like these species, its wood alone must call 
down fire from heaven, and gladden in the yule (Suiel or Seul) log of Christmas-tide 
even Christian fires, as well as annually renew with fire direct from Ba-al, on Bel-tine 
day, the sacred flame on every public and private hearth, and this from the temples of 
Meroe on the Nile, to the furthest icy forests and mountains of the Sklavonian. The 
Tree was called " the Healer of the Nations," to gaze down its " elfish looking holes," 
or torture oneself on its quaint gnarled stem, was sure to bring about some happy 
result, if not an immediate and direct answer from Jove, Tor, or Toth. The tree-god 
was more peculiarly efficacious as a Healer at Yule-tide, just as all sects still hold 
their sacraments and prayers to be, at their great festivals, more specially beneficial ; 
if a ruptured person was stripped naked and passed three times betwixt two slips of oak 
at Yule-tide, he was almost immediately healed, and the gods latterly conceded the 
same privilege to similar good deeds on " Good Friday," arid naturally so, as this is 
the most hallowed day of the Vernal Equinox. 

The passing naked through Odin s arms reminds us of many strange rites, and has 
an evident connection with Phallic lore. Osiris allowed no clothed ones to approach, 
and carry him in his Isinian car, as will be made abundantly clear hereafter. The 
superstition of passing through natural, or even artificial, clefts in trees and rocks, or, 
failing them, caves and holes, has scarcely yet left the most civilized parts of Europe, 
and is firmly maintained throughout the rest of the world, and in India takes the 
thoroughly literal aspect of the question, viz., of being really " born again" the person 
to be so regenerated being actually passed through the mouth and organ of a properly 
constructed cow if the sinner be very rich, of a gold or silver cow, which is then 
broken up and divided among the purifying priests. A wooden or lithic perforation, 
that is an lOni, is, for ordinary men, however, a sufficient " baptism of grace," and in 
these islands, the holy Ash or Ygdrasil, is the proper tree to regenerate one. Major 
Moore describes his gardener in Suffolk as splitting a young Ash longitudinally (the 
Oak is its equivalent) and passing a naked child through it three times, " always head 
foremost, for Rickets and Rupture." The tree is bound up again, and if it heals, all goes 
well with the child. 1 The operation is called "drawing" in Suffolk, and in 1834 seems 
to have gone beyond the spiritual, and passed into the sphere of a medical luxury a 
sort of Turkish-bath, though called Regeneration but a few years previously. In England 
the Ash is for drawing, preferred to the Oak ; it should be split for about five feet, as 
closely as possible East and West, and in the Spring or fertilizing season of the year, be 
fore vegetation has set in, and just as the sun is rising ; the child must then be stripped 
quite naked, and, say some, passed feet, and not head foremost through the tree three 
times ; it should then be carefully turned round, as the Kelts say, Deasil-ways that is 

1 " Oriental Frags.," 505, author of " Hindoo Pantheon." 

Tree Worship. 69 

with the sun, after which the cleft of the tree must be bound up carefully. Here we 
see the Tree as a thing of Life, and forming the very lOni-ish, door of life, and in the 
presence of Siva or the Sun, without whom regeneration of old, or giving of new life, 
is known by all to be impossible. 

I attach a good deal of significance to the following remarks of the author 
of the Hindoo Pantheon, for rude races I have always found to be very keen 
observers of such peculiarities. He says, " a longitudinal wound in the bark of 
a tree will primarily assume the Sivaik form the erect, obeliscal like the tree 
itself, symbolic of the Linga ; expanded for a mysterious purpose and it is curious 
what a number of mysterious purposes seem to have occurred to prurient eyes 
it is lOnic. Duplicated, when healed, and healed, we find it still of like allusion." 
All the forms which this learned Orientalist alludes to, are spells, and highly mystical, 
and are worn on the foreheads of millions, as charms ; just as Europe puts a cross or 
Tau equally Phallic, on her churches, tombs, and all sacred things. Now the Cross 
or Tau was the ancient dams or key, by which it was said trees were propagated, 
especially the holy Ash and Sycamore ; the cutting or graft was in fact a clavis, and 
in Christian times our ancestors transferred their love for Tau or Thor to the church 
door key, for this was the "portal of bliss," the "gate of heaven;" so their church key 
and Bible, (of this they knew little,) became fetish charms, which together could un 
fold matters, especially matrimonial. The key was in this case laid in the fetish volume, 
and certain words were then repeated as to the wish of the searchers, and the verse on 
or over which it was found, was the god s answer ; witches much feared this fetish, 
and no wonder, for they, poor ill-used wretches, were weighed against the church 
Bible ! The " thread-needle fetes," elsewhere mentioned in Cornwall, are of the same 
significance as passing through tree or rock clefts, indeed passing through the Killarney 
tree cleft is called " threading the needle ;" and as Cicerones there tell one, are speci 
ally fertilizing and " saving of pains your honor, to your lady, if in a certain way." 
Oxford exhibits the same phase in her " groaning cheeses," the cut of which in a 
circular or oval form, must be kept ready at a birth to pass the new-born babe 
through ; afterwards, like wedding cakes, it is cut up and given to maidens to sleep 
upon, " to excite pleasant and expressive dreams." 

The Dodona of history was not purely grove or tree worship ; that faith had, I think 
much faded before these days ; a close scrutiny of all the most ancient records I can get 
regarding this celebrated oracle, seems to place the matter, to be brief, somewhat thus: 
The Peliades, of whom much will be hereafter said, were, says Pausanias, " the most 
ancient prophetesses of Dodona in Ka-onia (query Kal-IOnia ?) even antecedent to the 
celebrated Phemonoe;" 1 their first oracle was Zeuth-Zeus, the Lingam god, who stands 
through mythology variously as Prometheus, Noah, or Deukalion Deva Kala, or Devi 
Kali, for sexes are here of no account, Jupiter being frequently styled the mother of 

1 Hoi well s Myth. Die., Dodona. 

yo Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

the gods, 1 here meaning merely the Parental source, or the Peliadian idea of the 
cause of generation, see volume cited, under numerous articles, as to Zeutli. The 
worship here, that is at Dodona, was evidently lOnish or Dove-ish 2 a name the 
Greeks appear to have punned much upon, saying however that it came from Theba 
or Thebes, the Ark. Thebais of Egypt was founded by Koothites, variously styled 
JEl-o-pians, Pier-ians, and Kad-mians, regarding whom we shall speak a good deal 
etymologically and otherwise further on. The worship at Dodona appears to me, from 
my experience in the study of Eastern Sivaik shrines, to have gone through such changes 
as : first, a sacred tree, no doubt an oak ; then a Lingam under the oak ; then a sacred 
grove whose leaves rustled and whose priests interpreted ; then a fountain whose 
murmuring improved on these ; then tinkling cymbals on the oaks ; then the Lingam 
pillars on which the brazen kettles hung arid the boys played ; then Fire and statuary 
gods, ending in Jove. The grove was undoubtedly man s first temple, and became a 
sanctuary, asylum, or place of refuge, and as time passed on, temples came to be 
built in the sacred groves. There is no doubt but that where the holy Al-Ka-abo? of 
Meka stood was but a grove and a well, and round all the " holy circles " of England, 
and KlacAans or Kirks (circles) of Scotland, stood, say our best authorities, " sacred 
woods," and the same holds good wherever I have been able to investigate the origin 
of a shrine. Let me repeat, for the matter is most important, First and prominently 
comes the tree ; then the grove and well ; then the little column or Phallus ; then the 
altar of unhewn stone, and an Ark or adytum, then poles, gongs, or bells, streamers 
or serpents, &c. The early gods liked not walls, said Pliny very truly, and that the 
Jews well knew this we see in Gen. xii. 6, 7 ; xiii. 18, and elsewhere, though our 
translators too freely use the word " altar " or nnr, instead of tree. 

We have in the story of the origin of the great temple of Ephesus another case 
like that of Dodona, but showing the worship of the elm or beach, or both, as the 
substitute for the Sancta Quercus. Callimachus, in his beautiful hymn to Diana, is 
thought to ascribe the origin of the shrine of Ephesus to the Beech tree, whilst 
Dionysius thinks that the first holy tree there, was the Elm. Both these trees were 
much revered by the Amazon who fervently worshipped Diana, to whom they were 
sacred. Callimachus wrote, 

" Beneath a Beech the war affecting race 
Of Amazons to Thee a statue raised, 
Where Ephesus proud towers o erlook the main." 

And it appears that the beginning of this celebrated oracle was the placing here of a 
little statue of the goddess in the niche of an Elm ; some say it was a figure in ebony 
made by one Kunitia, but others more orthodox declare that it fell down from Jove 
and why not ? All good and great things, nay, all earth s great ones came direct 
from heaven, and so also do all the Bibles of the human race. 

1 Holwell s Myth. Die., Jupiter. 

2 The priestesses of Dodona were called by Greeks Peliades, and by Latins Columlcc. 

3 From Kabl, the Front," " -Place of Plenty," the " Pudendum viri vel feminae. 

Tree Worship. 

The Jewish temple had, it is said, an enclosure planted with 
Olive, as the mosque which stands 
on its site now has. We know 
that the fruitful olive was Maiya s 
or Asherah s or Mylita s symbol, 
as the cedar and the palm are 
Mahadeva s and Asher s. The 
last act of Joshua s life -1427 
B.C., says English orthodoxy j 

Palm, Cedar, and 

and be it remembered he was the 
circumciser 1 of all the 
was, "to set up a great 



tribes, was, "to set up a 

stone under an oak that was by 

the Sanctuary of the Jhavh at 

Shechem (Jos. xxiv. 26) as a 

witness," lest the tribes should afterwards deny their Elohim ; under this oak, with its 

sacred pillar stone which stone could hear and no doubt speak was Abimelech crowned 

king of Israel 228 years later (Jud. ix. 6). In Smith s Bible Dictionary we read that 

" this veneration throughout Old Testament history of particular trees, was amongst 

the heathen extended to a regular worship of them." Surely by this it is not meant 

that these Jewish tribes were other than heathens ; but I doubt the applicability of 

this word to any peoples. Eusebius writes that the tree under which God sat and 

talked with Abram, and arranged the great Covenant on the plains of Mamre, was 

worshipped down to the days of Constantine, but that " he cut it down to build a 

temple to St George I " 

As the early Indian and Israelite worshipped under what they each thought most 
beautiful and good so do the pious of our own day ; and so we in India find Asher and 
Asherah, Baal and the Grove, and the sacred fire-ark-altar, set up under lovely and 
sacred trees ; it was in later times that man built temples with domes and minarets, 
and herein still symbolized his old faiths ; and so do we still enshrine all we hold 
sacred, in altars and cathedrals, with spires and towers pointing to heaven, and marked 
by that symbolic cross which carries us back to the origin of Faiths in many lands. 
If it was not the " Asyrian Grove " (Asherah) or Asher, I believe we see the Jewish 
idea of " grove " worship to the present hour all over India in the worship of Mdmqjee; 
numerous grotesque but very symbolical figures commonly seen seated under a holy 
banian tree in the outskirts of many villages, which are worshipped monthly throughout 
the year by all classes. The picture at the head of this chapter is meant to represent 
this worship. The usual figure is an elephant with a curiously shaped horse s head ; 
it is always hollow, with a large orifice behind. The elephant represents power, and 

1 A religious rite ordered by the tribal god. 

Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

the horse s head intelligence, as also the Sun-god Baal or Asher. It is more phallic 

than Hippos-like, hut my sketch both here and in 
No, 1 is from nature : Clearly the large hollow inside 
denotes the mighty womb of Maiya, Mama, or 
Mamojee, that is mother -jee, the affix signifying 
respect, "great" or "universal." 

The "grove" of our Old Testament trans 
lators was pure Phallic worship, approaching to 
the Sakti, or Left-hand sect, whilst the worship of 
Baal, or Asher, was the Sivaite form of the faith : 
I hope I shall not offend my Vishnoo-ite friends, if 
I say that the "grove" sects of Syria seem to have 
come nearer to their phase of the faith than 

to the Sivaites ; we may grant that both worshipped " the Tree of Life," for 
it is male and female. I give here a precise sculpture of the Asyrian and 
Jewish Grove from Dr Inman, I. 161, where full particulars as to 
the sistrum-looking object and its thirteen flowers will be found. 
The Israelites, as all old nations did, worshipped the " grove " and 
lingam separately or together "under every green tree," and our 
English version, as before said, translates the Hebrew, Asherah, 
wrongly into " the grove." Smith s Biblical Dictionary says, that 
Ashtoreth is the proper name of the Phenician goddess called by 
the Greeks Astarte, whilst her worship, or name of her symbol or 
image, was Asherah. The general notion, says the learned writer, 
here symbolised alike by Jews and Gentiles, is that of productive 
power, as Asher or Baal symbolised generative power; Asherah THE GROVK OKASHKI:AH - 

was the Asyrian Ishtar or Star of love, very 
often represented thus, as an eye, so that we are 
left in no doubt as to the purity of the faith of 
this " holy Jewish people/ - 

The male " tree of life " is quite differently 
delineated to this " burning bush " the symbol of 
the ark goddess, and is probably most clearly re 
presented in this next Asyrian sculpture, where 
the man with knife and cone in hand is seen approaching the "door of life," em 
battled, to denote " dominion," as Isis is very usually shown ; the seeding tree stands 
in the midst of the picture, and beside it the Bull, or Power with " Passion " as the 
serpent round his neck ; more will appear on this subject in my chapter on the 
Faiths of Kaldia and Asyria. 

The tree and serpent, says Fergusson, are symbolised in every religious system 

Fig. 23. 

Fig. 24. i 

Tree Worship. 


Fig. 25 

which the world has known, not excepting the Hebrew and Christian ; the two together 

are typical of the reproductive powers 

of vegetable and animal life. It is 

uncertain whether the Jewish "tree of 

life " was borrowed from an Egyptian 

or Kaldean source, but the meaning was 

in both cases the same, and we know 

that the Asyrian tree was a life-giving 

divinity, and Moses, or the writer of 

Genesis, has represented very much 

the same in his coiled serpent and love-apples or citrons of the " tree of life." 

Let us now try and probe this phallo-tree worship to its root ; for very many 
years it was to me inexplicable, and I made it a constant source of inquiry among all 
races in India. At the time of the earliest tree worship, I look upon it that man was 
but a little removed from the state of the animals amongst which he roamed, and, like 
them, was wild and homeless. Though the soul was here with its germ which was 
yet to teach the heart to aspire to the spiritual and beautiful ; nevertheless above all, 
were within man, at this infantine period of his growth, chiefly those potent sensual 
passions which caused him to feel the law of his continuance, and the preservation of 
his species, as the one great and controlling object of his life. He was thus in entire 
unison and sympathy with every animal, nay, every animate object of creation, 
which seemed to partake of or to symbolise that which his own sensual nature most 
dwelt upon ; and the more dwelt on, the more impetuous and imaginative would 
his nature become, especially when not hindered here by those higher cerebral 
developments which refine, and in a manner curtail the brutal. As we study rude 
peoples we can see that in a thousand forms they observe generating nature where our 
higher cultivation sees only natural phenomenon. It is quite evident that in the 
shrouded circular covering of the tree, with its abundant fruits and flowers, and its 
earth-piercing stem, ancient wild races saw distinctly pourtrayed what we can scarcely 
imagine, and hesitate to announce even when the facts force themselves upon us, 
exclaiming, " this is too far-fetched ; " yet long and in 
timate acquaintance with men of every Indian sect, 
has assured me of the truth of such matter as I 
have already, and desire further here to treat of. 

I have in figure 10 given "the Skandinavian 
idea " of the tree, and I now give that which, after much 
study, I have come to the conclusion, is the Asiatic idea 
viz., that it is the Toth or Pillar, and the Earth or Isis. 
We must not expect to find a clear and logical sequence Fi *- 26 -- THE TREE ">**-** 
in things mythical, any more than in our ecclesiastical or theological "mys- 

I. K 

74 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

teries" we see how the most learned Christians fight about transubstantiation and 
consubstantiation, and openly aver that neither their words nor arguments are to be 
taken according to the reasonable and grammatical meaning, which the outside and uii- 
regenerate world affixes to these ; they assert that " the real presence" is in the bread and 
wine, and yet is not, and that no one knows. how or when it got there ; in fact there is 
a considerable muddle, which yet we are to receive, and try and swallow with what 
faith " the Lord only can grant to us ; " and so it is with Hindoo mysteries, as the 
orthodox have often told me, when hard pressed to dry and logical conclusions. Some 
say that the tree pierces the skies, of which Juno (lOni) is the representation, and 
that hence its flowers and fruits, which it culls from the rich abundance of the heavens ; 
others, that the dews which nightly suffuse its leaves and branches are the " over- 
shadowings " of great Dius or Indm, who thus becomes the Greek Ouranos, and the 
earth the Ge or female energy ; this is, I think, the real Asiatic idea, for the Greeks 
learned their lore in Asia, and they are never tired of their Ge and Ouranos idea, and 
this is the most usual Indian notion by those few priests who know anything of the 
subject. Perhaps a compromise is possible by saying that the Pillar or Stem is Jove, 
whilst Ge and Juno is mundane matter and moisture, acting and reacting on the fruit - 
yielding mass ; anyhow the whole is "a thing of beauty," and was for long long ages a 
veritable god. The Cross Idea probably followed at a very remote interval the Phallic 
and Serpent symbolism, but rapidly on the Cross, came semi-spiritual notions, which 
crystallised themselves eventually, and then concreted with other matter into such forms 
or names as the Kaldian " Memra" the Greek " Logos " the "Divine Wisdom" or 
" Word" which existed, it was averred, " from the beginning with the Father." This 
wisdom was heard no less amidst the thunderings on desert mountains and the oaks 
of Dodona, than " among the branches of the Tree of Life in the Paradise of Osiris," for 
Egyptians held, that from her seat on her sylvan throne, Netpe, " the goddess of divine 
life," there proclaimed the will of Heaven. It was she of Sais, and she of " a thousand 
lights," who sat there, and it is her lights which Jews and Christians have carried 
down to the present day and set up in their altar candlesticks ; and it is her " tree of 
lights" and good gifts which they still symbolise in Christmas-trees at the winter 
solstice : True, we here have it from Germany, but it originally came from the Nile 
or from the furthest east, where it is now, though in a somewhat different way, 
vigorously maintained. 

The identity of the Tree and Cross is often to be observed in Christian literature 
sometimes the terms are interchangeable. Thus in the tenth chapter of the Acts of 
the Apostles, Peter, speaking of Jesus, says, "whom they slew and hanged on a tree." 

The tree of knowledge represents the life of the soul or spiritual life. The " tree 
of life," or he who gives life and supplies food, which is the true old meaning of the 
word Lord, represents the physical life, or the life of the body. It is said that in 
Egypt the Pyramid has the same mythological meaning as the tree, but I rather think 

Tree Worship. 75 

we ought to look at the two as forming the sacred double triangle of Phallic meaning, 
which signifies Fire and Water, of which I will speak by and by. 

The Cross, of course, my learned readers all know, is a pre-Christian symbol. It 
was not employed as a symbol in Christian worship till 300 A.C., nor till 600 A.C. was 
the crucifix, or "cross of the crucifixion" employed. The cross after 300 A.C. began 
to be looked upon as an exerciser, possessing great efficacy against all sorts of devils 
and evil spirits, and had thus again become the charm which the old Pagan faith 
attached to it. It was still the tree symbol in another form, though after 600 A.C. it 
merged into " the Cross of Calvary." To the present time the cross retains its old 
significance. On Good Friday, Christians regard it as the symbol of death, whilst on 
Easter, or resurrection day, it becomes the emblem of eternal life, therein inheriting 
all the pleasing associations that belonged to its Pagan prototype. Easter, of course, 
is the well-known Solar and favorite Phenician festival of Astarte or Ashtaroth, the 
Female Energy, and to Sol we owe all such festivals, and most of the rites and sym 
bolism they develop. 

The writer of Genesis probably drew his idea of the two trees that of Life and 
that of Knowledge from Egyptian and Zoroastrian story, for criticism now assigns a 
comparatively late date to the penning of the first Pentateuchal book. After Genesis 
no further notice is taken in the Bible of the " Tree of Knowledge" but that of Life, or 
the Tree which gives Life, seems several times alluded to, especially in Apocalypse ii. 7. 
The Lingam, or pillar, is the Eastern name for "the Tree which gives Life," but when 
this Tree became covered with the inscriptions of all the wisdom of past ages as in 
Egypt, then Toth " the Pillar," came to be called the Tree of Knowledge, for it im 
parted life to the body secular and spiritual. Mr Barlow writes thus : 1 " Rosellini, 
in his great work on Egypt, has a scene in Paradise taken from a tomb at Thebes, in 
which several generations of an Egyptian family, which flourished under the eighteenth 
dynasty, up to the age of Eameses III., or from sixteenth to thirteenth century B.C., 
(this is now thrown further back), are represented partaking of this immortal nourish 
ment the fruit of the Tree of Life." 1 . . . The head of this fkmily was named Poer. 
(here clearly a worshipper of Peor the Phallus). . . . Each is receiving from 
the Tree of Life, or rather from the divine influence residing in the Tree ... a stream 
of the life-giving water, and at the same time an offering of its fruit. . . . The tree is 
the Ficus Sycamorus, the sycamore tree of the Bible, and it stands on a sort of 
aquarium, symbolical of the sacred Nile, the life-supporting agent in the land of 
Egypt . . . the lotus is seen on its banks, and a heron, the symbol of the first trans 
formation of the soul in the Paradise of Osiris, stands on each side." Now Osiris is 
the sun and the Lingam, and Osiris is the Nile, and so here we have our " Asyrian 
tree of life," and our fig-tree, so sacred to Siva, and so worshipped by women in India, 

1 Barlow s "Symbolism," pp. 59, 60. 

76 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

and which so sorely tempted poor Eve to her "fall." Under it did the Egyptian 
receive his baptism of " life-giving water," poured upon him by Netpe, she who sits 
amidst the branches, with trays of fruit, and vases of the water of life ; and it is the 
flow of these waters, says Mr Barlow, that our early Norman Christian temples show 
as falling in parallel zig-zag lines over doors and fonts, figurative of the initiatory 
sacrament of the Church, called its gate or door, the janua ecclesice. This baptismal 
rite was no new thing to the Egyptian, as numerous sculptures show, but occasionally 
the " water of life " is represented by " cruces ansatce, joined together in a zig-zag man 
ner" (p. 61), as if this water was like that mentioned in John iv. 13, 14, different from 
all ordinary water, because drawn from "a well of water springing up into everlasting 

Now the first Egyptian Tree of Life was, says Barlow, quoting his authorities, the 
sacred Date-Palm, or Phenix-dactylifera, of which Dr Lepsius shows us so much 
worship 1600 years ago, and of which "the Spouse of the Church" says, "I will go 
and take hold of the boughs thereof" (Canticles vii. 8), possibly being unaware of the 
meaning of the Skandiuavian tree. The second sacred tree of Egypt, the writer 
thinks, was the Ficus, and we need not dispute the chronological order, but any how, 
the cross was the grand idea, as Tree worship faded ; and we possibly see a good picture 
of the transition in that celebrated one which Barlow so well describes as in the Apsis 
of St John (Ion) Lateran at Kome a fitting place, reminding us of the holy name 
lOna or Columbse, which so prominently figures here. Mr Barlow says that the holy 
tree is there fenced off from all mankind, on the sacred mount of the four holy streams 
the gospels of living waters. At the entrance of the enclosure an angel with drawn 
sword bars the way ; " behind him, in the centre of the enclosure, is a palm tree, and 
on it is perched a Phenix with a glory of rays. On one side of the tree stands a 

venerable old man, on the other side a younger one 
each has a glory ; these figures are intended for the 
Father and the Son, and the palm-tree between them 
is the Tree of Life in the midst of the Garden. On 
the top of the mound, and planted in the fountain 
of water, from whence the four streams gush forth 
(understood to be nations), is a lofty, articulated, and 
gemmed cfoss, bathed in beams of light from the 
radiant body of a dove the Holy Ghost hovering 
over it " (Barlow, p. 72). Let us here try to get a 
very distinct idea as to what we have arrived at, for 
the change of faith is now clear and sharp, and 
meant to be so, a drawn sword bars the old way, 
rig. 27.-TREE AND SOLAR IDEA AS I>EVBLOPED AT SOME, ^at towards the tree, and behold the new one ! I have 
but drawn from the words of the describer of this picture, what appears from a 

Tree Worship. 77 

thousand other illustrations, and not only from this one, in the celebrated temple to 
lOna, the new banner, which the young faith has selected. I too have stood and 
studied this remarkable picture, and wondered if its circumambient Jordan would 
ever increase its bounds to embrace all the family of man, and wash away the Phallic 
mound, and release the dove from its ark ; for we have here indeed a very Phallic- 
looking picture, which if we but twined a serpent on that tree in the fountain, we 
might suspect had originated in Benares or Kashmere. 

The Palm and Ficus have, it is true, gone, but only so in their natural forms ; the 
substance, or " real presence," is all here. Here also is the Caput-Oline or Olympus, 
with a fountain of water, from which flow the waters of the life of mankind, and in 
this has been placed the old, old cross, and the fount seems to suit it, as the ring of the 
Egyptian Crux-Ansata ; but there is no place now for the sweet goddess who nestled 
amidst the branches of the old Tree of Life. So she has disappeared, but by no means 
altogether ; for she has left her symbol, the mystic Dove, illuminating it from 
above. There does not here seem much for the old and new faiths to quarrel about, 
and certainly not for the adherents of each to hate and loathe one another ; not 
to say to slaughter each other for, by thousands and tens of thousands, and for 
long centuries. A wise umpire might, one would think, from a mere glance at the 
leading features of each, have reconciled them ; but it is not so with faiths ; a shred 
of an old vestment is quite sufficient to draw the sword, and to light the fires of a 
hundred Smithfields. And surely a descent from Osiris to the Palm tree, then to the 
Ficus Sycamora, an ignoring of Netpe, though the substitution be the lOni, then 
the quarrel as to whom the Cross belonged, a denial of fair Netpe s baptism and 
office as the Lady, or " bread distributor," now claimed for the virgin mother of Beth 
lehem, though both words signify the same, was enough to arouse the ire of even 
saints. Whether it should have been so or not, it was so ; and the new God, and new 
Virgin, and Cross, were boldly declared as having no connection by idea or otherwise 
with the old ; yet wise philosophers, in secret nooks (for they were too discreet to 
speak their minds), no doubt smiled and thought otherwise. They had learned that 
though faiths may be held by their votaries to have started at times with a tabula rasa, 
yet none ever remain so ; for God moves not, so far as historians and critics have 
been able to investigate, by new creations, or by fits and starts. He ever weaves the 
new threads of progressive ideas into the old ones, for the bottles are too fragile to 
bear an entirely new wine. The discreet old philosophers probably said among them 
selves, "This Virgin and Prophet of Nazareth, whether historical or mythical, must have 
sprung from the old, old virgins and prophets, and in time the ideas will again entwine 
themselves about our old ones, altering, and mayhap improving on them, but never, 
as time progresses, able to ignore them." 

Netpe, the Holy Spirit of the Egyptian Tree of Life, was female, as was Jehovah, 
but after ages changed her sex, from casual circumstances noticed elsewhere. "She was," 

78 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

says Eosellini, "a form of the Egyptian Rhea, the sister and wife of Sev (Siva) or Saturn. 
. . . Her hieroglyphic name is the Abyss of Heaven " (Barlow, p. 63). Of course, for 
" Heaven " here is Siva, and the consort of all gods is called in Sanskrit an " Abyss," 
" Cave," and such like, which I would rather not illustrate, equivalent to the Syrian 
Cbiun, Kiun, or Kevan. Osiris was the Son of Time (Kronus of later days), who was 
Sev of Egyptian cosmogony, and his mother was Netpe, the vault of heaven ; and 
thus in a sense Netpe was Mary, for Osiris was " he alone of all the Egyptian gods 
who was born and died on earth ; his birthplace was Mount Sinai, called by the 
Egyptians Nysa, hence his Greek name Dio-nysus " the same," says Mr Sharpe, " as 
the Hebrew Jehovah Nissi, which Moses gave to the Almighty when he set up an 
altar to Him at the foot of the holy mountain (Ex. xvii. 15). Philae, or the holy 
island, is the more accredited place of his burial," for islands are always holy to Siva. 
Osiris came to earth for the benefit of mankind, was put to death, and rose again to 
judge the quick and the dead, "which," says Barlow, "was the great mystery." All 
were to appear before him, to give an account of every deed done in the body, an 
amount of labor (for all is to be recorded we are told), clerical, and argumentative, of 
the audi alteram partem kind, which entered not into the minds of these poor writers 
to conceive of. I may mention that all great plains, and even continents, have very 
feminine names, thus Isis or Isha (woman) is often applied to the plains of the Nile 
and other fertile pastures, and so we have Berti-Koonti as a name of India. 

The Hebrew prophet Ezekiel shows, in xxxi. 3, 6, 9, that he and his tribes under 
stood trees to stand for great nations and great men, and Eden for a garden of gods 
or of god-like men, or for the rich lands ruled over by great and powerful nations. 
" Asyria was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, the cedars in the garden of God 
could not hide him, the fir-trees were not like his boughs, and the chesnut-trees were 
not like his branches ; nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his 
beauty. I have made him fair by the multitude of his branches ; so that all the trees 
of Eden that were in the garden of God envied him." Thus then neither the " Tree 
of Life" or " Tree of Knowledge" which the angel was set to guard, was like unto 
what man had developed into. Isaiah says that the blessed are to have " beauty for 
ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the skirt of heaviness, 
that they may be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the Jhavh " (Ixi. 3) : 
another, of numberless sayings, which we may glean from all the sacred writings of 
earth, to show how glorious a thing a tree was ever looked upon by men in their early 
infancy. If Nebukadnezer likened himself to the central tree of the whole earth, 
whose height reached unto heaven, which was fair to look upon, and whose fruits and 
protection all the birds and beasts of earth sought, but which was, he foresaw, reduced 
to a mere Lingam a stump sunk into the tender grass of the earth, and bound with 
brass and iron ; ^so did Christ ask that his followers should look upon Him as the 
vine-tree, and themselves as the branches ; and so has Europe, like more ancient 

Tree Worship. 79 

peoples, connected the ideas of the Cross and the Tree. The poor, who could not get a 
metal representation or image (query, Lingam ?) to worship, usually, even in Isaiah s 
days, got " a tree that will not rot," and prepared from it " a graven image that could 
not be moved " (xl. 20). Mr Barlow, who notices this, says, that " most nations, if 
not all, would appear at some time or other to have had a sacred tree, and from the 
worship of sacred trees to have proceeded to the adoration of idols formed from their 
wood. This was the opinion of Winckelmann and Caylus ; it was also held by Pau- 
sanias " (" Symbolism," p. 97). Now this is a very clear and powerful support to my 
views, and to the order in which I place the Tree and the early roots of faiths. See 
also what were the first " idols formed from their wood ; " why Phalli, all over Asia 
and Egypt. The Ficus wood was absolutely necessary for this purpose, and for the 
production of sacred fire (that is, generative fire], far down in the annals of Home s 
religious history. Dr Stukely called Abraham " the first Druid," in reference to his 
Oak grove at Beersheba ; and although the one had in point of time and locality 
possibly no direct contact with the other, yet our progressiveness will be often found 
to exhibit itself in the same forms and features, merely varied according to our climate 
and other circumstances ; and nothing travels faster, or takes a stronger grip, than the 
rites and wonderful stories of a faith. However purely a new prophet or new idea 
may arise, yet so firm is the old grip, that the listening ear is pulled by the old heart 
and hand, and so long and stoutly, that finally a compromise has always to be made 
before the words of the ear be allowed to take the place in the old heart of the man 
or the nation. Now all nations seem to have adopted a " Tree of Life," and generally 
" in the midst of a garden." " It is sometimes a symbol, sometimes an idol ; but 
there it is, in Europe, in Asia, and in Africa, a perpetual testimony to the fitness of 
the original idea, and a confirmation of its truth. . . . The Divinity-Homa of the 
Zendavesta, is identical with the Divinity- Soma of the Vedas ; " x and both Soma and 
Homa still live in the fertile and religious minds of millions. 

In Europe the worship of Trees is said to have taken a firmer hold than that of the 
second and third of my streams ; but then we must remember that it is much more 
difficult to trace these last than the first, and that the search of all three has only 
lately been begun in a proper way. 

All mythical ladies are serpents, if not indeed all women ! and Horace assures us 
that " you (Europa) are the wife of Jove, and a division of the world shall bear your 
name " (Odes xxvii) ; and she is even called " the great or chief serpent" in a manner 
which must have pleased the Reverend Dr Stukely. Serpent-mounds indeed abound ; 
and "it may be granted that Ab ury, is Europe transposed, and that this remarkable 
shrine gives cause for very much that has been written concerning, it in regard to its 
circles, its wavy avenues, columns, and conical hill in front, of which more anon. 

Fetes or festivals give us in their rites, accessories, and recurrences, so many 

1 Barlow, "Symbolism," 114, 5. 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

important aids towards understanding faiths, that I have searched, though, I am sorry 
to say, without any great results, to get some details of Tree fetes. This stream is, 
however, evidently hid away beyond our grasp, for although we have many fetes in 
groves, yet they are all connected with phallic, serpent, or solar worship, and beyond 
prayers and meditations in the shades of the tree god, I have had little aid from this 
source. In Asam we have a fete called the Jaintia, because held on the first day of 
the Jaintia year, which seems to bear a closer connection to the old tree faith, though 
with a dash of phallic and solar in it, than most. It takes place at the midsummer 
solstice, or about the new moon of July, when rival villages meet in the midst of a 
stream, and contend for the possession of long straight trees which they have previously 
barked, and tied tufts of feathers to the ends of. The youths and maids here try to 
excel in skill and grace ; they dance and sing, and vociferate loudly, like the 
Bacchantes of old, whilst all endeavour to show who can break up the largest and 
strongest %)oles. Scenic effect is given by a great display of figures of elephants, 
giants, animals, and hobgoblins ; but the prominent feature of the whole is this large 
boat with its Sivaik-looking shrine, made of bamboo and blue cloth (Siva s favourite 

colour), and rising like a mast from the 
centre. In this pagoda, gorgeous with 
gold and silver tinsel and bright colours, 
is enshrined some sacred figure, regard 
ing which I cannot get any reliable in 
formation. The boat is accompanied by 
a huge bird intended for a peacock, in 
whose body is concealed the upper part 
of a man, his legs acting for the bird s. 
There is a procession of giants and giant 
esses, also huge figures of bamboo covered 
with white cloth ; the leader, who is a 
man, has a crown, and eleven supplementary heads growing out of his shoulders 
evidently a solar idea. 

The locale is where a stream is divided by a village, and just above a fall, and 
where the ground becomes highish and open, but where the stream narrows all of 
which is very Sivaik in character. The peacock is par excellence the bird of Sol, and 
even among early Christians divided their affections with the dove ; some held that 
his flesh was incorruptible. The force of much of the above will only become clear to 
readers, who have not studied these subjects, as they advance further through these 


This parasite, wherever found, was most sacred, but that which came to perfection 
on the oak at Yuletide was surpassingly so ; our Teuton, Saxon, and Gallic forefathers 

Fig. 28. BOAT AND IDOL. 

Tree Worship. 81 

were enthusiastic about it, but fear was very much mixed up with their reverence ; they 
called their priests and assembled all their neighbouring clans-folk, and with a golden 
sickle the high-Druid or " man of God " cut the precious shrub, and dropped it without 
defilement of hand into a pure white cloak. Then two pure white bulls (Siva s re 
presentatives) were if possible procured, and sacrificed, and all partook of a solemn 
banquet so wrote Pliny. The mistletoe was the dread means by which Odin s wise 
son Balder or Apollo was killed ; it baffled the wisdom of fair Friga, who had exacted 
from all creation an oath never to injure her child Balder, but she overlooked this 
little floweret, and Loki discovered it, and contrived to have it fired towards Balder. 
The great god was thus killed, and carried away to Ades or the far west, there to live 
with the Nefl-heim and great ones of the earth in Sheol, a serious and suggestive 
word, regarding which we shall have much to say hereafter. Now, what means this 
quaint story ? It is like most such a Solar picture. All creation loved Balder or 
Apollo, but creation is fitful, and the mistletoe marks the approach of winter, and 
its flowering that period when man begins to rejoice, be he Pagan or Christian, for 
it marks the birth of "the Sun of Righteousness," as Europe still calls him, though 
with another meaning. Likes cure likes serpent bites must have serpent poles ; 
those who neglected Dionysus must offer to him his gross images ; and so the Kelts 
here offer their white bulls to him whose emblem this animal is. 

Christian priests forbade the mistletoe to enter their churches ; but yet it not only 
got in, but found a place over the altars, and was held to betoken goodwill to all 
mankind. It is posted in the four quarters of all cities, and bedecks every good 
Christian mansion from Christmas to "twelfth day," or Candlemas eve, and with 
some till the 2d of February, "the purification of our Lady." The season has many 
Phallic significations. The mistletoe wreath marks in one sense Venus temple, for any 
girl may be kissed if caught under its sprays, a practice though modified which recalls 
to us that horrid one mentioned by Herodotus, where all women were for once at least 
the property of the man who sought them in Mylita s temple. In England, farmers used 
to decorate or give a sprig of mistletoe to the first cow which calves in the new year, 
for " she has first fulfilled Venus purpose ; " but the plant is one of world- wide fame. 
Masagetse Skythians, and most ancient Persians called it " the Healer," or " Salvator," 
and Virgil calls it a branch of gold, whilst Charon was dumb in presence of such an 
augur of coming bliss ; it was " the expectancy of all nations longo post tempore 
visum," as betokening Sol s return to earth. 


The Laurel, or Bay, has ever been the victor s crown, the wreath of Mars, as well as 
of our " Poet- Laureate," and of most great ones whom their fellows wish to honour. 
It was sacred to Apollo, whose first temple on the female Delphic chasm was built, we 
are told, of the branches of the Bay. The Laurel could preserve the wearer against 

I. L 

82 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

thunder and lightning, which has a double meaning in regard to the gods these 
powers represent. Virgil s mother, Mais, gave birth to a Laurel, and from Virgil s 
ashes sprang another, which still grows over his tomb. The Bay signifies the revivi 
fication of life, for the Sun, when the Bay is bright and green, is then breaking through 
the portals of his wintry tomb, and the Laurel, like him, revives from its own roots 
when thought to be dead ; at least, so it was said. Whoever chewed its leaves could 
prophesy, and Greece called a class of diviners Daphnephagi, for did not loved Daphne 
the daughter of Perseus of whose suggestive name I shall have much to say here 
after, fly from Apollo s embraces, and calling on her parent stream to save her, the 
River answered her plaint, and turned her into a laurel, as we see in that exquisite 
marble group now in Rome. 

Apollo, as the vernal Sun, is ushered in wreathed in the Laurel, and his birth 
like that of all, gods and men, is from a Cave, or " garden," said our nurses. This 
description of his re-entrance to glory, in Dodd s Callimachus, 1 is very beautiful, and 
gives us much concerning trees, and also, probably, the origin of the idea of Christ 
visiting Hades, or rather Ades, or the West, and knocking at " the brazen gates," of 
which the Gospel of Nicodemus (so called Apocryphal, but scarcely more so than other 
canonical ones), gives us full details. 

" See how the laurel s hallowed branches wave, 
Hai k, sounds tumultuous shake the trembling Cave ! 
Far, ye profane, far off ! with beauteous feet 
Bright Phebus comes, and thunders at the gate ; 
See the glad sign the Delian palm hath given j 
Sudden it bends ; and hovering in the heav n, 
Soft sings the Swan with melody divine : 
Burst ope, ye bars, ye gates, your heads decline ; 
Decline your heads, ye sacred doors, expand : 
He comes, the God of Light, the God s at hand ! " 

The Swan is, as most classical readers are aware, a sign of coming day bright 
ness, or whiteness, often also of snow, as some say ; because, as it melts away, nature 
begins to live, and the poet here seems to mean this in saying, " it sings," or awakens 
melody in the groves. As this poem belongs to the third "century B.C., the pious 
author seems to have been at one with Isaiah, when he speaks of " the beautiful feet of 
him who brings the good tidings" (Hi. 7) ; with Malachi, where he says, "Unto you 
shall the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in his wings " (iv. 2), and with the 
writer of Ps. xix., who says the sun cometh " as a bridegroom out of his chamber, and 
rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race." None of these writers had the faintest con 
ception of the meaning which the Christian Churches put on such passages ; and all 
had alike the same conception of " the Sun," " the Lord of Hosts," of Palms, Caves, 
and the portals which-" the Thunderer" was to open at his vernal appearing, on a lost 
or winter-stricken earth. 

1 W. Dodd s Trans., Lond. 1755. 

Tree Worship. 83 


We have still very prominent stories, and no little reverence throughout Europe 
for the Holly, or Holy-tree of our very ancient priests, as well as for the Box, the 
white and coloured Hawthorn or May, for the Sloe or Black Thorn, and for Ivy. 
The Holly was ever the prominent token of joy and good-will, sent from friend to 
friend during our still well known winter saturnalia, or that festive season we now call 
Christmas. It typified the Sun, Osiris, or life, preserved in spite of Typhon or the 
wintry desolation ; and Holly was like the Sun, male and female ; the prickly Holly 
being male, and the non-prickly female. He who plucked the leaves of the female, 
and slept upon them, got reliable dreams, provided he maintained strict silence till 
dawn. Whichever kind of Holly first entered a house at Christmas, determined 
whether the husband or wife should dominate that year. The Holly could protect the 
wearer from lightning and from poison. It decked the house of the awaking Sun- 
god, and now decks that of those who call him the " Sun of Righteousness." The 
maiden who seeks to see her future husband pins the Holly to her night-dress over her 
heart, and goes to sleep with three pails of water in her room ; and if further prophesying 
is desired, the leaves of the female Holly must, on Venus night, Friday, be tied up in a 
handkerchief of three corners (a very lOnic symbol), and be slept upon, and perfect silence 
observed till the next Saturn s-day morn ; all of which tales point to the old, old 
story of both Solar and Phallic proclivities. 


Was always sacred to Bacchus and to wild revelry ; and, like the Holly and Laurel, 
should be used with its berries. The bride and bridegroom in Greece used to get Ivy 
wreaths given them, possibly to signify the way in which they should cling to one 
another, and so increase and pass on. The " Bush " which used to adorn tavern doors 
was Ivy, and with it was associated Maiya s sacred " bird of night," the owl. 


Is one of the four woods which form the Phallic and now Christian cross, 
the other woods being the Cedar, Pine, and Cypress all sufficiently suggestive. 
Northern England and far south Turkey alike bring the box to the tombs of their 
loved ones. Of vernal trees peculiarly holy, we hear of the flowering White Thorn, 
and Elm, both of which must be plucked and worn in May, and are together called 
"May," In olden days persons then found without these about them, ran some risk of 
being drowned, and in most parts of Europe were certain to be well ducked. Some 
think Christ s thorny crown was made of " May," and that it brings bad luck ; 
others say the Black Thorn, or Krishnite, which is the enemy of the white or Sivaik, 
formed the crown. Poor little Jewish boys are severely maltreated in Austria on May 
Day with the Black Thorn. 

8 4 

Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

The English " May pole," decked with coloured rags, tinsel, and serpentine 
streamers, and " the merry morrice dancers," of whom I shall speak by-and-by, with 
the mysterious and now nearly defunct personage " Jack in the Green," are all but the 
worn-out remnants of Tree, Phallic, and Serpent worship. These faiths, history tells us, 
were prevalent both in France and England, until forbidden in the middle ages by 
the ecclesiastical councils in France, and by Laws of Canute 1020 A.c. in England ; 
but they are by no means yet extinct. 

From an article in Fraser of November 1871, by M. D. C., describing his 
pilgrimage to the Ammer in Bavaria on St John s Day, and the theatrical performances 
called Passion-Spiel at Ober-Ammer-gau, I gather various traces of the old faiths of 
Tree, Phajlic, and Isis worship ; and we see how deftly Christianity has welded itself 
on to these, without too rudely breaking down the dear old ties of an ignorant but 
very human and affectionate people. M. D. C. finds, he says, strange drawings over 
the Tyrolese churches and house doors figures of women, circles, and inscriptions 
much less suggestive of Christian subjects, than of those Charms and Runes which 
Maunhardt shows to have been placed on the gables of German houses before the 
introduction of Christianity as a protection from demons. 

There is no mistake as to our old Tree and Serpent faiths. Each hamlet, says 

this writer, has its Maienbaum a long pole 
100 feet or more in height (this is surely 
exaggerated), with alternate blue and white 

^\ J\ UjJ <" "> (r^\ stripes coiling round it, and mark the de- 

" tails of what rests upon this Tyrolese-phallic 
pole ; to make it clearer I give a drawing 
from this and other narrators descriptions. 
The May-pole is intersected by seven, or 
sometimes nine bars, beginning at about 
ten feet from the ground, and running to 
the top, which is adorned with streamers. 
On these bars are various emblematic 
figures. The one at Murau had on lower 
limb, a small tree and a nail with circular 
nob ; on next, a small house, a horse shoe 

and wheel on one side ; a hammer crossed by a pair of pincers on 
the other (as I here for clearness separately depict, for without 
drawings we lose the force of these occult symbols) a broom, 
perhaps Ceres, as a sheaf of corn ; below this was seen the 
Lin gam, with Maya s, symbols, the cup and cock or the bird of 
desire sacred to her. Elsewhere we see a heart, fire, pyramid, Fi s- 30 - TOR AND "WM. 
and inverted pyramid, anchor and water as in Egypt, and a circle pierced by a 


Tree Worship. 85 

line, &c. On upper bar we observe a ladder, cross, milk jug, and bee hive, &c. 
Can any Phallic tale be more complete ? " We must," says the writer, " be here 
content with our general knowledge that the Maienbaum was a Pagan object, and that 
its decorations were originally symbols of the gods and goddesses." Christian 
significance is given to all these ; for as the priest could not efface the old faiths, he 
told his credulous herd that this hammer is that which nailed Christ to the cross, that 
the tree is the conventional olive of church pictures, and that the cross, the cock, the 
cup, and sacred heart are all connected with "the Passion of Christ." The broom 
represents witches, and the horse shoe the corona or Mary s head-dress ; it is also 
Maiya s sign, and is there as a charm to hold witches at bay like the Ephod of old. 
The whole may, I fancy, be taken as one great "tree of life." On May Day, says 
M. D. C., " it is festooned with green branches, for the Bavarian peasants keep up in 
many ways the ancient reverence for sacred trees." When a house is finished, it is 
consecrated by having a birch sapling stuck into the roof, and in a thousand tales the 
poor and ignorant are still taught to fear trees. One story says that before a large fir tree, 
King Ludwig s horse fell three times forward on its knees, and here he built a cele 
brated church, taking care that the fir tree should be in its very centre ; read for 
church, ark or boat, and the signification and old faith is still clearer. " The most 
interesting feature of the Passion Play to me," says M. D. C., " was, that nine young 
birch trees, reaching from floor to ceiling, had been set along the walls inside, at 
intervals of ten to fifteen feet." That the sacred tree of ancient Germany, and even 
of ancient Greece, which has so long been held as a charm against witches, against 
lightning and other evils, should be here overshadowing Christian worshippers, was 
curious enough. " The enclosure was also surrounded by birch trees regularly 
planted. Like our remote ancestors who worshipped Odin, we sat amidst the sacred 

" There are some remote corners of these mountains, it is said, where one who has 
a fever still goes to a birch tree, and shakes it, with the words, Birch, a fever 
plagues me, God grant it pass from me to thee. " If this be so, then we have genuine 
worship of trees this very century in the centre of civilised Europe as truly as we find 
Christ and Mary worship. 

"When one is subject to cramp," says M. D. C., " he takes a broom made of 
birch -switches into his bed." 

The Ammergau play is traced back far into Pagan times. It appears to have 
been always the custom to represent here the deeds of the gods and heroes of the 
people theatrically, and hence we see the old signs of the tree, the upright pole 
streaming with serpents, and all the symbols of fecundity still on the living scenes of 
this canvas. The Christian priest used as his own what he could not remove, or he 
was perhaps himself too ignorant or bigoted towards the old faiths to wish to see them 
entirely effaced. " It is probable," says this writer, " that the sacred birches, which 

86 . Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

surround these scenes of Christian story, once witnessed the drama of the life and 
death of Balder, or that later still, the branches of palm which the children strew in 
the path of Christ as he enters Jerusalem, were once cast before the chariot of the Sun- 
god, to symbolise the fresh foliage with which his warm beams invested the earth. 
Such dramas were, in every ancient religion, the only Bible of the poor." Need we 
then wonder at the corruptions which follow every introduction of a new faith, and 
that we find faiths twine in and out of one another in endless maze ; that the feats 
and virtues and wise sayings of a Boodha, crystallize round a Krishna, and again 
encrust the life of a Christ? On the curtain of the open theatre where M. D. C. 
witnessed the Passion Spiel was " pictured Jerusalem, with the sacred olive responding 
to our sacred birches. Over the front of the stage was a fresco representing three 
beautiful female figures." One was a mother with a babe, another held a book and a 
chalice, the third was in a green robe with luminous yellow fringe, a fillet around her 
golden hair, and a rose in her hand. It was as easy, says this spectator, to recognize 
in this third figure as in the first, the ancient Maternal Goddess of Germany her 
Maya, whom, however, she called her Madonna. It was she who had replaced her 
Bertha, the shining one, the Frau Rose ; sometimes she was dressed in green to denote 
the earth, and in gold to denote the warm sun-shine. The figure in the centre recalled 
the traditional vesture and .look of Freyja, goddess of love, but here she appeared 
" with book and chalice, as the genius of Christianity, uniting the tender and earthly 
womanhood embodied in Bertha, with the more spiritual idea typified in the Madonna. 
The figures were seated on clouds, and surrounded by stars." 

"With the birch-trees waving around," continues M. D. C., "and these old sym 
bols of once great religions before me, I felt thrilled by an impression of having reached 
a spot where the pre-historic religion could be traced visibly blending with Chris 
tianity, and the blending was not violent. When the curtain rose, the same maternal 
principle which gave birth to Bertha with her rose, was exalted in Mary, and the bird 
of the myth hovered over one who fed mankind with life-blood freely rendered from 
his own breast " the writer alluding here to the fabled pelican, which fed its young 
with its own blood, and which was carved and painted in the groinings of the roof. 
The old myth was perhaps more kind and paternal than that of an angry Father, 
requiring the violent death of an innocent son to satisfy wrath or even offended 

This age has, it appears, abolished the devil from this drama. " Its aim is to 
bring before the listener, in one scope of thought, the curse of man and his redemp 
tion, these being symbolised in two trees, that of the forbidden fruit and the tree of 
the Cross ; " for tradition says the Cross is made out of the wood of this tree of Eden. 
It is Mary and her joys and sorrows, not Christ, who excites the feelings and pious 
emotions of the audience, says M. D. C. She enters first crowned and adorned, sing 
ing the Song of Solomon, and bewailing the absence of the Bridegroom. She then 

Tree Worship. 87 

appears as the lowly peasant mother keeling at the feet of her son, as he parts from 
her "to go into Bethany." This touch of human feeling moistened every eye, the 
spectators were as the weeping daughters of Jerusalem standing with bowed heads 
around the kneeling mother. " We felt then," says M. D. C., " that the play was not 
for us : it was acted by peasants for peasants ; I found also in their tears and radiant 
faces, that they were getting from their love of the Holy Mothoi* all that conception 
of a Divine tenderness throned in this universe, which a Channing sought, in dwelling 
on the fatherly relation of God to man." M. D. C. " doubts if Protestantism has suf 
ficiently pondered the fact, that the religions which have signally reached and con 
quered the hearts of the poor, have been those which have apotheosized the feminine 
element. The human heart must pass from the adoration of Isis, Minerva, Ceres, 
Bertha, and Mary, but the love principle has not perished with the forms which repre 
sented this or that phase of its evolution and the great faith which in the future 
shall unite all hearts, must reveal in all fulness, that divine love, with which the 
Bavarian peasant has invested the Heavenly Woman whom he adores, far more than 
the majestic Jehovah, or even the official and princely Christ. The Play draws the 
heart to Mary rather than to Christ. He is the Imperial Being, with no touch of 
humanity but the fleshly form. His voice has the monotony of a clock, ticking through 
its hour. The air of the High Priest attends him, even when he washes his disciples 
feet, and with a tone of superiority says, If I, your Lord and Master, have washed 
your feet, &c. Sympathy for him in his persecutions and sufferings is even chilled by 
sustaining angels stepping forth to help him, and voices from heaven encouraging him. 
At no time did Jesus cause so much feeling as poor Judas, when he approached the 
tree to hang himself. The air of Omniscience is offensive in any one bearing the 
human form." I have dwelt at greater length on this religious festival, and in this 
place than it seems to merit, but I desire to show not only the old faiths, but that 
strong feeling of the human breast towards the worship of Maiya, or the Celestial 
Mother, whose earliest home we find in Vedic races. 

I may note here that this writer, M. D. C., afterwards describes witnessing " a 
St John s fire," this last surviving symbol of Loki god of all earthly fires, as his name 
Loki or Leuch indicates but who has passed to feed nether flames, leaving the super 
natural torch to the prophet of the wilderness. 

This reminds us of the important "burning bush" of Exodus iii. 2 which, by the 
bye, Josephus tells us was holy before the flame appeared in it. He says, "because of its 
holy character" it became the vehicle of the burning, fiery, or jealous God of the Jews. 

Fergusson says that the "Ashera," or grove worship of the Hebrews, was 
also Tree Worship to which, of course, I demur, as a mixing up of distinct faiths, 
though faiths held by the same people, to which I cannot quite find a parallel 
in our present religions. No doubt Hebrews saw in the Tree the most beautiful and 
most ancient temple under which man found it easiest to lift up his thoughts to God. 

88 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

It then became naturally the spot under which his images of Baal, Asher, and Ashera 
(Bible, grove) were placed, for we read that at first the people placed these " under 
every green tree," and afterwards in the holiest parts of their temples ; yet this was no 
actual Tree worship, but I think an after-development of that faith. The sacred groves 
of Dodoua, we now know, were fast falling into disuse when the various writers of the 
Old Testament wero penning the traditionary story regarding the creation of this 
world and of their :mcestors. Fergusson says truly that " both Trees and Serpents 
were worshipped in Judea ; " but T think I am right in showing that these faiths had 
certain dominant eras, precisely as certain doctrines and dogmas have had in all 
churches. Tree worship was on the decline in Syria in the 7th century B.C., though, 
according to Jeremiah, it was common in 600 B.C. 

Fergusson says that he cannot discover any Tree worship in Syria after Christ ; 
I find it among Mahomedans up to the present time, and Serpent Worship down to 
the 7th century A.C. Indeed, this last was only swept away by that great purifier of 
Idol Worship Mahomedanism. 

The Mahomedan, as already stated, no less than the Christian, will be found 
down to the present hour bowing constantly before his sacred trees Darakt-i-Fazl. 
The Arbre Sec, or Darakht-i-Kooshk " the dry tree," is a very holy object, and said 
by Chardin to be a thousand years old : it still attracts the crowds of Ispahan into 
the suburbs of that capital. Another, in a garden of Sliiraz, is hung with amulets, 
rags, and tapers, the .offerings of the pious, whilst precisely the same will be found 
going on in far-off China. In Shansi there is an inscription urging the holy to prayer 
before a sacred tree, saying, " If you pray you will certainly be heard." (See on this, 
and the Arbre Sec, Yule s Marco Polo, Vol. I., chap, xxii.) Alexander, says the 
legend, ascended a lofty hill by 2500 steps to a temple of the Sun, to see for himself 
"the Tree of the Sun" (the male), and that " of the Moon " (the female), and they 
prophesied his fortunes and his death. Firdusi describes in the " Shah-Namah, " 
Alexander s interview with this " speaking tree." Marco Polo came upon the Arbre 
Sol of the Persians, or Arbre Sec of Christians, in the high plains N.E. of Persia, and 
Colonel Yule states that it was a very large Chinar, or Oriental plane-tree. The natives 
occasionally seem to have clothed the male " Chinar " with male, and the female, or 
Lunar one, with female skins of wild . beasts. " The trees of the Sun and 
Moon are represented on several extant ancient medals ; e.g. on two struck at 
Perga in Pamphylia in the time of Aurelius. Eastern story tells us of two vast 
cypress trees, sacred among the Magians, which grew in Korasan ; one in Kash- 
meer near Turshiz, and the other at Farmad near Tuz ; these are said to have 
risen from shoots that Zoroaster brought from Paradise." A Kalif is said to 
have sacrilegiously cut. down one in the ninth century A.C., which was fourteen and 
a half centuries old, and about fifty feet in girth. Of course, the hewer-down came to 
an untimely end, for the Palm and the Cypress are dwellers in the Magian Paradise. 

Tree Worship. Y 89 

Abram s "Oak of Mamre" was known and long revered by the Saracens 
as the " Dirpe" and by the heathen as " Kuroo Thereck," or the dry tree. They 
say that it existed from the beginning of the world, and used to be green and bear 
leaves till Christ died, when it and all trees then existing dried up : that a great 
Prophet will yet arise in the West who will miraculously cause this tree to bud 
and blossom, and Saracens and Jews to embrace Christianity ; of course we have such 
oracular sayings denied elsewhere. A certain Friar Aiiselmo gravely tells us in 1509, 
that " Abram s oak of Hebron was then a tree of dense and verdant foliage, and has 
been so ever since Abram s days, i.e. for 3500 years ; that the Saracens hold it in great 
veneration and offer prayers to it, and adorn it with scraps of writing and cloths ; " 
another Friar, however, writes in 1283, that it dried up, but that a representative has 
sprung up from its base. Now, though such is not after the manner of Oaks, yet it is 
very much after the way of Priests, not to let profitable shrines extinguish themselves. 
I lately read in an " Indian Daily," that some priests were specially admitted by the 
British sentry over the Alahabad Fort gate one early murky m >rning, carrying a large 
green Banian (ficus religiosa) bough, and that shortly after, it was announced to the 
faithfal that the sacred underground tree of Pra-Yag s most ancient shrine had revived, 
an^ was waiting to be worshipped. It is said that the dry trunk of Abram s oak 
existed up to the end of the seventh century A.C., under the roof of the church which 
Constantine caused to be built over it. The sacred Mahominedan city of Tabreez had 
also its holy tree built over ; so that both the " peoples of the book " vied in offering 
adoration to man s first faith, down to the fourteenth and fifteenth century A.C. One 
set of stories tell us that a certain holy tree was the staff or pole of Mahomed, and 
another that of Adam. Adam is said to have " got his staff on Saturday at twilight," 
after God had completed creation and was going to rest ; this was just after telling 
Adam to "be fruitful ;" he handed it down to Enoch, and hence to all the patriarchs, 
but others s^y he gave it to Seth, and that "it was a branch of the Tree of Life," i.e. 
of the tree which gives life or generates. It was doubtless the " budding rod " of Moses, 
and later no doubt became our Glastonbury Thorn, which British Christian legend says 
was the staff of Joseph of Arimathea ! In the centre of the city of Vienna still exists 
the sacred tree, to which the now mighty city owes its site, if not its very existence. It is 
said of the Viennese that whether about to travel or in trouble, they still go to record 
a vow, or offer a prayer, or bit of tinsel to the mysterious shrine. 

Burton and others tell us of Tree veneration all over Africa. It is death, there, 
to injure holy trees, but nails may be driven in and votive offerings hung thereon. 

The beautiful elm tree of Kc-rasan is proverbially a barren tree, 1 which seems to 
militate against the idea of its being the Deoian Oak of Ceres, which the Serpent Deity 
Erektheus cut down. (Ovid s Met. VIII. 760.) Ceres representative daughter Pro 
serpine was called after her, Deois, and was seduced, says Ovid, by Jupiter in the form 

1 Schiltberger, quoted by Yule. 
I. M 

QO Rivc^ s of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

of a speckled serpent. (Ovid s Met. VI. 114.) Deo was Ceres, and we have in The 
or De the root from whence comes Delphos, our female oracle of the Kastalian spring, 
in which was erected the Serpent oracle, but whose Guardian was ever a woman. 
Ovid mentions " the t ,ie of Pallas " in connection with a palm as causing Latona to 
bring forth twins (Mv;t. VI. 335), which I am induced to think merely means the 
Lingam, or " tree of life, iu connection with the Palm, as a very fruitful and upright 
tree ; we may read <p for . 

I will here condense what Fergusson tells us in his beautiful book on " Tree and 
Serpent Worship/ regarding the worship of " the Tree of Life." Adam, says a poet, 
had three seeds put into his mouth (very allegorical poetry indeed), and they pro 
duced a cedar, a cypress, and a pine, all trees sacred in phallic lore : these three 
united and formed one tree, which then possessed the power of multiplying itself. 
Solomon (gravely say these pious writers) cut it down to support his house, but to this 
it disdained to confinev its powers, so he cast it into the brook Kedron, in which the 
Queen of Sheba discovered it, owing to its many virtues ; these she was no doubt a 
competent judge of, having come to Solomon to learn of his wisdom, and having gone 
back, say the AbysinianS, to give to them a race of stalwart Solomons. 1 This Quoen it 
appears buried the tree of life in the pool of Bethesda, and here the very christen 
Empress Helena "recognised it owing to its miraculous powers." She, we knov, 
was then divorced from her husband ; but after her return with this " tree of life " 
(the fourth century A.C.) owing to a new and dominant faith, it turned into " the 
true cross," and the pious Empress was restored to her husband. The history is here, 
as elsewhere, rather disconnected, like all religious tales, but we learn that one Chosroes 
took the true cross into Persia, and one Heraclius brought it back, when it appears to 
have got cut up into the numerous fragments, which pious Christian kings, priests, 
and laities, fought and wrangled over for many centuries. It evidently had then great 
powers of multiplying itself, though it does not seem to have exercised these from 
Adam to the time of the first Christian Empress ; we find the " pious king " Philip 
Augustus building a Sainte Chapelle over one of its fragments a temple, to use Fer- 
gusson s words, "probably among the most beautiful ever erected to Tree worship." 

Fergusson thinks Tree worship the most common in Asyrian history ; and adds, 
that although the Serpent was- the Father oracle, yet Aryans, as a rule, destroyed 
Serpents and Serpent-worshipping races. In Greece he sees abundance of both Tree 
and Serpent Faiths, though both became less prominent as Grecian civilization 
advanced. How could such stand anidst the abundance of learning and plain good 
moral sense, which was starting up in the fifth contury B.C., and daily increasing in 
vigor, till it probably gave birth to Christianity ? 

* Early Arabian tales of Islam tell us that the Queen of Sheba worshipped the Sun, and that 
Solomon was an Islamite ! and married her after her conversion. (See Mrs Godfrey Clerk s " His. 
Tales of Early Kalifas.") 

Tree Worship. 91 

Pausanias, in 133 A.C., tells us that serpents were then worshipped in the 
sacred groves of Epidaurus ; and in the Erechtheum at Athens, says Fergusson, 
" we still find a temple dedicated to Tree and Serpent worship," for " it was to the 
serpent Erekthonius that Minerva handed over her sacred olive." The tree under 
which Agamemnon was sacrificed, was mounted by a serpent, whom Zeus turned into 
a stone (query Linga ?) ; for the trunk became stone, and every particle of it sacred, 
like the "true Cross." 

In the Epirus grove of the Dodona Jove, the Virgins had to go naked and present 
food to the serpent ; if it received it, then was prosperity for the year insured. This 
tree and serpent shrine flourished 600 B.C., and was then a voice which no kings or 
nations could set aside, and down even to the time of Constantine it was a holy place, 
and t. poiver in tfie land. These tree and serpent shrines abounded everywhere. 
Thus, about sixteen miles out of Rome, Fergusson tells us, was a deep cave where 
virgins went to prove their chastity ; if the god accepted their offerings, all people 
knew them to be pure, and also that they would be fertile. The Serpent here was in 
a dark and sacred grove adjoining a temple of Argiva, the Argonian Juno. 

In travelling about amongst aboriginal tribes, I have often been struck with the 
poSftJon of a holy tree curiously marked with a serpent or quaint creeper on its trunk, or 
on a stone leaning against it, and with two great stones on either side just peering above 
the tun, and frotn which the aborigines do their best to keep unbelievers, although these 
ar^ commonly used by themselves for sacrificial and other apparently festal purposes. 
Writings regarding Petrea Ambrosia, or the stones of the gods, and Syrian cairns and 
sculptures such as are seen in my plates IV. and V., pages 98 and 102, awoke me to study 
the cause and frequent recurrence 
of these two earth-bound stones, 
and the result of careful and pro 
longed inquiry assured me, that 
where the testes are not thought 
to be here symbolised, then these 
side stones are looked upon as 
half-hidden lingams, and there 
fore very specially sacred. Every /f* 
reader of these subjects knows / 
what an important part "Earth- 
fast Stones " play in the faith of 
the earliest races, and of our 
own fathers, as Colonel Forbes 
Leslie s "Early Races" makes 
very clear. The stem with the Fig - 81 A COMMON SNAKE AND LINGAM TREE OF ABORIGINAI - TRIBES - 

serpent twisted round it is a common form of Maha-Deva, and so also is the 

92 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

notion of his supporting the world ; and hence that the peering out earth-fast rocks 
are his folds, and thus appearing show the foundations of his power and prolificness. 
My sketch shows what is also usual under these trees viz., the ordinary Linga on a 
platform. The common Syrian coins in the Plates are clearly meant to convey the 
same idea, and, in addition, that of Pandora s Box, or Woman. Ossian seems to have 
been cognisant of the occult lore of half-hidden stones, for in Hermes Brittannicus, 
p. 70, we read from Ossian : 

" A tale of the times of old, the deeds of the days of other years, 
The murmur of thy streams, oh Lora, 
Brings back the memory of the past ; 
Dost thou not be/told a rock with its head of heath ? 
There the flower of the mountains, grows, the thistle is there alone, 
Two stones, half sunk in the ground, show their heads of moss ; 
The deer of the mountain avoids the place, 
For he beholds the grey ghost that guards it, 
For the mighty lie in the narrow place of the Rock." 

And " the mighty one," " our Rock," is a very common Old Testament phrase. 



THE second great deity, and to us in this civilised and wholly changed state of exist 
ence, strange and ever horrible deity, is one still most prominent the anguis in herbd 
or mysterious " stranger in the grass," who overcame with honied words the fabled 
mother of us all, and who, to the astonished gaze of the primitive race, overcame by 
god-like power, man, as well as the strongest beast of the field. That as a mere 
reptile he was " subtler," as the story says, than every other creature, has not since 
appeared, but his subtle mode of approach, his daring and upright dash, was pictured 
8f god-like, and in nearly all Eastern countries he is still not only feared but worshipped 
as " the God of our Fathers" and the symbol of desire and creative energy. 

He is the special Phallic symbol which veils the actual God, and therefore do we 
find him the constant early attendant upon Priapus or the Lingam, which I regard as 
the second religion of the world. I take the liberty for many reasons of not devoting 
a specific chapter to Phallic faiths. I have tried on several occasions to do so, but 
find that I shall be quite as able, and more agreeably, to treat of these, if I can veil, 
like the priests and priestesses of its many mysteries, some of its grossest parts ; it 
enters also so closely into union with all faiths, to the present hour, that it is impossible 
to keep it out of any chapter. 

On a bed of serpents, in a milky sea, Bramanic story tells us, sits the mighty Vish- 
noo or Narayen and his spouse Lakshmee. The Hindoo calls Him, Vishnoo, so seated, 
"The Mighty," the " Infinite One," " The Abode of Life." He it is who manifests 
Himself from time to time as man, in the richly woven, tales of Vedic Avatars. 1 He is the 
preserver of the gods, DevSs and of man on the earth. He is " God in eternity," the 
many coils of the snake .representing Infmiteness and Eternity, especially so, as repre 
sented by Egyptians, with tail in mouth ; or by Boodhists, as two fish, male and 
female, kissing each other under the fleur de Us, as seen in fig. 6 of my plate V. 

The Pooranas call the snake four thousand hooded and four armed " the bed, 
on which Chaos rested before creation, and must again rest after creation," and 
identify the serpent with the great Narayen, sometimes calling it his Incarnation. 
There is no mythology or ancient sculpture in which the serpent does not bear a part. 

1 In Sanscrit, Avatara, signifies " Descent of a deity from heaven." 


94 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

Egypt, nay Mexico in the Far West, vied with China and Japan in the Far East, and 

from unknown ages, to do him honour. They 
called him the Spirit of the Sun the holy 
Osiris OB or AB, the FATHER OF ALL, and 
surrounded him with winged glories, and to 
him, say the Chinese to the present hour, 
do their mighty dead go. 1 He was as sacred 
as fire and water, in almost every nation, when we first hear of it ; save with 
Zoroastrians, the teachers of the Jewish cosmogony, and they called him in their early 
writings the first creation of their Satan, Ahriman, but this was, I suspect, a heresy from 
an older faith which loved him. The wildest as well as most civilised nations alike 
revere this symbolic reptile ; the Dahomeys of this day have a grand palace for their 
holy serpent, as Egypt had for Apis, which is a later god than Op-is, the serpent 
deity ; he who kills a snake in Dahomey can only be purified through fire and water. 
The universality of Serpent Worship has long been- acknowledged by the 
learned, though rarely of late in Europe has the real cause or symbolism been under 
stood. It is called Ophiolatry, or Ophiolatreia, and thereupon put aside as quite under 
stood, but " a mere superstition," not even so good as Mary-olatry, and nothing to 
u compare to Bibli-olatry, or Christ-olatry, &c. I suspect we might count upon our 
fingers the number even of learned men who in Europe see through the real meaning 
of the Serpent. Even the Bible story so familiar to all Europe regarding woman 
bruising its head, and it her " heel," or rather Akab spy, which Dr Donaldson tells. us " is 
the pudenda muliebria," is matter which is quite dark to Europe, though when repeated 
to an intelligent Sivaite makes him merely smile. It is fraught with meaning and 
truth, and, properly viewed, is history. It is not all Asiatics who comprehend the 
Serpent ; the far back writer of mythic Sankoniathon failed to do so, or else he satirized 
mankind, for he makes Sankoniathon speak as if both he and the Egyptian Obelisk- 
God-King, Toth or Tauthus, did not see the significance of their faith. In Cory s 
Ancient Fragments, it is said that Sankoniathon attributed to Toth the first adoration 
of the Serpent, and taught this to the Egyptians, "because -the Serpent is the most 
inspirited of all reptiles, and of a fiery nature, swift, moving without hands, assumes 
a variety of forms, and darts with swiftness, is long-lived, renews its youth, and 
enlarges its size and strength." Yet the writer knew, and so do we know, that man 
kind do not worship strange creatures, per se, but only as bringing before them god 
like attributes or features, mysterious and divine. It is not as the insignificant though 
death-dealing little reptile, that man has worshipped him, as we shall see before I have 
rehearsed even the little I know of his ways and of this faith ; this would never have 
crowned him the Basileus of so many great nations and made so many monarchs, 

1 The official edict of this year, announcing the death of their late young king, says " he has gone 
to the great Dragon." 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 95 

nobles, and priests proud to wear his up-reared form on their brows or frontlets. Let 
us glance somewhat generally at him. 

Archeological research, until within the last two generations, showed him 
as a sort of sporadic superstition, though often divine, yet ever closely associated 
with trees and fetishes, and only revered and occasionally worshipped in the 
lowest strata of civilization ; for it overlooked, that " as is our civilization so 
shall our gods be ;" and that sensual and warring people, love " a god of battles," 
him who accepts their barbarous sacrifices and neglects not their passions. The 
Serpent was Siva in all his creature energies, and being so, loved human and bloody 
sacrifices, though he can dwell with races who have passed into a higher stage than 
this. In Greece as well as in India, he survived human sacrifices, though it is pro 
bable he would demand and have these again in the East, were the British power with 
drawn from India. In Egypt, we see the Serpent under a multitude of symbols and 
connected with nearly all the animal kingdom, and often disguised as an animal or 
bird, as the hawk for vivacity and wisdom, the bull for power, &c. In Asyria he is 
often Nishrok, the " eagle-headed-one," as in India he is sometimes Vishnoo, the " eagle- 
borne one." We meet him, says Fergusson, everywhere " in the wilderness of Sinai, 
the groves of Epidaurus, and in Samothracian huts." Yet it is incorrectly held that 
he sprang from the land of the lower Euphrates and is peculiar to the Turanian rather 
than to the Aryan or Shemitic races.. My own investigations oblige me to confess 
that he is a bold man who can fix the place of his birth and death. Lucan in Phars. 
lib. ix. 727, says : " Vos quoque qui cunctis innoxia numina terris Serpitis aurato 
nitidi fulgore Dracones." 1 Kome says she got him from the outlying parts of Italy, 
and Fergusson, following Herodotus and others, shows us his habitation nearly every 
where. We know that he was accepted into the bosom of the Christian Church 
amongst comparatively learned Nicolaitans and Gnostics, and even when not 
worshipped, was held by all Christians as of vast importance in Gentile faiths. Christ 
confessed his "wisdom," which he must have learned from the traditional story connected 
with the Eden myth, for of the reptile s actual wisdom we know nothing ; yet many of 
Christ s followers treasured Serpents, and called themselves Ophites, and the reptile, their 
Saviour s representation if not more. Was not the Serpent " the healer of the nations" 
of Israel from the days of Moses to Hezekiah, occupying the most prominent spot in 
their holy places for 700 years and probably much longer. Wandering Arabs or 
Edumean outcasts from Egypt were, however, but an insignificant part of the 
mighty crowds which followed Python, or Ops, and called him incarnate power and 
wisdom ; he was the power of the Lawgiver s Rod, Banner, or Caduceus, for this is a 
true Phallic emblem, and one which in the case of Israel "the Jhavh" became 
incarnate in, by turning it into that " holy thing," which Moses was desired in his 
troubles to hold up in his hand, and to rear up on a pole for the salvation of the 

1 Trans. You also Serpents which creep gleaming in golden splendour, harmless deities in all lands. 

96 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

tribes. Then and there also was said of this deity what we still hear said of him 
in India that " if he stings, or even kills, he is also the healer of all evils." 

His was the first faith of man which produced broadly announced Incarnations, 
for those of my second Stream of Faith were veiled in bodily gods, and came naturally. 
Hundreds north and south, east and west, have worshipped Serpent incarnations, 
and thousands have claimed him as their father, and vowed that they have been over 
shadowed by him ; and in true historic times the second century A.C., Lucian, the 
Syrian Greek, asserts that he was born of a Serpent. The emperor Augustus, a century 
previous, said the same of his god-like origin, and the great and pious Scipio 
Africanus, who daily worshipped the gods in the Capitol before beginning the duties 
of the day, tells us that, in the third century A. a, his young life was nursed by a 
Serpent. See also the good and learned Emperor Hadrian, in the second century A.C., 
sending away to the furthest East for a Serpent to place in the temple of Jupitei 
Olymjnis at Athens. Philip of Macedon believed that his wife Olympia (fitting 
name) conceived Alexander the Great by a Serpent, which, says the historian, " was 
found in her bed ! " She, if not her husband, believed she was to produce an incar 
nate god, which had probably something to do with their "initiating" them 
selves, and becoming adepts in the Samothracian mysteries. Olympia traversed all 
the wilds of Mount Hemus as a Bacchante, having attendants garlanded with Serpents 
and ivy, and holding Thyrsi, and was evidently a poor hysterical fanatic, who would 
readily give out that she had a child from the Lord. 

In the Jewish Genesis, written, some fancy, about 1000 B.C., but which, as will be 
seen by-and-by, was, as we have it, only old legends furbished up by Ezra in the 5th 
C.B.C., or even later, the Serpent is pictured as the real preserver of the human race, for 
it is acknowledged that he was the giver of wisdom to our early parents, and taught 
Eve, a form of himself, that she was naked, and the purposes of woman. Now, it is 
as this imparter of sexual wisdom, that Easterns and Westerns, not excepting early 
Christians, worshipped the symbolic reptile. The wisdom of Egypt and Kaldia bowed 
before him, and the learned Esculapius, because the greatest benefactor of his time, 
was likened to him ; and a rod and serpents exhibit his fame down even to our day. 
All nations have sought him in their troubles, and imperial Rome meekly craved that 
he would come, though but for a day, and stay her pestilence. The sacrifices made to 
him were numerous and great, but the most favoured and that which high and low could 
best yield him and his votaries, seemed to be the cock, the announcer of his prototype the 
sun, and for other reasons appropriate. I show here the popular Hygia, the virgin goddess 
of health, and usually called the daughter of Esculapius, feeding from a cup her own 
emblem, the loved god encircling the Phallic pole ; the consequence of such love and care 
stands by her side, proclaiming the emblematic deity to be in ancient days, as well as 
now, the great creator, as well as the SOTER KOSMOU, and Health-giver of nations, names 
of Siva and the Sun, bestowed by all who consider population the great strength and 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


salvation of a nation. This picture, held to represent health and the healthy actions 
of nature, is abundantly varied in classic statu 
ary and pictures. In the Napoleonic Museum 
of the Louvre used to be a group, of which the 
centre was an upright column, on which stood a 
man with raised staff- that self-same idea which 
caused the Edumean tribes to say when they 
warred to the death with the Amalekites, that their 
leader must stand with raised rod, as the symbol of 
an imperishable people. Round the Louvre staff 
was a coiled serpent, and at the base the Boodhist 
wheel of life, or probably the Sun. Respectfully 
adoring this symbol of life, there stood on one side 
a winged female figure, who with one hand was presenting her cup to the Serpent, 
who longingly reaches down its head towards her ; in the other hand was a flambeau. 
On the opposite side stood a warrior touching the snake in a quaint manner, as if 
urging it on to do something. 

A Serpent twisted round the stem of a tree in which case it is " the Tree of Life," 
or "Life-giving Tree" is very common. In the adjoining Plate IV. he is seen in Fig. 
11, as on the stem, between symbolic rocks, with the Ark, the feminine emblem below ; 
and in Fig. 10 he is twisted round what is usually termed " the Yule Log" that is, 
the Sun, Hull or Seul stone, a name for the Lingam ; whilst the date-palm symbol of 
Adam, stands on the one side, and a common form of the konch shell, or Adama, on 
the other. Figure 3 of this plate is another sort of pictorial pun, which I have 
elsewhere alluded to, where man himself forms the Phallic Cross, and the Serpents the 
other emblems of this lore. 

There are several highly significant forms in my Plates IV. and V., showing how 
mankind loved to represent their Serpent king, and we might fill dozens of sheets with 
such drawings. In Fig. 1, Plate V., he is seen on an Esculapius rod, of which the meaning 
is made more unmistakable than usual by its issuing from a vaginal sheath, such as 
that of the crozier of Cashel, which is seen further on. I give here a drawing of what 
is called a Tyrean cistopharos coin, in which we observe two 
upreared serpents fighting or kissing over what is usually called 
a quiver sheath, in which. are other serpentinish objects. This 
" quiver " is only so in Solomon s sense of quivers, for it 
precisely what we see beside Apollo as he stands in Fig. 44, page] 
127, "passing through the door of life," and is in my opinion 
the ark, argo or womb of nature, but here the nest of the 
Serpents, for they are male and female. The one on the left 
is a large male, and still more clearly indicated as the male 

T. N 

Fig. 34. TTKFAN COIN. 

98 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

element, by having, his Egyptian type, the Apis (Op-is), behind him a position 
quite similar to that of the Sivaik Nanda in front of the Youi. On the reverse of the 
coin is generally, the. well-known Cista Mystica, half open, and from which a Serpent 
is seen issuing, and around which are Bacchic-looking objects, grapes, vine-leaves 
formed like Phalli, &c. ; this will be seen further on. 

The cist is often shown below the other figures, as in the coin, Fig. 11, Plate IV. ; 
sometimes it is the ark or the altar, now altar-table with Christians, but still the ark 
with our Jewish friends ; the shank shell, or koncha veneris, represents it with our 
Indian brethren, as this is seen in coins 1 and 10 of this same plate. This altar feature 
is very varied, and always very holy even to the touch ; that is equally a holy altar or 
ark on which the holy fire is burning, and from the base of which spring two 
Serpents, and that conical-like cist believed to represent the Paphian Venus, whose 
symbol was ovate, such as is seen in Fig. 3, Plate V., which is taken from one of 
Lajard s drawings of a bronze coin of Vespasian struck in Cyprus : Here two lighted 
candles (highly Phallic symbols) are seen burning by the sides of this altar of Love, 
and passion is springing from the two altar-pillars and wreathing over the altar itself, 
which here serves to cover the scene supposed to be enacted below, as in the case of 
a remarkable Pompeian painting which follows. 

In Fig. 4, Plate IV., we have a great gem, originally also from Lajard s Recherches 
sur le Culte de Venus, which embraces more ideas than most. " It is a white agate 
stone shaped like a cone (therefore Sivaic), and this cutting is on the lower face," so 
that the shape of the whole is either a Lingam or the Paphian cone. The central 
rudder-like column is highly mystic, and may represent either the general idea of all 
great gods being bi-sexual, or, as Dr Inman thinks, " the Androgyne deity, as Balaam, 
Ashtaroth, Elohim, Jupiter Genitor, or the bearded Venus Mylitta ; " * for on the right 
we have a bare female face, and on the left a bearded face, an inverted triangle, and 
radiating solar corona connecting the two heads. Feminine symbols preponderate on 
the right ; even the Serpent on that side seems to be denoted as feminine, having a 
large round head and very prominent eye, and Isis crescent moon over-head and cup 
below, and a six-rayed star in the centre ; whilst on the left we have a bearded man, 
the usual pointed serpent-head, and this in the solar aureol, which is generally a male 
sign ; but, on the other hand, we have a Yoni here ; below is shown a cup over a 
phallic-shaped vase, such as is still the favourite form for all oil and water vessels in 
Sivaic temples ; over the whole are three stars. The grand embodied idea is no doubt 
passion, or creation. The Caduceus idea of Fig. 1, Plate V., is again given as usually 
worn by men of authority in Fig. 9, Plate IV., or else it is here to denote that this 
Serpent on the right is the male, a fact often thus emphasized in Phallic lore. 

It is only, I think, the shores of the Mediterranean, about India and the banks of 

1 Ancient Fait/is embodied in Ancient Names, I. this bold and earnest writer for all the figures in 
Descriptive Plates, xiii. I am greatly indebted to Plates IV. and V., and very much else. 


Serpent and Phallic Worship* 99 

the Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile, that have yielded to us these Serpent coins and 
seals, though it is agreed on all hands that " Serpent worshippers swarmed up the 
great rivers of Europe " also : In the dark Teuton forests, the Tree and the 
Grove sufficed the rude fierce tribes, but even here we read of plenty of Serpent 
worship on high hill tops, in caves and watery caverns ; it is probably only our want 
of records and remains which prevents our tracing more fully this third great 
faith of man through all our European states ; for Ophiolatry is abundantly clear 
amidst Skands and Kelts, as we shall by and by see. 

Fergusson says that in Sarmatia the worship of both tree and serpent was 
common, but the Samagitse considered the serpent to be the God. In Lithuania the 
veneration for the serpent was extreme. Prague offered sacrifices arid oblations to 
numerous and much revered serpents, and Livonia sacrificed the most beautiful captives 
of her wars to her serpent gods, and this down to " the middle ages." Olus Magnus 
writes, that the Poles worshipped Fire, Serpents, and Trees in deep woods, even in 
1386 A.C. when, the prince and his brethren having been won over to Christianity, the 
truculent herd followed. 

The ease with which real Serpent worshippers embrace Christianity, and all 
faiths dealing, like it, with mysteries and miracles, is seen in the Christian success 
amidst the Serpent and Devil worshipping lower classes of Dravidian India ; a striking 
contrast to its utter want of success amidst the Aryans of Upper India, or any culti 
vated races in India or elsewhere ; to this much attention will be hereafter given. 

Tree, Serpent, and Fire worship existed in Norway and Wermalandia down to 
1555, and in Esthonia and Finland, down to the limits of this century, so far as 
veneration for some of the characteristics of these old faiths go. In the Ammergau 
Passion-play of a few years ago, I have shown the symbols of the old faiths very 
unmistakably played out before great potentates of Europe. Fergusson gives us 
some of the Te Deum which was offered as praise and prayer to Trees, but which 
litany is now transferred to the Virgin and Christ rarely to God. 

The great route, he says, by which these old faiths passed back and forward, 
is a line connecting the north border of the Caspian Sea with the mouth of the Vistula 
in the Baltic, but I give, by a wash of red across my Plate II. "The World according 
to Strabo," the more detailed general lines by which all the great faiths and heroes of 
pre-historic days travelled. 

Woden, as the Serpent, may have come from the sunny south, and been perhaps 
ol Boodhist offspring, but as a Serpent Deity, we must relegate him to a still 
mightier past. Perhaps we had a sunny north, with its own Woden, of which Boodha was 
the southern type : Hercules met the Serpent maiden Ekidna, and from her sprang 
the Skythian hordes with their early hero Eponymos. Here also we must not forget 
our Northern Furies, the Amazones, whose institutions and myths are so closely mixed 
up with Serpent faiths. From the supposed cradles of our Caucasian races, the slopes 

ioo Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

and vales of the mountain range which divides the Caspian, the Euxine, and Sea of 
Asoph, these women-warriors passed along the southern shores of the Euxine, and 
occupied the ancient and important province of Asia Minor, known as Pontus. From 
the bold promontory of Sinope to the rugged shores of Iberia, from the Taurus ranges 
of Capadocia in the south to the Amisus Sinus in the north, many a town long bore 
witness to their name and prowess. Later Greece probably drew from them the myths 
of her " Furies," with their garlands and crowns of serpents, their flaming torch, serpent- 
streamer, and phallic javeline, in throwing which the Amazones were so famous, and 
cut off, says legend, the right breast in childhood to be adepts in it. This extraordinary 
race, who reversed the laws of nature, took for their battle cry, fury, vengeance, and 
blood, and combined with the strength and vigour of the male sex, the worst features 
of depraved womanhood. The myth is rather a tangled mass, but in their conquest by 
Hercules (manly vigour) and Bellerophon, we probably see the violence of woman s 
passion for offspring satiated by the Hercules, and blessed by fertility in Bellerophon 
the Sun God. 

In ancient Teutonic mythic story, the Hercules who destroys the Dragon race is 
Sigurd or Siegfried, which tells us of early serpent worshipping races, everywhere 
giving place to others. Owing to the very early settlement of Zoroastrianism in the 
countries we now call Persia, it is not easy to show here the prevalence of serpent wor 
ship, and still less, the older faith in holy trees. No doubt the Ahriman or Fiend 
whom Ormazd overthrew was the serpent ; he was the Rawana of Ceylon and the Loki 
of Skandinavia. 

Media and Arabia, which I take to be Ethiopia, were the obstinate seats of 
serpent worship ; and sculpturings, as well as ancient writings assure us, that Afgan- 
istan was, until the ascendancy of Mohamedanism, almost wholly devoted to serpent 
worship. Possibly the Median Court was somewhat cleared of its proclivities towards 
pure Ophiolatry by the sixth century B.C., or at all events before Cyrus time, but our 
knowledge is far too scanty to say this of the mass of the people. That there was 
some great move of the serpent loving races in the sixth century B.C. we know from 
the vast wave which, under the name of Tak-shooks, swept down from Media, Aria, 
and Bactria, &c., through the mountain passes of India " a teeming hive of Skythia," 
says Marshman in his " History of India," across the Indus and down upon the plains 
of India. Another swarm is then also said to " have moved on the north of Europe," 
so we can understand that some clearing out was about this sixth century B.C. beino- 
effected in Asia Minor and eastward as far as Kabol. Fergusson thinks we have " the 
last material trace of serpent worship in Persia in a bas relief at Nakshi Roostem, 
near Persepolis," the capital of what is known as Hollo w-Persis south and far east of 
Babylon ; the very name " Nak," suggests that the city belonged to serpent worship. 
The relief shows the first Sasanian king seated on a horse, which is trampling under 
foot Ardevan the last of the hated Parthian or serpent kings, who, like the famous 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. i o i 

Zohak, has a wreath of two serpents round his head. The great Ormazd is seen 
crowning the new dynasty of Fire- worshippers, which probably then 226 A.C., 
was after long centuries of war and bloodshed, established in these wilds >of ancient 

The Greeks knew all ancient Persia for several centuries before Christ, and we have 
abundant notices by them of serpent, Phallic, and Zoroastrian faiths as there existing. 
In the well known ancient name, called differently Zohak or Azhi-dahaka, (the de 
structive serpent of Zend literature, who was conquered by the Zoroastrian hero Thrae 
tona) or short, Ajdaliak pronounced by the Persian Dehak (ten evils), the Arabian 
Dechak or " the laugher," or Azdehak, him with a shoulder disease (thought to be ser 
pents which destroy men), we can see much that points to a more ancient faith than even 
archaic Magianism. Miiller says, that " possibly Dehak was an ancestor of that Median 
dynasty which came to an end in Astyages " the reputed grandfather of Cyrus, and 
if so, then the serpent dynasty probably fell when Boodha was rising in India and 
Lao-tsee in China. Burnouf makes it clear that Thraetona was the Firidoon, of Firdusi s 
Shah-name, and that Firidoon slew Zohak a King of Persia " the biting serpent," and 
this accords with what the Avesta says of Thraetona slaying the serpent Azhi-dahaka. 
The demon who opposes the gods of the Zend-Avesta is always Ahi, the serpent, and 
the particular reigning King of the serpent worshippers has here only his own name 
appended to Ahi or Azh : Zohak, say most writers, came from Arabia or Ethiopia of 
ancient days, or even further S.W. as from the serpent lands of Africa where the Faith 
ever nourished, nor has yet ceased to do so ; he was called Bivarasp, " because 
always accompanied by a bodyguard of 10,000 men," and was said to have been des 
cended from Tazi or Taj and to have been the son of a herdsman. He conquered all 
central Asia, and fixed his own residence at Babel, and his dynasty lasted 1000 years, 
so that if we place Thraetona or Firidoon, as I do in my Chart, about the time of 
Christ, then Zohak s convulsion in western Asia corresponds with a similar great convul 
sion which was being effected by Rama from Oud through all central and southern India, 
also with the foundation of the Hindoo capital of Indraprestha, and the consolidation 
of the little Jewish kingdom under David. We see in Zohak s faith the usual accom 
paniment of all Phallic faiths ; every day, say Mahomedan writers, two young men 
had to be sacrificed to satisfy the two snakes, and these were fed upon their brains. 
The Zendavesta speaks of Zohak having three snakes, meaning possibly his head as the 
Solar Python between two snakes. All Naga women in the east are represented as with 
one snake between their shoulders, and men with three, five, or seven. The throne of 
Kabol long after Firidoon, was filled by a descendant of Zohak s, and a descendant of 
the Zoroastrian married Koodabeh, the lovely daughter of this serpent dynasty, and 
from the union sprang Roostum, about whom cling the most thrilling romances of the 
east. This Kabol dynasty only gave way apparently to Boodhism so easily grafted on 
Serpent worship. In Kashmere we have this last worship everywhere, and the records 

IO2 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

of the country point to its beautiful lake and mountain fastnesses as the earliest historic 
seats which we have of the faith. Hweng Sang travelling in the first half of the 7th 
century A.C., tells us of serpent temples and Naga chiefs all over Kashmeer, as well as 
the country which we now call Afganistan. He says that fifty years after the Nirvana 
(493 B.C.,) a Boodhist converted the Kashmeer Naga king, who quitted "his tank" 
or lake (for serpents live in water), built 500 Monasteries, and invited sages and saints 
to come and dwell in them (II. 180) ; nevertheless the good priest was not well satisfied 
with the then reigning king, for he says, he frequented the temples of the Kash- 
meeres and despised Boodhism ; so we see that although this faith had prevailed for 
1000 years over almost the whole of India, yet it was still despised by this small 
remote dependency, notwithstanding that its princes had been converted to Boodhism, 
and that the people knew that vast empires had bent before the princely Ascetic s 
faith. This is a point to be remembered in regard to other countries around us ; thus 
although the sword of a Clovis or a Charlemagne commanded Europe a thousand years 
ago, to bow before the cross of the holy Nazarene, yet, as I have elsewhere shown, even 
some of this great Emperor s converts were at that very time likening him to the 
serpent, and nearly 1000 years after he had passed away, there are people, nay tribes, 
even in Europe, who, if they do not revere it, fear it as a mystic animal, and will on 
no consideration injure it. 

There is a curious connection between this water-loving reptile and rain, and the 
weather generally, which always crops up in Aryan story, as well as among aboriginal 
tribes. The Aryan India, ascribed to Ahi the Vedic Serpent God, power over the 
weather, and the Jains following Brahmans tell us that their 23d Tirtakara 1 
Parasva, who died about 777 B.C., was protected from the severest rains by a 
hooded snake when engaged in earnest prayer and meditation. The place where this 
good man sat became a great town under the appropriate name of Chatra, or the 
umbrella or hood. Now, of course, serpent hoods, however grand and perfectly put 
together, could afford no protection from rain, so we must look for symbolism in all 
such tales as well as in the creature itself. 

It is strange how even the most learned of Europe, who have not studied the 
faith in India, fail here, as well as in Fire and Sun faiths, to grasp the abstract symbol 
ism. A first class Review, put into my hands just as this was going to press says, 
that " the chief object of the worship of the Ancients " was a serpent, not a curved 
symbol, but the living beast, not as typifying anything beyond itself, but as actually 
divine ! ! implying that the wise men of all these times, and nations, aye, and mil 
lions of present worshippers, were not only very ignorant, but children, playing with 
dolls ! So it is thought that stones or " Betyls " (Baituli) were mere stones, and 
fire mere fire I! Their symbolism as procreative mediums, never seems to have occurred 
to this writer, although the procreative passion is as strong perhaps, and far more 

1 Usually called " Incarnations ; lit. Pure-doer." 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 103 

violent in its working now than formerly. This reviewer, who is a type of a large 
number of people, says : " Arnobius, a Christian convert of the 4th century, relates that 
in Africa where he resided, he never before his conversion saw a stone upon which oil 
had been poured without paying it homage." 1 Why 1 Not surely if it did "not typify 
something beyond itself." Arnobius would have answered very differently : This 
writer can only fancy that these stones were held to be " Aerolites," or at least to have 
come down from heaven in some mysterious manner, for in no other way can he 
account for the otherwise unaccountable fact, that " stones smeared with oil and called 
Betyls were amongst the earliest objects of devotion," that Jacob made his pillow-stone 
into such a Betyl, and that even according to Acts xix. 35 " the world-famed temple 
of Diana at Ephesus commemorated one of these meteoric stones," and he adds " the 
black stone of Meka is such another." On what authority however, either this last 
or the Diana image is a meteoric stone I know not. The Greek writer in calling it a 
Dio-Petes 3io-*rsrfo, seems only to have meant that it had come from God in the 
same manner as most holy gods and images and even Bibles are said to have come, and 
this is very commonly said of Lingam stones. 

It is here, perhaps, necessary to inform my readers that all conical or erect 
stones, and all quaint or rude masses of Eock usually denote the male sex, unless ovate 
or well-rounded, when they are feminine : Thus, great virility is intended by the rocks 
seen in figures 1 and 11 of plate IV., and so also in most places where we see a Hercules 
or Apollo leaning against a rock, more especially if a serpent is seen entwined or 
crawling near to this. It should not be, but I fear it is, necessary to explain to mere 

English readers of the Old Testament, that the Stone or Rock Tsur iw was 

the real old God of all Arabs, Jews, and Phenicians, and this would be clear to 
Christians were the Jewish writings translated according to the first ideas of the people, 
and Rock used, as it ought to be, instead of "God," "Theos," " Lord," &c. being written, 
where Tsur occurs. In Appendix V. to Dr Oort s Worship of Baalam in Israel, 
translated, with Notes, by Bishop Colenso, we are given no less than twenty-one 
instances in a few lines, of addresses to, or adoration of " the Rock," whose " work is 
perfect," Dent, xxxii. 4, " which begat thee and thou neglectest " (18), of " the Eock in 
whom they trusted," of " Jehovah, my Eock," "my Elohim, my Rock," &c., &c., 2 all 
of which have been gilded or slurred over by the translators, just as these were 
softened down, as Dr Smith s Bible Dictionary informs us under the head LXX., where 
ever bodily parts and passions were ascribed to "the Jhavh." 

This is the case in all nations, Bibles and Faiths : None have ever been true to 
one God, else could not humanity have advanced. Tsurs, which at first were no 

x Adv. Gent. I. 39. 

2 A few texts as to Rock Gods : Deut. xxxii. Ixxviii. 35 ; xcii. 15 ; Is. xxvi. 4 ; xxx. 29 ; xliv. 
4, 18, 30, 31, to 37 ; 1 Sam. ii. 2 ; 2 Sam. xxii. 8 ; Hab. i. 12 ; in all of which the Hock is the 
3, 32-4; and xxiii. 3; Ps. xviii. 2, 31,46; Ps. name of Israel s deity, and as we shall see by and by, 
cxliv. 1 ; Ps. xix. 14 ; Ps. xxviii. 1 ; Ixii. 2, 6 ; the Unhewn Rock. 

i 04 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

doubt unhewn stones (Lingams), gave way to Altars made of earth without steps, 
then altars on which "no tool had been waved," then graven or fashioned stones or 
Bctyls, or, as the Greeks said, Baituli or superior Lingams ; then to built altars, 
with and without steps, then to covered ones, as Arks, with Betyls or Eduths (Exod. 
xvi. 34) inside of them, and hence called Beth-Els; then to glorious "Rays of 
Light" or Obelisks within and without these; and lastly, to shorten a long story, 
came Cathedrals, with grand spires, pillars, and domes, representing all the above 
ideas, and a great many more which it could not enter into the mind of Elohists or 
Jhavhists to conceive of ; and so it was with Tree, Lingam, and Serpent Faiths, as I 
trust to yet make clear. 

Kaldia has always been called the cradle and greatest stronghold of Ophiolatry 
(although I am unable to acquiesce in this opinion), yet, even in the time of 
Herodotus, we gather from his complete silence regarding Serpent Worship, that Python 
had then 5th century B.C., evidently paled before advancing civilisation, principally, 
no doubt, owing to the culture of Astronomy, before which stronger ideas than the 
Draconian have gone down. Of course, however, ophiolatry had not disappeared, for we 
know from Diodorus, that in his day (1st century B.C.), in the temple of Belus, Rhea 
sat on a golden throne with two lions at her knees, and near her two silver serpents, 
whilst the great image of Juno had in its right hand the head of a serpent. A careful 
observer may note here some serious elements of destruction, from which the gorgeous 
shrines around us -now are not altogether free, in fact, are waging an unequal war. 
Better for the serpent that he had been near that altar on " which no tool had waved," 
for the lions, the gold and the silver marked rising Sol and Luna, and the trappings 
denoted an advancing and new faith, as fatal to ophiolatry as the art and culture 
which enshrine the ritualist follies of England, are to her old faith ; for who smiles so 
much at these, as the cultivated minds who dress out the pageant, the engraver, the 
architect, and all their staff ; they are men devoted to science and historic art, and in 
ninety-nine cases out of a hundred are, of all men, those who have ceased to worship 
among these figments of the past. 

In reformed Kaldia then, Bel became the chief deity, though, as the learned 
knew, but they only, his name sprang from the older faith, Ob-el, the Serpent God. 
By and by he got such names as Sar, Sir, and Lord, or the Bread-maker, or Bread- 
giver, which carries back the memory to the still older faith of Maha-Deva or Toth, 
him before whom the Jewish leader placed the pot of manna in thankfulness for the 
bread which had been rained from heaven. It was not unnatural to confuse the 
organ of fertility with the Source the Sun, and this is what occurs in changing 
Ob-el to Bel or Sar, and then combining them into Bel-i-ar and Bel-i-al, whom 
Bryant and others call the Light God. It matters not for our present purpose if 
Beliar be from Bel, and Aur, and both from golden Ob-el, or from the Hebrew ms 
Aur, light; enough, that a light was here fatal to OB, and was daily waxing 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 05 

brighter, as in AE, Al, Lai, Laul, 1 and under many another name, and in every land 
from India to Armorika. 

If Kaldiac Astronomy was fatal to ophiolatry, no less was the more advanced solar 
worship of Egypt and the general culture of art and literature to every form of super 
stition in Greece and Eome. Had these nations but educated the masses with a 
hundredth part of the learning of the writers whose works have come down to us, 
every old faith, fable, and superstition would have been blotted out, and even Christi 
anity would have been impossible to man ; but it was not so, and we may be content to 
think that it would not have been good that it should be so. By tracing these faiths in a 
general way through all the nations of the earth, which I trust to do in this chapter, 
we shall see not only the rise of the Serpent to its zenith power, but its gradual decline, 
and make clear a great number of points which will be stepping-stones to very 
important after-results. I will here, therefore, merely continue as I have begun, to 
throw together such facts or salient observations as will help to develop Ophite history. 

In the early Orphic hymns, Kronos Time, the first of all things, was a Serpent, 
and from Time sprang Kaos (Chaos), Ether, and dark Erebus, the Mundane Egg in 
the cloud, which produced Phanes, whom the Greeks called Pan, the Koptics, Phanix 
or Light, and the English or Kelts, Fanny. In Greek, the serpent child was Erek- 
theus, 2 the produce of Fire, or Voolkan upon 6% OT Attica, for its soil was their world, 
and Attica was the representative daughter of Kekrops, the representative king. The 
Kopts said, the serpent was the generator of all things, and they viewed him as a sort 
of Logos or attendant on the creator from the foundation of the world, and had very 
many and solemn festivals in his honour, at the same solar periods as Christians 
celebrate theirs. They say he walked forth from a tomb or cave as winter began to 
break up, and Eggs, Palms, and Phallic -looking objects were then offered to him as to 
Venus in the North, and Astarte in Southern Europe and Asia Minor ; his spring 
festival was called Eostre or Easter. 

It is very remarkable to find all over Africa, even at this hour, the same Trinity 
of gods as flourished, we know from records, some forty centuries ago, and how much 
longer we know not ; Kaldia, Asyria, and the temple of Erektheus, on the Akropolis 
of Athens, honoured and sacrificed to Zeus (the Sun, Hercules, or Phallic idea), the 
Serpent and Ocean ; and all Africa still does so to the Tree-Stem or Pole, the Serpent, 
and the Sea or Water; and this Trinity is one God, and yet serves to divide all gods 
into three classes, of which these are types. Whida and Dahomey are particularly 
clear on these matters, and our increasing knowledge of other parts of Africa is but 
showing the developments of the same faith, though as these are in the lowest stage of 
such Trinities, they are interminably mixed up with charms and fetishes. The earthly 
serpent, says Western Africa, represents " Supreme bliss," " is the Supreme god," and 

1 The Serpent was once called Lai or Laul, and Hu and Hui, in Armorika and with Kelts. 

2 Erek or Arek, the Ark. Sanskrit- Arka, " the Sun " and Tudor or Torthy, the " Striker " or "Stinger." 


io6 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

" source of all goodness and prosperity," and is called Dangbue. As the oiled stone, 
it was he whom the Christian convert Arnobius confessed he never passed without 
bowing to, in the fourth century A.C. The ocean is always inferior to Dangbue, and 
the Tree also very generally so, but the want of knowledge of real Phallic faiths on the 
part of many writers on Africa, precludes us from as yet being able to judge correctly 
of the degrees, or even properties, of African gods. I glean the following from 
Skertchley on Dahomey, as to deities there observed by him. 

LEGBA is the Dahomey Priapus, and special patron of all who desire large families. 

Zoo is the God of Fire, reminding us of Zoe, Life. 

DEMEN He who presides over chastity, if not thought a god, then a demon. 

AKWASH He who presides over childbirth. 

GBWEJEH He or she who presides over hunting (Diana) 1 

AJARAMA The tutelary god of foreigners, symbolised by a white-washed strtmp under a shed, 

apparently a Sivaic or white Lingam, no doubt called foreign, because Ashar came from 

Asyria, and Esir from the still older Ethiopians. Is it possible that this is the great 

Arjoona of the Indian classics ? 
HOHO He who presides over twins. 
AFA is the name of the dual God of Wisdom, to whom as to the Jewish God, must be offered a 

pigeon or fowl. 
AIZAX is the god who presides over roads, and travellers, and bad characters, and can be seen on all 

roads as a heap of clay surmounted by a round pot, containing kanki, palm oil, and such like." 

So that we have Legba, the pure and simple Phallus ; Ajar-ama, " the whitened 
stump," so well known to us in India amidst rude aboriginal tribes ; and Ai-zan, the 
Hermes or Harmonic, marking the ways of life, and symbolized by a mound and "round 
pot," and considering that this is the universal form of tatooing shown " on every 
female s stomach," Mr S. says, " a series of arches," the meaning is clearly the omphi. 
Mr Skertchley says that Afa, our African Androgynous Minerva "is very much respected 
by mothers," and has certain days "sacred to mothers," when she or he is specially con 
sulted on their special subjects, as well as on all matters " relating to marrying, building 
a house, sowing corn," and such like. He of the "stump" seems an Androgyne god, 
as Ashar and Parvati, for Ama is her name, and our Eastern generic one for a mother, 
whilst Ajar is evidently the widely-known Ashar. We are told that Dansi, the snake, 
has a thousand wives, married and single, and that prayers must "be offered continually to 
him, which if they please the god, he will answer through his priestesses, for he prefers 
women to men, just as the Python of Delphi did. In Africa, as in India, young 
females are dedicated from their birth to the temples, or, perhaps I should say, to " the 
service of the gods," and by this dedication, says Skertchley, both mother and child 
are considered highly honoured, so that the priests here as in Syria 1 and elsewhere, 
have managed well for the gods and themselves, but still better in the following case. 
They teach that all women " touched " by the African serpent are "possessed" " bereft 
of reason," are " unsafe " for ordinary persons, and " liable to extraordinary hysteria." 
They therefore attach at once, and for as long as they like, all who have been so 
1 Jehovah exacted thirty-two females for himself out of the captives of Media. NUM. xxxi. 40. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 107 

" touched by the god," and these are then initiated into " the mysteries " of the Church, 
and taught how to devote themselves to the god and his ministering servants, and 
may be seen continually dancing and singing around these, as we see in the case of 
certain temple- women in India. The Deity is said to " mark them with blue," which 
is Siva s special colour, and is the mark which Augustus received, says Suetonius, in 
the temple of Apollo. Siva is the Neel-a-kanta or Hue-throated one, the cause, idea, 
and details of which I may not here enter upon. 

Everything in Africa that goes wrong in the sexual way is ascribed, says Mr 
Skertchley, to forgetfulness of Legba, and the childless especially are "under his 
ban." For him all youths are circumcised on coming of age, so that Legba is 
Jehovah. Most tribes are tatooed with religious hieroglyphics, consisting of " tor 
toises, lizards, stars, and concentric circles." The male children of the great are 
distinguished by " a great gash across the forehead from which the skin is drawn up in 
a ridge," reminding us of the lOni figures which the Sakties and some left-handed 
sects in India place upon their foreheads ; and here also we may be quite certain 
the mark is a religious symbol. The heavenly serpent of Africa is represented by the 
rainbow which, curiously enough, is another sign of the Jewish and Christian God, and 
signifies that man shall not again be effaced from the earth, which all ancients were 
taught could not be, so long as they remembered Python. Burton calls the Tree the 
second great god of Africa, and says that he is represented chiefly in the great Cotton 
Tree, w T hich has a straight white stem, and an enormous spreading root, beginning 
to branch out some feet above ground ; also in the Loco, or Poison Tree, which 
again represents Siva, who is a poisoning god, as I elsewhere show. The Ocean, or 
third god, is Hu, and his priest Huno is one of the highest officials. The same offer 
ings are made to the African Hu, as on the Indian coast, viz., cloth, rice, oil, &c., with 
the addition of a human being who is taken out occasionally and thrown to the sharks. 
In Africa all the gods still insist on human sacrifices. I have nothing before me as to 
Ophiolatry in the most southern parts of Africa, but everywhere we hear of respect, if 
not worship offered to serpents, though some writers aver it is only because the African 
fancies his ancestors are in them. We know of the strong belief all these races have 
in immortality, and probably of a continued state of transmigration. 

It is easy to see in all these wild and barbarous peoples the genesis of Phallic 
faiths, for though the " missing link " may not have. been found by our Darwins and 
Huxleys, common discernment shows us how little many millions of Africa are 
removed from this monarch of the woods, which I here show climbing up, stick in 
hand, into his sylvan home to protect his offspring. If not like him anatomically, our 
early man was most certainly, like him, a mere child of sensual passions, whose 
supreme bliss and misery we can easily gauge, if we will but try to carry our mind s 
eye back through the dark vistas of time, and so realise the feeble and comparatively 
helpless condition of our own infant race in its primordial stage. In those early 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

days, all that is noblest in our nature lay dormant, and the creature, a mere animal, 
and not much removed from him of our illustration, roamed naked through primeval 

forests, with no food save fruits and roots, no 
shelter from storms and cold, save rocks and 
caves, and a prey to all those fierce animals 
which geology proves then traversed all earth, 
terrible in size, number, and ferocity. We 
may reasonably conceive that the progenitors 
! of man were dwarfed in body, as well as in 
;mind, very inferior beings to the highly 
nurtured civilised men of these days. We 
find that as a rule all the aboriginal races 
of India, and I believe throughout the world, 
are still diminutive, generally very dark and 
of feeble appearance, though often wiry and 

This is the true idea of early man 
as accepted by all ancients, except where 
priestly or tribal pride led them to say 
" they were "descended from the gods," and 
were once pure as their father El, or the 
solar orb. One set of very ancient and 
learned men said that "before Prometheus 
Fi g . 35. -THE GOR.LLA. mankind lived like monkeys, naked, needy, 

and bestial, in woods and caves and trunks of trees, scarcely sustaining themselves on 
herbage, acorns, and other fruits, fed upon by wild beasts," and altogether an unpro 
tected piteous race. " Prometheus, the son of lapetus and Themis Foresight and 
Justice, some say Desire (a common name for the serpent), and Destiny, sought out 
Pallas, the Goddess of Wisdom, Mechanism, and Invention, and by her aid ascended 
to heaven, held his reed to the chariot of the sun, and so brought down fire, 
which raised all humanity ; the bowels of the earth and trees of the forest, and trea 
sures of all kinds were then made available, and animals were killed or trained for 
man s service. Wisdom grew, for man learned arts and modes of instructing himself 
and others ; thus fire, heat, or friction produced all things. " So life was thought in 
this higher stage to be produced by the sun, and so it became a god, and ever and 
again men sought it, and believed they received from it divine light, as well as actual 
Incarnations of the Elohim, and thus it is men have continued;to light their fires annually 
from Sol ay, even till the other day in our own island, on Beltine or May-day, 
when the summer sun appears. 

In these early, and if, without being accused of Darwinism, on which this is not 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 109 

the place to enter, I may call them monkeyish days, we may imagine that in numbers 
only, could the young wild race hope to win their way amidst all the terrors of nature, 
by land and sea, the fierce strife of the elements seeming to them that of demons, who 
took no thought of man, but to destroy. Storms and droughts, scorching heats, and 
frozen zones, all seemed to defy their efforts to obtain a footing on the new globe 
new at least to them, one of Nature s last and greatest progenies. After a time, in the 
solitude of their groves, they seem to have felt with trembling spirit that they were in 
the presence of an invisible power, for whom their language had no name, and regard 
ing whom they feared even to whisper. Is it to be wondered at, then, that such rude 
animal men cared most for nature s creative energies, gazing now with astonishment, 
now with awe and reverence amounting to worship, at all her astounding developments ; 
has our wonder ceased even in this nineteenth century ? Is it not true that even 
scientific research the most acute and ingenious, aided by the microscope, has left us 
in such occult matters only to wonder more ? The wild man symbolised the one 
organ, and then the other ; and although he had not yet called his female deities by 
the after familiar names of Mithra or Mylita, Maiya, Isis, or Eva ; nor the male by 
Brahma, Siva, El, Ashar, Baal, and Thamus ; yet we see clearly his infant thoughts, 
and that, lost on the severe seas of life, he bethought him of the Ark, the Boat, the fer 
tile sea, and in later ages gave to these the female epithets which still cling to them. 
In the old myth of Noah s ark, unhistorical and impossible as we now see the pain 
fully minute story to be, we can yet easily read its suggestive poetry as the tale has 
come down to us ; and the histories of other nations being unfolded, we can see that it 
is but a travesty, by rude and illiterate tribes, of the higher thoughts of the older and 
cultivated nations around them, who thus symbolised by an ark on the waters the 
preservation and recreation of all life. Maya was she of the ark-boat, and Isis the 
womb of all animated nature, no less than of the plains of the Nile, in whose productive 
bosom the seed must be buried to rise again to fresh life ; Egypt and others had 
spoken of god-men and great ancestors entering an ark, and so passing safely over 
great floods and troubles ; and so, repeated the Jews, did theirs also. Their Elohim 
himself implanted in a veritable box, hermetically sealed apparently, all the germs of 
animal life, and destroyed all beyond it ! and, say the ignorant narrators, floated it 
into regions over the summits of the highest mountain, that is of eternal ice, where no 
such animals could breathe for an hour, nor any waters exist, except in the intensest 
state of congealment ; so do the ignorant stumble and fall when leaving the regions of 
simple verity ; the Jew misunderstood an ancient poetic figure for a veritable fact. 

In this figure 36 from "Ancient Faiths," we see clearly the whole idea ; the Rain- 
bow as El s sign "overshadows" the Ark the sign of Ishtar ; and the Holy Ghost, Ruach 
or Breath, which is the fecundating principle or medium, hovers betwixt Bow and Ark. 
The Jewish writings say that Elohe s Spirit built this navis, and placed in it the Noh 
ru, and all life, and afterwards closed its one small window, and then rained upon it for 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

forty days the fertilising waters of heaven. It contained, we are told, all the elements of 
Elohirn s creative power, and in due time, about nine months and three days from the 

ceasing of the rains, " Noah re 
moved the covering of the ark," 
and then came forth the pent-up 
energies of Maiya ; her symbol 
the dove, with the mystic olive 
sacred to her, marshalled the 
way, and pointed to Nature s 
first birth the mountain peaks. 
We see many resemblances here 
to Vedic tales. The top of 
mighty Himalaya, called Hima- 
chfil, is "the first born," and 
represents a race of gods, from 
whom sprang Parvati, great 
Fig. SBSEA, ARK, AND JHAVEH. Siva s spouse, but of this more 

hereafter, for we must return to the probable growth of religion among our 
primeval races. They began to see in life, and all nature, a God, a Force, a 
Spirit; or, I should rather say, some nameless thing which no language of those 
early days, if indeed of present, can describe. They gave to the outward creative 
organs those devotional thoughts, time, and praise, which belonged to the Creator ; 
they figured the living spirit in the cold bodily forms of stone and tree, and so wor 
shipped it. As we read in early Jewish writings, their tribes, like all other early races, 
bowed before Ashar and Ashera, as others had long before that period worshipped 
Belus and Uranus, Orus and Isis, Mahadeva, Siva, Sakti, and Parvati. Jupiter and 
Yuno or Juno, or rather the first ideas of these, must have arisen in days long subse 
quent to this. All such steps in civilisation are very slow indeed, and here they had 
to penetrate the hearts of millions who could neither read nor write, nor yet follow the 
reader or the preacher; so centuries would fleet past over such* rude infantile popula 
tions, acting no more on the inert pulpy mass, than years or even months now do ; and 
if this were so after they began to realise the ideas of a Bel and Ouranos, how much 
slower, before that far back stage was won ? Their first symbolisation seems clearly to 
have been the simple Line, pillar, or a stroke, as their male god ; and a cup or circle as 
their female ; and lo ! the dual and mystic 10 which early became a trinity, and has 
stood before the world from that unknown time to this : In this mystic male and 
female we have the first great androgynous god. Still the idea was felt to be imper 
fect, and creation still impossible ; for Passion, that holy or " Heated Spirit " or 
"Breath," was wanting in the simple 10, and this felt want was, I think, the origin of 
various representative forms, on which I will not here say more, than that the serpent 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 1 1 

became the favourite, and was termed the "Irritator," the "Passionate One," Fire, Heat, 
&c. To their male idea they erected stones, pillars, cones, staffs, or banners, crosses, &c., 
and called these the Fire-God, Brightness, and Light, and in course of time the " Sun- 
stone," or Sun pillar ; to the other god was dedicated the rounded vessel, bowl, ark, and 
all ovate stones, and these were termed goddesses, and held to be seen in all the fertile 
powers of nature, and more especially in the fertile earth, prolific fish, and in all water. 

Let us now trace this third god in Asia and eastward. The histories of the tribes 
in the mountainous portions of northern India abound Avith stories, denoting long and 
devoted serpent worship. Hweng Sang tells us of a Boodhist missionary, and descen 
dant of Boodha s, marrying the princess royal of a serpent country north of Peshawar ; 
he won over the father-in-law, but killed him, and smote down the worshippers, who 
are pictured as excrescences which he could only remove when the queen slept. The 
first result was blindness, meaning no doubt that, although power smote down the 
nation s faith, yet it could not make it adopt the new one. The same author tells us of 
the still much revered spring well and sacred tree at the Husan Abdal, near Taxila, 
which shows us how closely connected Boodhism and serpent faiths were with trees. A 
Boodhist priest Bikshoo, was it is said, here turned into a snake and thrown into this 
well or " lake," or perhaps a well in a lake, which is common, because he killed the 
holy Elapa tree. This Bikshoo was always appealed to in the Pilgrim s day by 
the people, when they wished a change in the weather (another instance of the climatic 
properties attributed to the serpent) ; they then called up the dragon by snapping their 
fingers, just as snake charmers do to the present day. 

It appears that immediately after the third Boodhist Council, 253 B.C., mission 
aries went forth to all the serpent-worshipping principalities in the Himalayas, includ 
ing Kashmeer, and all eastward to Kandahar, possibly the Gandhara of the Maha- 
Vanso. And although we have flourishing accounts of the numbers added to the 
faith, yet we have seen what the Chinese Pilgrims, in the seventh century A.C., thought 
of the worship of him-of-Kashmeer, and this a thousand years nearly after the days 
of the great Boodhist missionary-king Asoka. Strabo tells us, that in Alexander s time, 
the Kashmeer king prided himself on two extraordinarily large snakes, and another 
writer says that the king of Taxila, whose rule extended almost to Delhi, showed 
Alexander an enormous serpent which he nourished and worshipped as the symbol of 
the god Dionysus ; which Greek remark may perhaps assure the sceptic, that there is 
no mistake here as to the meaning of the serpent as a symbol, for Dionysus symbol 
was the Phallus. In Akbar s time last half of the sixteenth century a census of the 
faiths of Kashmeer showed temples to Siva 45, to Vishnoo 64, to Brahma 3, to 
Doorga 22 (Siva s snaky consort), but to the serpent, pure and simple, 700 shrines, 
which does not say much for Hindoo or Boodhist propagandism for the previous 
twenty-two centuries! The sanctuary of a serpent temple is usually void. In Kashmeer, 
says Fergusson, " the architecture of the valley, with very few exceptions," shows that 

I 12 

Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

Fig. 37 

all the ancient temples were for serpent worship. The temples stand in square courts, 
capable of being flooded, and are crossed by light bridges of stone. Almost all can be 
flooded, and many can only now be reached by wading ; the architecture is of the 
simplest description, generally very small, and somewhat like this. It seems as if the 

early race had simply tried to build a plain 
box or home for their symbolic god to live 
in, secure from the enemies which his pre 
sent fleshly tenement exposed him to. He 
was a real living god, and required to be 
left very much to his own devices, and until 
they got another symbol, architects must 
have been sorely puzzled by his aqueous, or 
rather sub- and super-terraqueous ways. 

Under the head Boodhism, and the sup 
posed great serpent temple of Kambodia, I have stated that I believe its architecture 
to be the offspring of a later faith, grafting itself on serpent- worshipping races, who 
I think, must have been the builders of the magnificent shrine which Fergusson, follow 
ing Dr Bastian and Mr Thomson, calls Nak-non-vat, a name which seems to denote 
its serpent origin. 1 Look at the character of the ornamentations : We are told that 
every angle of every roof is adorned with a grim seven-headed serpent having a mag 
nificent crest ; every cornice, entablature ; every balustrade and every ridge has con 
tinuous rows of seven-headed snakes, yet there is no image in the sanctuary, no 
worship on the walls, but every court contains a tank for water. Nevertheless, 
seeing that no such shrine has, so far as I know, been erected in the East to this faith, 
I must think that Boodhists planned, and carried out all, save perhaps the serpent orna 
ments and tanks, which, when they were expelled in turn, the aborigines completed in 
their own way ; but we must all speak, like Fergusson, very diffidently regarding this 
fine temple-palace. It was visited in 1860 by the French naturalist, M. Henrie 
Monhot, and later by Mr J. Thomson, to whom we owe some splendid photos of it. 
He took a month to travel from Bankok to the Kambodian frontier, and found what is 
believed to be the ancient capital of Kambodia, enveloped in a dense forest. The site 
is called Angkor, and is situated on the lake Touli or Tali Indian for a lake, near its 
head. " The principal ruins embrace a circle of fifty miles in diameter " around lake 
Tali, and are mostly in Siam- Kambodia not in that part which was made inde 
pendent under the French treaty with Siam of 1863 : " Within this fifty-mile circle 
there are larger walled cities, and temples more curious and extensive than those of 
Central America." Fergusson says, that nothing, since the Asyrian discoveries, has 
been more startling in architecture, than these cities : So here we have a great capital- 
city, with palaces, temples, and cathedrals or basilicas devoted to our third faith. 
There are writings on the ruins, in characters resembling Pali or Sanskrit, which 

1 Sanskrit Naga-natha-Vaut = " Having a Serpent protector." 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 1 3 

have yet to be read. Dr Bastian calls a city here lutha para pan , or Nakon- Thorn, 1 
and says it was founded in 957 A.C., which it would appear is a date twice given of 
the accession of its founder-king Patliuma suri vong of tenth century, who one 
tradition states was a stranger who revered trees. It is believed that the cities 
were ruined and deserted during the war with Siam, which began in 1351, and ended 
by the subjugation of Kambodia in 1374 ; and Fergusson thinks that this was 
Boodhism finally driving out serpent worship. I believe that Boodhism permeated 
all these parts during its reign in India, as I show in my historical sketch of the 
violent propagandism of the energetic Magadoo empire ; of course the faith would not 
be so pure a Boodhism, as Siam would be able to give to Kambodia in the fifteenth 
century A. a I have shown, in the case of Kashmeer and adjacent states, that the 
king was only nominally a Boodhist, even in Hweng Tsang s time, and that eight 
centuries after him, Akbar s census showed that Hindooism was to serpent worship 
something like 1 to 7, and Boodhism " nowhere." 

The early legends of Kambodia present two striking features. First, A HOLY 
TREE, which the kingly race, who came to this serpent country, reposed under, or 
descended from heaven by ; secondly, that this tree-loving race are captivated by the 
dragon princess of the land. It is the serpent king, however, who builds the city of 
Nakon-Thom for his daughter and her stranger husband, which may or may not mean 
the serpent palaces or temples. 

The husband was no doubt of some superior race, or he could not have gained 
access to the king and won his daughter. As such he would guide the builders, 
though he could not constrain them to neglect their Dragons on their grandest national 
building ; and so we find to this day in China the Boodhist temples are most profusely 
adorned with Dragons and hideous monsters, yet none would say that these Chinese 
temples are serpent shrines. In reality " the Serpent is there," say Boodhists, " to 
frighten sceptics," as some British pietists try to do by preaching of devils, hell, and 
its horrors. 

One legend says that the stranger of Kambodia was a banished prince called 
Phra-thon, and that in time he won over the people of the city which his father-in-law 
built for him so much so, that his subjects complained of his, their king s, presence, and 
finally got rid of the king by placing an image of four faces (which is Brahma) over the 
city gates. This RAJA NAGA, or Serpent-King-Father, was a Sabbatarian, or Sabean, 
and a very pious one ; he every seventh day went forth from his palace, and, ascending 
a lofty .mountain, "poured forth his soul in ardent devotion." (Fergusson quoting 
Colonel Low.) The four-faced god was evidently to him a horror so much so, that 
at last he yielded up his kingdom. One legend says that Indra, or Hindooism, finding 
himself lonely in this Serpent land, married the Dragon s daughter, and had a son, 
Ketumalia, who was father of the founder of the city, Pathuma- Suri- Vong. The 

1 Naga Tumb in Sanskrit signifies " The Invisible Serpent." 
I. P 

1 14 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

result of this seems to be that either Hindooism or Boodhism, though both very 
corrupt, thus founded a city here. The wonderful character of the temple s structure 
points to Grecian or Koman models ; the architecture, says Fergusson, is a sort of 
Roman Doric, the ornaments (bassi-relievi) are borrowed from the Ramayana and 
Mahabharata, and fade into Hindoo myths, The people are Indian, and the abori 
gines are an abject race. Dr Bastian says that local tradition " makes their ancestors 
come from MYAN-ROM, or RoMA-ViSEi, not far from TAK-CASILA," which Fergusson 
thinks may be TAXILA, the first Aryan capital of Northern India, and about which Alex 
ander and his hosts long hung. Taxila, as already shown, was a Naga capital for ages ; 
and Fergusson, quoting Wilford, says that the ancient people of Taxila came from a 
country called Kamboja ; their capital was Indra-prastha (Inthapata-poori) and Siain 
became their Ayoodhia, or Ayoodthya, or Oud. Kashmeer Hindoo -Naga temples, 
were of Grecian Doric ; and here, in far East Kambodia, we see the later Roman Doric. 
The rectangular walled enclosure of Ndkon-Vat is 3240 feet by 3300 feet, and beyond 
this is a "moat" said to be 690 feet wide, so that we have here a temple covering about 
a mile of ground. The western moat is crossed by a causeway having pillars all along 
the sides, and it leads up to a gateway with a fagade of 600 feet, and five stories high. 
Neither Kaldian nor Babylon, with their rude sun-dried materials, can compare with this. 

The second causeway is 1110 feet long, leading straight up to the temple plat 
form, of which the outer enclosure is 1950 feet by 1710 feet ; and within this are two 
other enclosures, one 15 and the other 20 feet higher. Each face has three portals with 
double open verandas or peri-styles, each 10 feet wide. The pillars of these peri-styles 
have elegant capitals, but no base. There are 400 to 500 pillars in the outer enclosure 
alone, and the walls of this colonnade are sculptured from top to bottom for some 
2000 feet in length. The men and animals here represented are probably 20,000. 
On the pilasters there are numerous female, but no male statues. The pillars are 
correctly proportioned with architrave, and frieze, and cornice the ornament here in 
most cases being the SEVEN-HEADED Serpent. A colossal statue of a lion, lies close half 
buried in sand, so that our artists must have seen these in Cingalese temples in Western 
India, as no lions have, so far as we know, ever existed in these parts. The stone blocks 
are enormous, and exquisitely fitted and carved, and come from mountains some forty 
miles distant. Older temples are said to be all around, so we have much yet to learn from 
this sacred spot. Many battle-pieces on the walls are, as I have said, believed to be from 
the Mahabharata, which possibly reached these parts in its present form in the 4th and 
5th centuries A.C., but may have done so in an older form a thousand years sooner. 

In some places a sage, supposed to be Boodha, is seen adorning the Serpent, so 
we may be sure the workmen were Serpent-worshippers. There are war-chariots, such 
as the Epic speaks of. and the pillar ornaments like those of Rome. Now, turning 
to my Chart, and remembering that Fetish-worship was the Jirst worship, and to 
a great extent is still the real faith of the great mass of the ignorant, especially about 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 115 

these parts; that after it came Tree, Phallic, Serpent- worship, &c., we may, I think, say 
that this great building marks a transition of faith as from Serpent to Brahmanism or to 
Boodhism, or perhaps Boodhism conquered for a time by Serpent-worshippers. Thus 
we find in the 

3d Century B.C. Boodhist missionaries to China. 

2d and 3d Chinese armies to Oxus Yoonan annexed. 

C Bactrian kingdom overthrown by Skythians, and Naga races trying 

9 1 I for dominance. 

" " | China -Dragon -worshippers, try to reach India from the south, 

L but fail. 

1st China embracing Boodhisra. 

2d A.C. (166.) Marcus Aurelius sends embassy to China. 

3d ,. (227.) Rome sends embassy to Cochin-China, and to all these parts. 

, ( (386.) Boodhagosa establishing Boodhism in Ceylon and Barma. 

" " ( ,, Amravati and Afgan Topes built. 

{Tatars, Turanians, and Skythians becoming Boodhists, but Brah 
manism re-asserting itself in India. 
Chinese vessels numerous in all eastern parts, and to the Persian Gulf. 

Thus our Boodhist-Chinese missionaries of the 3d century B.C. most probably 
preached their faith then in Kambodia, and five or six centuries later, Roman or Greek 
artists, aided the Boodhists to build these shrines or monasteries, which a reaction to 
the old faiths caused to be adorned with Serpent symbols. In China, Boodhism 
closely allied itself with the ancient Serpent faith, and I incline, therefore, to think 
that Ncikon- Vat was a Boodha-serpent temple. 

We saw that the pious Kambodian Raj a-Naga, worshipped his "deity on high places," 
as did Israel his " Grove" and Baal ; and we find " high places" the summit of lofty 
or curiously-shaped hills the abode of Chinese temples to Dragons, as well as to the 
philosophers Confucius and Boodha, and to Christ and Mohamed, just as these were 
chosen for the worship of Lingam, Serpent, Fire and Sun. A Jesuit father, quoted by 
Fergusson, writes that " the Chinese delight in mountains and high places, because 
there lives the Dragon, the father of happiness (for no childless man, says the 
barbarian, is happy), on whom their good fortune depends. To this Dragon they 
erect temples shaded with groves." 

The Rev. S. Beal, a Chinese scholar, unearths from the imperial collection of Bood 
hist standard works printed under the auspices of Keen-Lung in 1783 A. a, a writing 
which he supposes to be an address of Boodha " in the great Cloud Circle- Hall of the 
Naga Rajah, in which Boodha told the Dragons (i.e., the worshippers of Serpents) how 
to pray for rain." In a plate in this book we have a Snake-temple, which in its 
arrangement very closely resembles the Jewish tabernacle. The shrine is like a tent 
standing in a rectangular enclosure. There is an altar with four lighted candles 
seven tables of cakes, and seven of fruits, and seven lamps, and on the four sides four 
woodcuts representing the deities, of which Fergusson gives one (T. and S., page 53) very 
much to the purpose, and showing in unmistakable language that a greater and older even 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

than Boodha is here. This is unmistakably, Maiya, Queen of Heaven, surrounded by 
Serpents, the symbols of fairy seraphs of passion, as Moses is said to have called the 
biting Serpents of the desert ; her sea teems with seraphic life, and two Serpent- 
princesses, with Serpent-wreaths like her own, though smaller, stand by adoring this 

Fig. 38. 

queen-mother of all mankind. Mark, however, the prominent feature of- the picture ; 
she herself is engrossed in worship, and apparently between her two uplifted hands is 
a cone, column, or Lingam. The Fecundatrix herself has the body of a fish from the 
waist downwards, and from the sea of fecundity in which she sits rises on one side the 
too symbolic TORTOISE, and on the other SIVA S HANDS, both in evident adoration. 
Fergusson thinks that this picture is only of the 13th century A.C., and adds in regard 
to the Chinese pictures in this work which are shown as having three, five, seven, and 
nine Serpent-hoods, that in India, from the 3d to the 13th century A.C., it .was usual 
to have three, five, and seven, but never till the 13th century A.C. to have a Serpent 
terminus to the human body. The pictures or sculptures of such may, indeed, be of 
only the 13th century A.C., but the original idea must go very far back into 
pre-historic times, say- to 4000 B.C. at least, when woman, fish, and Serpent, were 
continually associated together, and indeed are identical, as they still often are 
so. I am not prepared to dispute the correctness of the number of hoods to 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 1 7 

form a wreath, as this like the folds of the Serpent, the stars, or yoni dots 011 
Indra s robe (PL v., 5), or a priest s garment seem to have followed certain knowledge of 
the times and the mandates of leaders in religion, astronomy and art. As a rule, 
they are purely of solar significance, but in regard to the terminus in a Serpent body, 
my own studies do not admit of my acquiescing in any post-Christian era. The 
fish and serpent terminus was, in many lands, a favourite idea, and drawings and 
sculptures of such abound, and if not to be found in India in the centuries named, this 
could only arise from a temporary feeling on the part of the people or their rulers, of 
which we have numerous instances in all faiths. Thus at Sanchi, in the 1st 
Century A.C., it is thought that Boodhism had purged itself both of Tree and Serpent 
Faiths, at least, nearly so ; yet Mr Fergusson shows us that at Amravati, in the 4th 
Century A.C., the pendulum had swung back again ; for here we find not only the 
Dagoba, or Womb with its Pandora s box of relics, but our oldest friend, the Holy 
Tree, the Chakra or Wheel, or Sun of Life and Eternity ; and once again the 
persistent Naga, but this time as Boodha s co-equal, just as the Nicolaitans said he 
was Christ s, some seven centuries after Jesus is supposed to have lived ; for in the case 
of Sanchi and Boodha, seven centuries had here also intervened since the pious 
man had died, and become deified. Fergusson calls the Sanchi remains " the Boodhist 
Illustrated Bible of the Hinayana period," and considers it to be 500 years prior 
to the writing of any Boodhist book which we possess. This opinion, I suspect, is now 
very much modified. The Amravati ruin is the pictorial illustration of the Maha- 
yana, three centuries after its promulgation. 

On the great bas-relief cut in the well-known Rock, crowned with seven Pagodas, 
at Maha-Vilepoor, South of Madras, we have Siva embracing a Serpent Queen, who is 
human from the waist, and this too is placed by Fergusson, as belonging to the 13th 
Century A.C., although we are assured on all hands that Hindooism here succeeded 
Ophiolatry. No doubt Sankar-Acharya did ask his countrymen to go back to Lingam 
Worship, pure and simple, and so we may say, to rise above its symbol the Serpent, in 
the 8th Century A.C., just as Mahomed then also asked Jews and Christians to adopt 
the undivided worship of the real " All-Father ; " but this practice of peoples does not, 
in any way, detract from the statement that pure Phallic Worship was the second if not 
the first of man s faiths, and that the Serpent terminus in question, if not as yet, 
found by us as sculptured before the 13th Century A.C., did then occur in such places, 
only in resuscitation of what long ages before had been well known to mankind. 
Although Sivaism may not be clear to us in the unwritten pre-vedic ages, and dimly so 
only, in the Vedic Eoodra, yet I have no doubt the masses were then, and long ere that, 
bowing down to their genital gods, far more fervently than they are even now doing. 

I may mention the following as an instance of how little we observe the practice 
and dogmas of the faiths which surround us, unless our attention, nay studies, are 
directed thereto, and it happened the very evening of the day on which I wrote the 

1 1 8 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

foregoing, and was such a scene as I had not noticed for some dozen or more years back. 
I witnessed the roads crowded with earnest, pious souls who, with fatigued, and in 
many cases, lacerated bodies, were gradually nearing one of Maha Deva s shrines, by 
measuring every inch of the weary way, from their far distant homes, by the length of 
their bodies stretched on the dry, scorching,, and dusty way. Affectionate relatives or 
friends were kindly watching the devoted pilgrims, some of whom seemed half dead 
with fatigue and excitement of mind and body, whilst pious strangers were also cheer 
ing them on their way, and pouring water into their parched mouths as they rolled 
along in the dust and heat. When coming across the devotees we were taking our 
usual evening drive, in the European portion of one of the largest cities in Hindoostan, 
and some of the company, though ten years in the East, gazed in astonishment at the 
road-side scene, as what they had never before witnessed ! So apt are the daily 
occurrences, of even, as in this case, the most fervid faith, to escape those who live 
in its midst, ay, and have carefully thought of all around them all that time. 

Fergusson seems to think that Lingam Worship may be new, because he does not 
find it so early and as distinctly as Serpent Worship ; but he should remember what 
he himself says of this great faith of China (T. and S., 52) " If this be so, that the 
Serpent is the Chinaman s great god of happiness," why has not everybody seen it and 
told us of it ? Yea, why ? . Things strike different people differently, and some walk 
about with eyes and ears closed. If we read only the works of our great writers or 
philosophers, whether Sokrates or Aristotle, Demosthenes or Cicero, we would scarcely 
evolve the gross faiths which we now know to have existed in their midst. Do we 
indeed realise those in our midst in England or even in London ? When we read the 
treasures which have been poured into our laps from all the mighty minds that have 
blessed the world during the last two hundred years, ending in the Revelations of our 
still living philosophers, can we imagine that the great mass of our thoughtful ones, and 
many thousands of learned men, still look upon such rude Syrian Sheks as Abram and 
Moses as demi-gods, not to say such weak and immoral characters as a Jacob, Samuel, 
David, and Solomon ? ay, and who worship as gods, a Jewish matron and her babe, 
and consider as special supernatural acts of the great and immutable ruler of the 
universe, all those writings, miracles, prodigies, and myths which have come down to 
us unverified by a particle of extraneous evidence that would bear a moment s cross- 
questioning or sifting in any court of law in our land. These are times when we must 
speak out, and I here only speak, though slightingly, yet seriously and solemnly, 
of those characters and tales which Europe holds sacred, as Europeans speak, and as I 
shall by-and-by also mention the sacred characters and writings of all other nations ; 
with what measure we mete, let it be meted to us again. 

Brahmanism, no doubt, at times disliked the Serpent, and drove it, as a veritable 
Snake, though " never as a symbol, out from the midst of her more civilised parts 
towards the northern mountains, or, at least, to the ophite cradle of Taxila, and to its 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 19 

Dravidian strongholds in the south : Brahmanism did not, as a cultivated faith, favour 
more than the symbolism, although even near its headquarter shrines, were to be found 
by those who sought, the actual living reptile ; yet ignorant fanatics abundantly kept 
and regularly worshipped the god, both real and symbolically. Numerous stories reach 
us of how the King of Manipoor used to worship a great Raj-naga, called Pak-ang-ba, 1 
from whom he considered he was directly descended. This Snake had Priestesses to 
attend upon it, who daily sat in the temple watching its every move, and ministering 
carefully to its wants. In Central India, near Sambalpore, there are races who say 
they worship a great snake, which " has here resided in a cave ever since the world 
began." It reverses the Sabbatarian doctrine and sleeps six days, and on the seventh 
comes forth from its house ; and for a very good reason too ; as it is then regaled on a 
whole goat, when, after a plunge into a canal, cut for its recreations around its 
dwelling, it retires to its weekly slumbers. A Mr Mott saw this monster in 1766, and 
says "it was some 2 feet in diameter ;" 2 and Major Kittoe confirms this when he saw it 
seventy years later, in 1836 ; this officer says he has no doubt that many such exist, 
and could be found if we set about properly to look for them. 

Especially has the Serpent had a most enduring and happy lot in that gem of the 
ocean Ceylon ; he is there still, no scotched faith, although many a faith and 
sect has swept tumultuously over this isle s impenetrable woods and mountain 
fastnesses. It is 2100 years since Boodhism claimed the island as her own special 
paradise, and this it has been ever since, if not so always in the eyes of its immediate 
rulers, yet always so in those of distant Boodhists ; these, for at least 1800 years, have 
ever looked upon the island with filial love and reverence ; yet, to this hour, the 
Serpent is, with the great mass of the lower class, an object of much more real adora 
tion than Boodha himself. 

Many Eastern potentates have claimed direct descent from the Serpent, and 
curiously enough he seems more in favour with the Vishnoo sects than Sivaites, and is 
more abundantly sculptured on Vishnoova shrines than on the other, though he has 
nothing in common with the softer emotions of love which Yishnoovas affect above 
that of their brethren. As devoted to the feminine energy, and often putting aside 
the Lingam with abhorrence, of course the Vishnooite can plead that the Serpent more 
particularly belongs to him, because to Luna, Isis, Eva, or the Yoni ; and indeed 
mankind will be generally on his side in this respect, rather than on that of the 
professedly severe and ascetic Sivaite. Wherever we look we find this symbol of 
Passion, the most loved, or at all events, the most prominent object in the world of 
old faiths. I believe he ought to be shown in broader and more intense colours in this 
chart, but I have endeavoured in these points to rather understate the facts, and never 
anywhere to press doubtful evidence. 

1 Tak, Pak, Hak, hence Hag, &c., are all terms applied to the Serpent from China to Armorika 
and Scotland. 2 More probably " circumference" 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

The Vishnoovas undoubtedly show a greater attention to the decorations, or if I 
may say so, the amenities of the faith, and make more of the Tree element and of all 
the softer emotions than Sivaites. Fig trees, Toolsi, and floral decoration are more 
prominent with them, but their festivals display a more sexual element, although there 
is not much to choose between them and other religions during the chief solar phases ; 
or the festivals corresponding to our Christmas and Easter. Several great 
Serpent dynasties of ancient India called themselves Serpents or Nagas. Their " holy 
scriptures " say they were a race of demi-gods who lived in the realms below, and who 
at will assumed . man s form and came on earth, but always retained the serpent s 
tail. Nagas are to be distinguished from the Sarpas or true snake, who according to 
the Pooranas never act or speak as men, and are never worshipped by Brahmans. 
The Sarpas is not therefore our early Eden demi-god the instructor of youthful Eve. 
All coiling roots and fantastic shrubs represent the serpent, and are recognised 
as such all over India. In Bengal we find at the present day the fantastically grow 
ing Euphorbia Antiquorum regularly worshipped, as the representative of the Serpent 
God. The sacred thread worn alike by Hindoo and Zoroastrian, is the symbol of that 
old faith ; the Brahman twines it round his body and occasionally around the neck of 
the sacred bull, the Lingam, and its altar : The serpent dances with Pentecostal tongue 
of fire, in and about the Argha, or that " boat of Life " in which the Argha-Nat (Esh- 
wara) stands. (See Fig. 42.) With the orthodox, the serpent thread should reach down to 
its closely allied faith, although this Ophite thread idea is now no more known to Hindoos 
than the origin of arks, altars, candles, spires, and our Church fleur-de-lis is to Jews 
and Christians. I give here an ordinary Maha Deva or Lingam-in- Yoni stone, such 

as we meet with every day in Indian 
temples, but which I take, by Dr 
Inman s kindness, from his 2d vol. at 
p. 220. Here the symbolic God lies 
resting in the fiery circle of Eternity, 
and I suspect also is the band which 
we see round " the column of Life," 
or Lingam ; and that it is the 
Pythic head which reaches up and 
kisses the Lotus or Fertility on the 
crown. I have often so seen the 
Maha Deva (Lingam) adorned. The 
heads embrace the whole world 
of man as Truth or Keligion, Matter 
and Passion. Taurus or the Bull (called here Nanda) kneeling at the entrance of the door 
of life is intensified passion, power, and fertility, just as are Aries and Taurus, the young 
Ram, and the Bull of the vernal equinox. I beg my readers will remember here, 

Fijr. 39 J 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. \ 2 r 

what Orientalists have so often said in regard to the full significance of every line 
or even dot in these great national religious figures. Here every line and curve and 
dot has a name and a distinct meaning, all of which are recorded in countless holy writ 
ings, and not the least is the kneeling attitude of the Nanda, a position not common 
to bulls, and which for a long time I could not discover and cannot here speak of. 

In the drawing of " the Asyrian Tree of Life," page 73, Fig. 25, which some 4000 
years ago was sculptured on A Syria s buried palaces, we have the same idea. The 
Asyrian Ark is shut, and the Bull stands erect with the reptile encircling his neck, 
as we occasionally still see in India. A veritable " budding rod," or tree of the High 
Priest, separates him from the door of the fire ark, which he k seen approaching with 
fruit and knife. All these sculpturings, however, betoken a time far in advance 
of that which aboriginal tribes have even now attained to, or to which Romans 
reached till about the third century B.C., for statuary was slow in appearing in 
Europe. The more usual Eastern Maha Deva takes the form of a simple " conical 
stone on a mound of earth," such as we see the African calls his Legba; or the 
" whitened tree stump " which he denominates Ajar-ama, and quaintly considers a 
fit representative of the white foreigner. The ordinary Maha Deva of Northern India is, 
however, this very simple but complete arrangement in which we see what was, I suspect, 
the first Delphic Tripod supporting a vase of water over the Linga-in-Yoni. Such may 
be counted by scores, in a day s march over Northern India, and especially at ghats or 
river ferries, or crossings of any streams, or roads ; for are they not Hermae ? The vessel 
of water is pierced at foot, and into the little holes straws are thrust so as to direct a 
constant trickle of water on to the symbol. It is a pious act to constantly renew this 
water from the most holy springs, or better from the Ganges. 
It is not necessary to have a carved Argha and polished Maha 
Deva ; the poor can equally please the Creator by clearing 
a little spot under any holy tree, or if none holy enough 
exist, by planting a slip from a holy one ; or if this even is 
not possible, by merely setting up a stone of almost any un 
hewn shape, describing a circle round it, and then cleaning 
and keeping tidy all about it ; for the great Creator loves 
as much the widow s mite as the magnificent shrine and 
priestly rites which the rich establish in his name. 

Probably no religion is more persistent than all forms of Phallic faith in again 
and again repeating every hidden meaning in its symbolism. This is so by design, in 
order to impress these thoroughly on the mind of the most illiterate. Thus the aid of 
the architect, the sculptor, and the painter, are all brought to bear on the eye and feel 
ing. Hindoo temples, therefore, as a whole, as well as in every part, must depict the 
Deity in all his forms or ideas, and this is variously accomplished, sometimes in orna 
mentation, wild, extravagant, and profuse ; and elsewhere only conspicuous by its 

i. Q 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

absence. Generally, however, the features or ideas of the cult are fully and gravely 
depicted, and without as well as within ; for the vessels of the inner sanctuary the 
lights, the lavers, the spoons, &c., &c., must be all constructed with a view to the sym 
bolism, as well as the gilt spires, poles, and trappings of the outer tabernacle. In many 
temples the actual public emblem of the Deity is only an emblem of an emblem ; the 
real " God " being secreted deep away down in the foundations of the vast structure, in a 
crypt or cave (see p. 39, Fig. 4) where only the most devoted of initiated worshippers may 
occasionally see him. His presence there is to signify that he is the centre strong foun 
dations of the world, and its navel also, as was Delphi. All faiths have more or less 
acted thus : Priests in constructing their shrines, whether temple, cathedral, or rnosk, 
have aimed also at elaborating the ideas of their god or gods, and their sacred books 
and lore ; thus most Christians insist on a church which is cruciform in plan, a spire 
" reaching into the heavens," a navis or Ark, and a risen or dying Saviour in the 
eastern window ; so the Moslem must have his vast dome or globe borrowed from the 
older solar fable, and with Luna s crescent over all, and Minarets or Phallic-looking 
candlesticks, such as the Christian puts on his altar : Of course, both deny the sym 
bolism which we impute to them. 

I give here a simple little Maha Deva which embraces in itself many of these 
features I am endeavouring to describe. It is a drawing of a copperplate which I 
discovered very many years ago deep under ground, when engaged in an engineer 
ing operation in southern India : The natives were so enthusiastic about it, saying that 
it was so ineffably holy by reason of its long interment in mother earth, and assembled 

in such numbers from all the neighbouring country, 
that I was compelled, in face of the multitudes, and 
in case of an assault upon my small camp of work 
men, to give it up ; and I heard a few years afterwards, 
that a fine temple had been built for this object and 
others which we had disinterred. The Brahmans in 
formed me that the object I - here illustrate, was a 
very peculiar Lingam, "in whole as well as in part," 
and in much else besides, and that there should have 
been an Argha as I here show by dotted lines ; but 
although we searched diligently for this, we never 
discovered it. We found, however, many other images 
which had led the priests to consider, that it had been in 
a temple dedicated to Siva, under the form of the god Agni who is here entering " the 
door of Life " holding two writhing Cobras, whose heads like Agni s, are emitting sparks 
of fire ; so that here we have an Apollo with his bow and arrows passing the portal of 
creation, an exactly similar idea to that which the artistic Greek gives us in my 
illustration, Fig. 44, p. 127. The porch itself irradiates Fire as we see in the Asyrian 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 123 

Arks and Jewish " Groves," whilst by the large-headed snakes on each side of the god, 
I suspect we are to understand a double entendre, always so common in Hindooism. 
As Passion, Heat, Fire, Air, and Water are held to irritate into action the energies of 
animal and vegetable life, so the serpent was anciently made to figure universally as 
this irritator or irritant ; and, says Kercher, to represent in Egypt these Elements 
themselves. Thus the Earth or Soil, because animated by the igneous power of Oph 
was shown by a two-horned snake lying prostrate ; Water is shown as an undulat 
ing snake ; Air, an erect hissing snake ; Zeuta or Toth, being Fire, was shown by the 
Asp standing on his tail with a globe on his head, as we see in many Egyptian figures^ 
of which more hereafter. Toth was also Passion, as " Aurei Simplicis Ignis " the reptile 
bisecting the circle, as in Theta, and this was the bisector s sign, (Toth s), the symbol 
of life and death, which Eusebius called " character Mundi : " it was " the vis ignea 
emblem and allotted particularly to Cneph, the Agatho-demon, and Egyptian Demi 
urge." (Deane, p. 129). 

Thus we must remember always that we see in Pytho the " Heated Air " (Holy 
Spirit) though often also the unholy, and so we find him far more diligently worshipped 
and revered by women than men, and feted generally on separate days, so that the 
sexes may think the faith out by themselves. At the Benares Serpent Festival, the 
first day is thronged by women, and the second 
by men ; and on a floor adjoining the god s well, 
is Maha Deva s symbol in stone, with a Ser 
pent as Passion crawling over it. The idea and 
form are common, and such as we meet with 
daily in and about most villages : This Fig. 42, is 
a Maha Deva which I sketched one morning in a 
perfectly new Sivaik temple adjoining a large 
missionary establishment which had been teach 
ing and preaching on the spot for one or more 
generations. Here we see the Snake as sup 
porter of the world Creator and Creatrix, but 
especially of the Argha or Yoni, within which 
play several other Serpents as wreathing tongues 
of fire. All this may seem coarse to us in these 
days of education and refinement, but ancient 
people. knew not of any such fancies what was 
natural was considered presentable nor were the Fig 42 ~ A LWGA - IN - TONI - 

promptings of nature to be always hidden. In this mankind were also too like monkeys, 
and even inferior to some animals, inasmuch as the wisest amongst them often hide sexual 
matters from the broad light of day, and from the gaze of their fellows : Many exhibit 
shame and modesty when discovered, yet I am sorry to say there are races in the East, if 

1 24 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

not communities or persons not in the East, who have not always so acted. "Honour and 
TV/ tec " have indeed been properly raised into qualities which we have been taught to 

aspire to, however powerfully our passions may assert 
themselves ; and temples have been raised and coins struck 
in commemoration of these high qualities : Here is one 
which will be found in our ordinary school books, and 
which we learn from Smith s classical Dictionary was struck 
by Rome in the days of Galba 1st C.A.C. and of which the 
best we can say is, that Egypt had many figures of a similar 
character. If this was then the perfection of " Virtue and 
Honour," it staggers our belief of the possibility of refined 
feeling in an age which could stamp such a coin of the 
Fip . 43.-HOKOUB A ran*, empire. If schoolmasters were better instructed they would 
not give to our youths any representations of the female cornucopia and male baton. 

From India and Kambodia we naturally look across to the immense island of 
Soomatra, long thought to be inhabited by cannibals, and of course expect to find in 
it a Nakon (-vat) as in the adjoining continent, and as a matter of fact we do find the 
same idea, for we find a Serpent God called Naga Padhoa, 1 which supports the world, 
and who is therefore another Soter Kosmou, and, curiously enough, with horns like Isis, 
Apollo, and Moses. Horns reveal to us, as a rule, a mixed solar faith, telling us that 
the Serpent is here Apollyon, or one touched by solar fires : Naga Padhoa is therefore 
not our very early Ob or Aub, but 0-Bel, but I cannot say that this idea is confirmed 
when we go further into the matter. Oaths generally show us the objects most revered 
by a people, and here I can only find phallic objects in use. The most holy oath 
with the Balaks of Soomatra is taken on the figure of a man made of wood or stone, 
which, as the people are able to carve this into something less indecent than a Lingam, 
shows us that they have risen a stage or two higher than a Jacob or Lafcan, which is 
not saying too much for them, or that their faith has passed beyond the Pytho-phallic. 
I would like much to step across to that grand continent still further south, and tell 
what its people know of all these matters ; but records fail me" here, as I fear they fail 
most. We have however heard, that it is the belief of the Australian Bushman, that 
the Serpent created, and ever continues to excite all the world. The class of Euro 
peans who have hitherto devoted attention to the Bushman, has apparently never been 
able to fathom, and some say has never been able even to see, the awful rites and cere 
monies with which his snaky majesty is there worshipped. I can imagine these rites 
from what I have seen of many equally wild aborigines, for we have still some in India 
who fly on the approach of the European, and can only be persuaded to accept a gaudy 
kerchief or other gewgaw by our laying it down on the road and retiring. Still travel 
ling East, we find the Fijian owning as his principal deity the great Serpent-Digci. He is 
1 In Sansk. Naga-pataya = "The surrounding Serpent." 

Serpent and Phallic H orsliip. 125 

" soft in the head and upper portion " the savage quaintly says, but below " hard like 
a petrified stone," and, like all civilised Greek, Indian, or Egyptian Serpents, he lives 
in a cave on Mount Nava-ta, a suspicious sound like unto navis, nabhi or arglia. 

Let us now return to better known lands. In many Grecian and Egyptian 
stories I have always felt a confusion in the relative positions of our Eastern idea of the 
Serpent as Passion, and the Egyptian one of the dog Cerberus, which is frequently 
painted as the three-headed dog of Passion. It was the dog of the Egyptian tombs, and 
held to be the guardian of their loved dead ; but it appears from Ovid s " Met. " vii. 
(Bolm s Ed., Riley s Trans., p. 246), that this was the positive and special duty of 
the guardian Serpent, which Cerberus, says Ovid, robbed of his birthright, or place at 
the cave s mouth. Now the Yoni was the cave s mouth which the Serpent specially 
guarded (see figs. 39, 42) and this also was theNanda s, and a Herculean position ; and 
the dog of three heads is shown as this strong man s companion, and Herakles is said by 
some to be Ileera Kola (Siva) ; so the myth is deep, and looks very phallic, and as if the 
dead had also the signification of a new life. Mr Eiley s commentator says that the 
Serpent guarded the cavern of Tenants in Laconia, one of the avenues to the kingdom 
of Fire or Pluto, through a temple of Neptune, from which issued nauseous vapours. 
He was " a devourer of flesh " and of poisoned herbs (again Sivaik), which grow about 
Thessaly. Women used these herbs, and became witches, and could call down the 
moon to earth, whom at night they invoked with their enchantments ; all this is clear, 
and sufficiently suggestive ! None before this, however, says Pausanias, ever called 
this guardian Serpent a dog. 

Dr Smith s classical dictionary gives under the head " Peleus," a very graphic 
phallic sculpturing, showing what the Greeks understood in delineations of serpents and 
dogs. Thetis is there seen overburdened with serpents which are biting her too ardent 
lover Peleus, and upon whom a dog also springs from under her garments ; but we must 
remember what kind of creature poor Thetis is here painted, with her dog and serpent. 
Cupid is seen gaily following up the. lovers, and the result is the birth of the mighty 
Achilles ! Eris, the goddess of strife was, we are told, the one deity who gladdened not 
this marriage rite with her presence; yet the offspring had strife enough in his day. 

Python is destroyed by Apollo, who then becomes the oracle, yet the Virgin remains 
the deliverer of that oracle, ever sitting on or under the Drake s tripod; Drako being the 
Greek word used for a large serpent in distinction to Python, applied to a small one. 
Kadmus is said " to have slain the Drako which devoured his men," as passion still 
does our people, at all events our armies ; but from this dragon s teeth, says the old 
myth, arose abler warriors. The Trinitarian idea descended from the Phallic to the 
Serpent faith. Thus we see the Trinity in Unity in the triple Serpent of Constanti 
nople, and so also in the three-headed Serpent of Agamemnon s shield. Babylon 
seems to have been content with two Serpents, though Sir H. Eawlinson puts Hca, 
as "the head of the Trinity;" and we know from the writing Bel and the Dragon 

126 Rivers of Life , or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

(which Protestant Christians but they only call apocryphal, though it is not clear 
why it is so any more than the other Jewish sacred writings), how enraged the people 
were at the destruction of their deity. Fergusson says, " in the Serpents of Metcle 
we see the Serpents of Babylon ; " and Diodorus states that in Belus temple, Rhea is 
accompanied by two enormous Serpents, and that she Queen of Heaven stands leaning 
with her right hand on a Serpent s head, a very graphic and important confirmation of the 
faith and its true signification. India says, Bali-Rahoo, the Dragon causes Eclipses. 

All Western Asiatics were from the earliest ages known as peculiarly and sincerely 
devoted to serpent worship. The most ancient Greeks nick-named all who went to 
the coasts of Asia Minor as " Serpents," their own faith at that time being more purely 
Phallic : Thus classic tale gravely asserts that poor Kadmus and his wife were meta 
morphosed into serpents as soon as they touched 10 s land ; and Mr Riley, with refer 
ence to this strange miracle, says in his notes to Ovid s "Met. " iv. 603, that Kadmus 
became a serpent on reaching Illyria, because all Phenicians were anciently called 
Akivi, which signifies serpent. We may remember that the Hebrew word mn, chavah, 
is a serpent, also Eve (Gen. iii. 20) ; mn, Havah and Hauah, is to breathe, also 
burn with passion ; mn, chucAa, is a thorn or piercing object ; mn, chavacA, a cleft or 
fissure ; and as n and n are interchangeable, we have Havah for Eve or Eva, the Yoni, 
or Mystic Mother, of which we have abundant sculptures and drawings in all countries, 
evidencing the direct worship of this Evic-serpent. See a well known sample of this 
in Layard s "Nineveh and Babylon," p. 156, which I give further on; he copies it from 
an Egyptian seal. The worshipper is Bacchus, though called " the silent deity " 
Harpokrates, sitting on the lotus as fertility ; that Harpokrates is Bacchus, I will hereafter 
show. The words used for male and female in Gen. i. 27 are only a little more gross 
than the Adam and Eve of the Hebrews, being 13T, Zakar, and napa, Nikeba : The 
signification of desire in Gen. iii. 16 is the serpent as emblem of desire ; see "Ancient 
Faiths," i. 497. 

The Pythic god is by no means yet dead in Western Asia, nor even in Asia 
Minor, although the faith suffered an undoubted and severe blow from the education 
and enlightenment which the philosophers of Greece and Rome brought in, and espe 
cially the latter, whose Pro-consuls were sources of light through which her stoicism, 
arts, and learning, were brought home to the very doors of all her most distant pro 
vinces. Christianity was for a time a damper to this progress, for she believed in a 
coming millennium, and in all the miracles and superstitious of the day ; at least ninety - 
nine Christians in every hundred did so, where these did not set at nought her own. 
The first Christian churches says Fergusson, quoting Pindar Ephesus, Smyrna, &c., 
were notorious for their old serpent worship, and this he states in support of his 
theory, that Turanian races are generally serpent worshippers, and therefore more sus 
ceptible of Christianity than Aryans, which is equivalent to saying that Christianity is 
mostly suitable for the lower stages of our growth. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 127 

A small brochure by the Earl of Carnarvon shows us, that neither the serpent nor 
his usually accompanying deity Fire, is yet dead in these old seats of empire; both, he 
states, are considered necessary to give light and beauty, and were thought to inspire 
awe and veneration for the holy dead. The Earl visited in 1860 the very holy shrine 
of Sliek-Adi Ayezide of Mesopatamia, about 25 miles from Mosul on the spurs of the 
Nestorian Mountains, overlooking the plains of Nineveh, and speaks thus of his 
approach to it through wooded gorges : " Its most marked features were conical 

spires, fashioned in the form of a wavy and pointed flame, marking the old 

fire worship which is more truly, if not more openly professed amongst the Yezidis, than 
any other nation west of mount Elbruz," the holy Hermon of the Caucasians. He found 
the serpent " prominently sculptured on the side posts of the inner sanctuary," for it 
is the commonest emblem of these parts, not only internally but externally, and on all 
churches, monasteries, and convents ; so much so, that taken in connection with the 
October Saturnalia, and the water ducts and water appliances to all these shrines, we are 
thus assured that they have always been more or less serpent temples : Perhaps on 
this account the old Shek selected this Pytho-Fire shrine as his final resting-place. 
The lamps and all the appurtenances, says the Earl, were too sacred to be defiled by 
an unbeliever s touch, and the fire was never permitted to go out in the adytum, or 
holy of holies. 

Let us now glance briefly at some of the most highly esteemed specimens of Grecian 
art, and remove if possible some of the gloss and pretty painting with which the poet 
and artist have draped their figures ; for, as I have long ago urged, they have but 
worked up the cold harsh outlines and ideas, into lovely forms and enchanting pictures, 
which we, going to the root of matters, must try to dissipate. Given a Christ- 
like idea, it is easy to enshroud the babe in swaddling bands and lay him romantic 
ally in a manger and bring the star and wise men from the East to do homage at the 
shrine ; to kill all the babes in Judea, and stir up the anxious, nervous minds, of con 
querors and conquered, and bring statesmen and monarchs to the foot of a cross ; but we 
-must be here real, and neither accept Boodha of the grove of Lubina, Christ of Beth 
lehem, nor the Prophet of the Desert, without sifting all. 

As man learned to sculpture freely, the representation of 
male and female took the most beautiful forms of man and woman, 
and when Poetry and Music became arts, common and appreciated, 
these two were personified by the sexes; Music became Woman and 
Love ; and Apollo and others played upon such lyres to enraptured 
nature ; and it is here, as with the lyre, that he is shown to us 
as passing through the Door of Life. He is in the state which 
Solomon calls blessed, because his quiver is shown full of arrows, and 
his bow is ever with him, or he is supposed to be holding his bow 
after shooting forth his arrow. At other times he is found sculp- 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

tared as a Hercules or representation of manly vigour, in which his uprightness is 
meant to be a speeial characteristic. The pillar or column on which he sometimes 

leans is Phallic, and especially so when 
the serpent is entwined round it as here. 
Sometimes the whole figure is Phallic, 
and in this case is usually ornamented with 
bunches of grapes and clinging ivy, as 
emblems of Dionysus, whose symbol is the 
Phallus, and whose attendants are Bac 
chantes wreathed in ivy. At other times 
Apollo stands as here usually sculptured, 
the symbol of manly power and vigour, 
and With his quiver full of arrows, from 
which one has just issued. Mark here that 
the Lingam column around which the Ser 
pent twines, is the highly emblematic tree 
stem, and that in this case he is known as 
the Pythian-Apollo, Darter, or Sun, for 
the Oak Stem is Jove or Jehovah. I 
should perhaps state that it is very often 
only by studying this support or accom 
paniment to a god, that we can discern the 
full meaning and characteristics of the 
god-idea and tale, thus pictorially meant 
to be told us. If not told in the accom 
paniment, we can generally discern it in 
the garments and ornaments of the figure itself, but when this is nude, we learn 
that the painters or sculptors meant us to fall back on the surroundings, and 
so we discover (as Erasmo Pistoiesi tells us in his beautiful work on "The 
Antiquities of Herculaneum and Pompeii,") in the case of Bacchus, first, from his 
Nebride, tiger s or lion s or ram s skin, and, secondly and thirdly, from his side 
" column entwined with the vine and serpent (love or passion), the three characteristic 
symbols of the worship of Bacchus." Soj in the case of the clothed Minerva, we 
understand the meaning she represents by observing wreaths of serpents around her 
neck and bosom, and a gorgon s or child s head in the centre of the breast, and we 
naturally exclaim ; " Passion and the bewilderment of disordered passion, and love for 
offspring," more especially if she stands with a globe, or child, or both in hand. Now 
in the case of this last Apollo the side column is often much higher than here, and the 
snake larger and more prominent, and shown as looking upward with head erect, and 
reaching nearly to the Apollo s chest, and folded about his arm ; the column is also 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 29 

often shaped snake-like in graceful curves, and surmounted with a bunch of grapes or 
seed. See a figure in the valuable German drawings entitled Denkmaler der Alten 
Kunst, by C. 0. Miiller. The fellow to this Apollo would be the beautiful Venus de 
Medici, who leans (see figure 224 of same work) against her representative, the fish, 
here a dolphin, on and about which young cupids are seen riding and gambolling. 
The same idea, but softer and more matronly, is portrayed in the Ephesian Artemis, 
with arms open, displaying her multitude of full breasts, whilst clothed in an armour 
of passion, see figure further on. 

The Bilder Atlas (Leipzic 1860) is full of fine illustrations showing similar and 
other strange ideas of Phallo-Solar Faiths. The Dolphin may be often seen heading 
the phallic pole, as in plate viii., where stands beside it a representative man as 
Neptune, who holds the fish by the tail, probably to restrain its energies. 

One sculpture (fig. 1 5) shows Man flying over the earth, bearing aloft the Concha 
Veneris, and a figure representing Woman is seen pouring from her vase all that 
earth counts blessings. Elsewhere we see Satyrs kneeling before a woman, and filling 
the vase she holds out in her hand the meaning being the same. Seeing I have already 
had so often to mention the Concha or Shank of the East, I think I had better pause to 
give my European readers a sketch of this most important symbol, for we shall never 
get on well unless we thoroughly comprehend these objects, and the details to which 
Orientalists attach so much importance. 

I give here from among the ornaments of the highest deities, and from the most 
learned of bygone Orientalists, at least in these details, the Concha, as seen in 
the hands of Vishnoo and his consort. (Plate vi. of Moore s 
Hindoo Pantheon). The god holds the larger shell in one hand, 
and in the other, opposite to it (not shewn here), the great orb 
of day. In Moore s picture, also, Vishnoo is seen to be stand 
ing in the very symbolic arched doorway, like Apollo in my fig, 
44, and adorned with a gorgeous head-dress of serpents, whilst 
overhead is a Baldakeno of hooded snakes ; the down left hand 
is reversed, betokening that he here holds virginity on this side FIG. 46.- S H E LL S . 

as well as his goddess, whilst the down right hand is turned "boldly to the front. The 
reader will not fail to mark the prominence of the diamond form in the centre of the 
god s hand, which, when open, is always the symbol of the Creator, Siva, and that 
the finger points markedly to the centre of the diamond. See also that the shell 
emblem is oval, and winged like the Osirian hat, and has a conical or phallic top, 
such as most women in Egypt have on their heads when engaged in worship, or fully 
dressed. See Wilkinsons Anc. Egyp. L, 318. Of course the god has four hands in 
Moore s illustrations, as all solar deities have. 

The smaller shell is in the goddess s hand, for she presides over the wombs of all 
females as the mother of all mothers. It is possible that the Osirian head-dress sprang 
from this very old Eastern Shell-idea, for this shell was the first Priestly Bell, or 

130 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

music of the gods ; it can frighten away all evil demons and sceptics, and therefore was 
an article very early and very persistently used as well for sacerdotal garments as church 
ornation ; and from it, combined with other causes, did all bell-like plants, flowers, and 
fruits, as pomegranates &c., become the favourites of ecclesiastics. 

The Concha or Shank is still the Hindoo Church bell, though gongs and trumpets 
are likewise used ; it is however, still the principal bell with the strictly orthodox, and 
at some very solemn rites is as indispensable as the . Christian Church bell, of which it 
is the prototype. What good Christian s marriage or death would be complete without 
the church bell ? The Shank is more especially blown when the Sivaik priest goes 
through his genuflexions before the Lingam and anoints it, which corresponds to the 
act of the Catholic priest elevating the symbolic wafer "the victim" emblem of 
the " God of Bethlehem." Then, too, in addition to the blasts of the Shank, which 
uniquely correspond to the Jewish trumpetings, the inner small bell of the Sivaik 
temple boldly clangs, as does the altar bell of the Roman Catholics meekly tinkle ; only 
the ideas in these rites have changed, not so the customs and forms, for with the 
ignorant masses these are not so easily moved. The emblem in the left hand is also 
the common mark or Nishdn, which we almost always see on the foreheads of every 
goddess of the Hindoo Pantheon, as a glance at Moore s plates shews ; it is, in fact, 
the orifice of the shell. 

The Concha is not the same shape in all countries, and is represented in Southern 
Europe by the Buccina, called in Greece the Bukani, which was there also blown at great 
fetes. The Greek word is y^yyji Ko?zgrke. I give in figure 47, a Greek drawing of the ordinary 
Indian shaped Bukana, where we see the unmistakeable phallic 
figure of a Deity blowing through the shell, which English 
schoolboys are ignorantly taught to call " a Triton sound- 
ing his buccina." Smith s Dictionary of Antiquities unwit 
tingly but appropriately shews the Bukani under the head 
of Navis, for it is Maya s boat, and the Concha her emblem ; 
yet a male in connection with it is far too prononce an 
ornament even for our school-books, and the editor 

Fig. 47. THE PHALLIC GOD AND . , . p , - . 

SHANK. has given this figure as the outer gold stamp of his 

most valuable and popular " Dictionary of Antiquities! " The shell is also seen among 
my other figures, and always in Indian pictures beside the other sexual energies. The 
Triton, or man in this position, is a sort of pictorial pun for the phallus; and he carries 
witli him his rudder, or consort, for the rudder as well as the stern of every vessel usually 
denotes woman as the great carrier, and hence ships as carriers have the feminine affix. 
Unintentionally the learned gentleman who writes the article " Navis" in Smith s Diet, 
of Antiquities, gives us two very rudder like and feminine cuts below the phallic Buccina. 
Of the one he says the rudder, "helm, or tiller is crossed by a cornucopia;" and in regard 
to the other, that " Venus leans with her left arm on the rudder to indicate her origin 
from -the sea." This is not of course correct; according to Oriental phallic lore 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 131 

the winged arrow is the male, and carries &fleur de Us head with, I suspect, the heel 
wings of that "old thief" Mercury, so that the piercing of the rudder is highly 
emblematic. I give the two gems seen in the 
Dictionary article for facility of reference, also a 
rudder and shield, regarding which I must say a 
few words more. 

In the celebrated Irish Tdra brooch, which Mr 
Waring gives us in plate 92 of his handsome 
volume, 1 the serpent is the cross-pin of the femi 
nine emblem, as the arrow here is of the rudder, 
yet we should have fancied that the Irish brooch- 
maker would, for the circular parts of his work, 
have preferred the serpent from its curling coil 
ing propensities, and had the javelin or spear 
equally symbolical for the pin of the jewel ; 
yet it is not so, shewing us that for this crown jewel, the Irish people preferred 
Python male to Python female. We see what importance the sensual monarch of 
the Jews attached to shields by his making no less than three hundred, and of pure gold, 
and hanging them up in his amatory palace of Lebanon (1 Kings x. 17) ; of which the 
value, we are gravely asked to believe, was something like a quarter million sterling. 

David captured similar " shields of gold " on the servants of a king of Arabia- 
Deserta (2 Sam. viii.), and also dedicated them, like Great Cesar, to his gods. Such 
shields we find were either sacred to the sun, as Turner and others tell us the shield 
of Pallas was, or to the Genetrix, and may be classed with the Eoman ancilia, keys, 
rudders, and such sexual simulacra. The serpent was the steersman who guided the 
arks or boats of this faith, see Fig. 73, page 191, and Pallas- Athena, Ceres, and other 
Saktis often had such emblems as these. Feathers or wings attached to gods or god 
desses, I have elsewhere shewn, had always some sexual signification, and this feather- 
. ing of the rudder, so precisely like that attached to the Phallic cap of the gods, is 
suspicious. Ceres had usually a cross at the head of her shaft, which completes the 
symbolism ; the shields had serpents and such like, with a centre boss. Jehovah, who 
was once a female god, called himself the shield of Abram on the occasion of his 
asking for offspring (Gen. xv. 1). The Romans preserved with great religious care 
and reverence twelve ancilia in the temple of Mars on the hill of Pallas, for which 
there were regular priests, called the Salii Palatini. In connection with them also 
were sacred cups Patera, Patella, or Patina, which in Sivaik temples are called 
Arghas ; these appear also in Grecian rites, and in the sacramental chalice of Christi 
anity. The arghas are occasionally used for incense, and the distinction between them 
and the cups and the censer of Christian churches is very fine. All have been in use 
from unknown times, for as Dryden says, 

" The Salii sing and cense their altars round 
With Sabine smoke." 

1 Monuments and Ornaments, &c., by J. B. Waiing. J. Day & Co., London, 1870. 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

The goddess of the Concha or Vase is shewn in a very striking way in Plate vii. 
fig. 20, of the Bilder Atlas, as rising vigorously out of the ocean, riding the vernal bull ; 
it has a fish s tail, in the folds of which children are gambolling, whilst winged cherubim 
are urging the bull upwards in his fiery path, in a way which reminds us of that 
whipping of the altar of Apollo by impetuous creation ; the riding deity here repre 
senting woman. Elsewhere may be seen the same goddess riding a fiery horse, which 
has a fish s tail but no legs ; it carries with it a picture of all animate creation, shew 
ing us that the worship is intensely solo-phallic, and that these phases of faith must 
never be entirely, separated if we would understand aright the ideas of the Greeks 
and Romans, even up to the last century or so. 

Where could we find a fitter queen of these faiths than she, Sophia, Wisdom and 
Power, portrayed in that magnificent statue of the 
Akropolis,the Athena-Parthenos, Athena, Minerva, Pallas- 
Athena, or Athena-Polias ? for all of which grand titles 
my eastern friends would be inclined to substitute Sri- 
linga-Jce, Addma, or Yeva, according as they were 
expressing themselves from a Hindoo or Mahomedan 
point of view. She was no doubt Palla or Phalla the 
great father, and Athena the great mother, an androgy 
nous deity, such as Zeus and Wisdom always were. Pallas 
Athena commonly bore the shaft of Zeus, the trident of 
Neptune, or the Tri-Sool of India the three-thorned 
" Enlivener" of Ge in the one hand, a globe in the other, on 
which a new world arises, and so on ad infinitum. 

The wild and impetuous passions of the goddess 
are usually indicated by writhing snakes over her 
head and breasts, and issuing from her garments 
at foot, here only partially shown. Sometimes she 
Kg. 49. -PALLAS-ATHENA, OK WISDOM AXD POWER. geems i o pjgg Q^Q^Q passion and trample it under 

foot, as we observe in an illustration of the Denkmcder der Alien Kunst 
collection ; whilst elsewhere she is the patroness of passion, herself unmoved, but 
moving all creation, as in the Bilder Atlas (Leipsic, 1860), 
where she leans against her representation the shield (not 
the rudder here), at the foot of which is coiled a serpent 
looking up to her, and a winged lioness with very full 
breasts, as if imploring her to exercise her potent energies. 
In Latona s story we have a similar idea; and in this 
sculpture of her, where, we see a serpent tempting a coy or 
backward woman, we have also a sort of pictorial pun in 
the upright column which she and her young ones are made 
to form between two rocks or cliffs always male symbols. 

Fig. 60. LATONA. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 33 

This drawing is one of a class common on vases. Latona, the mother of Apollo and 
Artemis, and Queen of Delos, is here flying from the serpent Jupiter, with some 
amount of fear, but neither in anger nor altogether willingly, whilst her children seek 
to cling to the pursuer. The idea, I fancy, is both phallic and solar as connected with 
Zeus ; the very name of the goddess, ?.^0j Latin, lateo, seems to tell us of hidden powers 
of fecundity, which Zeus the Sun developed ; so that the flight, if from the god, repre 
sents the seasons, similar to the diurnal idea of Daphne or Aurora. 

Our Serpent-god plays a similar part with Hercules and the Hesperides, in that 
" garden of apples " a fruit which signifies more than I 
dare here explain (see Anct. Faiths. Apples). Hera 
got the apples from mother Ge, and when they had 
served her purpose, entrusted them to the Hesperides, 
daughters of Night, or of Atlas and Hesperis, or Zeus 
and Themis ; a very imprudent act, which was scarcely 
to be expected from such a discreet and well-informed 
person as Juno ; but the story is Phallo- Solar. The 
Hesperides were those who dwelt far away beyond the 
Borean wind, or as this was afterwards localized, in 
Hyperborean lands, then thought to be beyond mother 
Ge s domains. Juno, after fertilizing her own lands, is 
in this tale represented as then giving these maids 
the means of fertilizing their sterile ground, so that in 
all this wonderful tale of searching out and capturing 
apples, or fruit hidden away by Hesperides, and guarded by a great serpent, we 
no doubt (although I suspect a very gross Phallic tale is the root of the myth) arc- 
now merely asked to see the idea of the sun searching out and bringing to life latent 
powers of fecundity, as in the tale of Latona and Delos, which also was a very barren 
though sunny place, like what Hyperborea was believed to be. 

We must bear in mind, that as Apollo or the Sun is Python, so the Pillar, 
Mudhir, or Sun- Stone, as they called it in ancient Ireland, 
is also the Toth, the Solar Serpent or obelisk, which last 
" Grimm s laws" notwithstanding, if such must be I hold 
to be resolvable into Ob .and Palos, or Ob-bdos, the Ser 
pent shaft or sun, which Bryant and Hoi well support me 
in saying. In historic ages the worship of the Pillar and 
Phallus was general at all Solar phases, and whether in Asia 
Minor or on the Campus Martins of Rome around that 
fine monument, but very coarse idea of Mars we see why 
the annual games of the people, .Delphic, or Pythic, 
were so held, and in presence, of such gods. Before 
this Mars, the youth of Rome were annually assembled 

134 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

to contend in tournaments and manly exercises for the maidens whom they loved, 
and the exploits of the gods were held up as examples to all. My illustration is from 
one of a group in the Museum Pio Clementinum, and represents, I believe, not only 
the great Phallic god of war, but the sun of the vernal Equinox, who has 
to resuscitate the injured powers of nature, and is therefore the personification of manly 
vigor, and the favorite of Venus. The pyramid is the Fire-tower, and hence is 
shewn the small but everlasting flame proceeding from it, as all obelisks should shew 
this otherwise they are devoid of half their meaning. 

Rome, from, the days of her mythic Romulus of Etruscan origin, to that of her 
emasculation under false Christian ideas, was a firm and consistent adherent of all 
forms of Phallic faiths, which she boldly depicted aloft on her standards. Let us 
glance at the most prominent. 

In the first here we have first a Serpent pole, such as Moses is held to have 
set up, and his tribes worshipped for some seven hundred 
years; then one surmounted by Siva s special "Emblem 
of Almighty power" the open hand, along with Solar, 
Lunar, and Arkite ideas sacred to that faith; and 
thirdly, we have one headed by an Eagle, who is Vislmoo 
or the Sun, ubiquity and power, religion and truth ; 
and below it, various very IGnic-looking emblems as 
ovals, circles, goads or thorns, &c. It was natural 
that the followers of such " Banners " should revere 
all the legends of Phallic and Solar lore, and that 
their greatest leader (Cesar) should send to the great 
GENETPJX of his capitol, on the occasion of his greatest 
conquests, her emblematic shields embossed with 

pearls- highly symbolic jewels, and in-wrought by Alban maids with ifche finest of 
British gold. This subject of Banners is extensive, and capable of almost indefinite 
expansion, because all ancient peoples often proclaimed their faith to the minutest 
details on such Banners or Poles as they bore before them in processions or armed 
array, and it is difficult within my allotted space to do it full justice. The Roman 
standards had also the cross and circle of Venus, see Fig. 99 J f p. 228, which Constantino, 
the so-called Christian Emperor, to please the Christians whose faith the coarse and 
ignorant Pagan (for he only became a Christian in name) saw to be in the ascendant, 
modified, by removing it from the top of the spear to the side, which really only 
changed the Kaldian symbol into the staff and crook of Osiris, and into that ever 
highly Phallic letter the Greek R. As Pindar had said that Venus brought her sign 
down from Olympus with her sacred bird crucified upon it, so the Christians (probably 
the often untruthful Eusebius) thought it advisable to say they too got their cross 
from their heavens, or had seen it in that portion of atmosphere which was over Con- 
stantipople for a fraction of a second in the year 311 A.C. Plato and Justin Martyr 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


only knew of a Greek " Kki or Khiasm" which in Eusebius day was called of Khiasmos. 
So he gives Rho as his emperor s monogram of "Khristos," explaining xiafaevov TOU p *ar& 
ro fiseairarov, " the letter Rho passing exactly through the middle of the letter Khi." 1 This 
sign was then also, like that of Phallic crosses, called "the cross of salvation," or of life. 2 
The Romans are believed to have got their first standard, a phallus or pole 
with a spear transversely to it, from the Samothracians, Dacians, and such people; that 

is, from the Ugric Etruscans of Asiatic extraction. This transverse object was usually 
put in motion by strings as "a wagtail " at all festivals, as at the Phallophoria, Thesmo- 
phoria, &c., just as I have seen this done very frequently in India. When the Linga is 
in agitation, all the beholders pray to it, the ceremony thus corresponding to the raising 
of the Hostia, or supposed " sacrifice of the victim." The Boodhists also keep up a 
similar waving in the pulling of the serpentine streamers on their temple poles, which may 
only be done by young virgins and lads ; the sacred Henza or Goose, and Phallic 
portion of the pole is thus made to bow and quiver, when all the people fall on their 
knees and worship. I give here a sketch of these poles and ornaments, taken by me 
above a "dozen years ago, as they then existed around the base of the great Shooe Dagony 
Pagoda of Rangoon. A corner of the base of this great and most holy shrine is seen 
adjoining the figures of the demons, who sit here to warn off sceptics, the great enemies of 
priests. Wisdom and complacency also sit there, urging good men to follow their ways, 
and to try and pass quietly and tranquilly through life. There are tables for offerings 
before the figures, and indeed all about the platform of the great temple, which plateau 

1 Life of Const., I. 30. 2 Eccles. Hist. Euseb., III. 20. 

136 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Alan in all Lauds. 

the British Government have now. made into a fortified citadel, and to a great extent 
cleared. These tables are for voluntary offerings towards the support of the temple, its 
priests and schools, which last are, or were, very extensive and very excellent ; for 
Boodha, like Confucius, was a warm supporter of education such as is not known to 
Western prophets, nor until a century or so; to Christian churches, except in the way 
of teaching matters connected with their own interests. " Wisdom and learning" with 
churches, signified only that which proved their own faith and doctrines to be correct 
all else was but folly and ignorance, nay worse, wickedness. The various buildings 
seen in this illustration are covered with leaf-gold from base to summit. There are open 
sheds about for prayer and shelter, in some of which are sacred bells, the requisite of 
every faith, and the symbolism of which . I have elsewhere tried to make clear. All 
Boodhist countries have shewn us much Drakonic sculpturing and pictures, and I see 
here also the Serpent at his old ways ; it is he who moves these " Henzas," who moved 
Brahma, the creator. The Henza was sent to him for this purpose by Vishnoo, and is there 
fore his Incarnation, though Boodhists will dissent. The word Dragon has come down to 
our own day in many ways, and I suspect even in the corrupted word Dragoman or 
Spokesman, for the Drako was the special Speaker, the Word, and the Oracle ; so 
Targem a:nn " to explain," pjnin Turgeman " a translator," and our Indian Tarjama 
" a translation," seem to have originally sprung from Draka or Trako. To ophiolatry 
we also owe the name of the body-guards of our sovereign Dragoons ; a word 
which, though coming to us from Gaul, was borrowed from Imperial Rome, whose 
choicest troops were those fighting under the Dragon s standard carried by select men 
Draconarii ; the standard was quite " au natural" a bond fide serpent on a pole. 
From the very earliest pre -historic times all the people of the Roman Campania were 
Pitdns, as we would say in India, and Pitanatce or Ophitce here ; and their earliest 
kings had on their standard this genuine figure of a Serpent. 

The Hebrew who carried the same God called him also jna Peten, so that this term 
we may say ruled from Italy to India. Hesychius says that the Greeks called their 
infantry brigades vir&v&rai, Pitanatai. Even in the days of Marcus Aurelius every 
cohort of the Roman army had the actual image of a serpent on a standard, and there 
fore every legion had ten serpents. And these also were real and not pictures, 
painted, worked, or woven into cloth ;. and we may therefore be sure that neither 
would the " Jehovah Nissi " nor " the Lord my Banner " be a flag or picture, but a real 
pole or standard, bearing the symbol of the tribes, that is a club, baton, oi\pillar, for 
they had not risen above our second faith until they got their serpent-pole, and, 
therefore, up to that time would have a genuine baton, or Lingam. It would be 
easy to give, abundant instances of serpent or dragon standards as still existing. 
Our -own kings, the Danes, Livonians, and Normans had all along fought under, and 
worshipped such standards. We hear of Skythians in desolating hordes sweeping 
from frozen to torrid, zones, and back and forward through every land, and 
always under their sacred dragon insignia ; their cradle, we may say, was a serpent 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 37 

the great loved river, OBI, which was held through untold ages by hardy fathers and 
irrepressible children, rejoicing in the name of Ostiakes, and worshipping real serpents 
and serpent images. 

As all peoples have been more or less led and nurtured under Pythic standards, so 
have they, their demi-gods, kings, and chiefs, called themselves after serpent names. 
In our own island, not only does Draig in the old languages mean dragon, but " a fiery 
serpent and THE SUPREME GOD ; " the capitals and italics are not mine, but those of the 
pious and orthodox clergyman, J. Bathurst Deane, in his volume on Serpent Worship. 
Though the Eoman power seems to have overthrown all ancient English standards, yet 
the dragon remained the rallying sign and war-cry of the Welsh and Anglo-Saxons for 
long centuries ; and in 1195, Eichard Cceur-de-Lion bore the dragon-standard as the 
representative of northern Christianity 1 when warring with the iconoclastic 
Mahomed, who similarly sinned, but on the female side, with fair Astarte, the pretty 
Pythoness ; he bore her emblem, the crescent Luna, as do all the armies of Islam 
to this hour. A hundred years after our Richard, the dragon-standard of England 
under Henry III. became a terror in the land ; that king proclaimed that when unfurled 
against his enemies, it meant "no quarter," giving out then as his motto, "the dragon 
knows not how to spare." The "standard was planted in the front of the king s 
pavilion, to the right of the other ensigns, and was kept unfurled day and night" 

Three hundred years after this, or in 1500, we find the wise and good king, 
Henry VII., he who united the rival houses of York and Lancaster, introducing the 
dragon into the royal arms of England, where it remained till the union with Scotland, 
when the nondescript animal, with one horn in front a sort of travesty on Siva and 
Jove, who had a central eye in the forehead, took Draco s place. 2 The same high and 
heavenly reason is given for the introduction of the dragon into the imperial arms of 
Britain, as we have in the case of the cross of Constantine. The heir-apparent of the 
British throne beheld a " fiery meteor, in the form of a dragon, illumine the heavens 
with portentous glare," which " astrologers unanimously expounded " as meaning that 
he who saw this would one day rule, which he did on the death of his brother Aurelius, 
when he at once fabricated two dragons in gold, one of which he placed in Winchester 
Cathedral, and the other he carried before him as the standard of England. Our heir- 
apparent is, it has been said, still bound to use this standard or insignia when trans 
acting official formalities in connection with his " Kymri." 3 Nor were the Christian 
churches here free from their old sin of inconsistency : they did in Rome as Romans 
did. Du Fresne, quoted by the reverend writer of Serpent Worship, says that " in the 
ecclesiastical processions of the Church of Rome an effigy of a dragon is wont to be 
carried," with holy and everlasting fire in his mouth. " On Palm Sunday there are 

1 Serpent Worship, p. 256. The Bible of 1579 has a scaly Dragon on dexterside of the Eoyal Arms. 

2 I suspect the horn is the Serpent drawn straight as he would appear in a front elevation. 

3 Serpent Worship, Deane, 268-70, quoting authorities. The Winged red Dragon represents Wales. 

I. S 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 


two processions in which the standard and the dragon precede. Holy water and a censer 
without fire, a cross and dragon on a pole, are borne in procession. One of the boys 
carries a lighted candle in a lantern that fire may be at hand in case the light which 
is in the dragon s mouth should be extinguished." Truly does the Rev. J. B. Deanc 

add : "The whole ceremony may be con 
sidered as a lively representation of an 
ophite procession as it advanced through 
the sinuous paralleleiths of Karnak " (p. 
288). So that no wonder the illiterate 
races were deceived into thinking that 
,__ there was no harm in calling themselves 
Christians, for all their dear old faiths 
are here fire, arks, poles, and fire in an 
ark. My readers will see from this illustration of the above, description, that nothing 
is awanting in the Sivaite procession ; there is a Phallic pole and Phallic cross, two 
cists or female emblems, one of water and one of fire, and then the male within the 
ark vessel. We Europeans are very apt to read the details of such matters without 
ever realising the significance which my Sivaite friends would readily apprehend ; and I 
require, therefore, to be lavish in illustration, though at a cost I should have wished to 
restrain. Note, that one of the feminine emblems here is Fire, though the Church 
probably dare not now put the god in his place ; another is Salacia or Water, that 
is Fire- Water. All seems uncommonly like the Jewish Phallic Faith of the days of 
Moses the Fiery Serpent on the Phallus the pot of manna, the feminine casket of 
incense which the " Jav Nissi " delighted in, the Tau or holy symbol with which 
he had peculiarly marked all his males, and the symbol of himself as the ever 
burning fire in the ark of his own choice. 

It is difficult to guess the land and age to which we should assign -the origin of 
Serpent- Standards or "Banners." These waved triumphantly over the whole world 
of man, from the remotest pre-historic times to the dark ages of Christianity, and 
only then, in our own little continent, did they begin to fall into disuse. Ethiopia or 
the Phenician tribes of most ancient Arabia (even in the widest sense in which Mr 
Baldwin 1 would ask us to accord the sway of this people), all the eastern and 
western empires, Skythians and Bactrians of every hue and kind, most ancient 
Teutons, Saci, and Saxons, the most primitive and most modern of the . hordes of 
China and all insular peoples in every corner of the earth the Nomads of the Ural and 
Central Asian steppes, and wandering tribes of Jews and other Arabs of Arabian 
deserts all and each boldly claimed and proudly bore aloft their BASILEUS as a king 
and god, or demi-god, and meekly bowed before him as the symbol of health and 
generative power. I shall by-and-bye shew that this Greek term Basileus is no empty 

1 Baldwin s Pre-historic Nations. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 139 

one in regard to him, who in all these lands was a king, and whose figure on banner, 
shield, helmet, or forehead, denoted royalty or the bluest of " blue blood :" Blue was his 
colour, and perhaps we owe to Phallic royalty this very term of purity in lineage ; for 
Siva s name was Neel-Kanta, or the blue-throated one, as well as Esh-Wara, the Lord 
of Love and King of the Gods ; for in Esli, we have Es, Hessus, or Esus, near relatives 
of Ash and Ashur, Eshar and Ish-tar, where Ur, may be Light and Ar, the Sun. 

The Emperor Aurelian mentions capturing from Zenobia the Persici Dracones, 1 
who were allies of the Persians of those days ; and Eusebius says that Persians " all 
worshipped First principles under the form of Serpents, having dedicated to them 
temples in which they performed sacrifices, and held festivals and orgies, esteeming 
them THE GREATEST OF GODS and the governors of the universe." 2 The "first principles" 
were typified by two upreared Serpents on each side of an egg, as in my Fig. 34, and 
Plate IV., 3 and 9, which became afterwards spiritualised into "good and evil striving 
for mastery" over the world which spiritualisation, however, seems rather too 
advanced for the primitive artists. It is more likely that the symbolism in figure 34 
was the very natural one of the male and female guarding their joint result, and that 
any " contention " over the egg is no more than that we so commonly see in nature of 
the mother s anxiety for her young, and doubt on her part as to the male s doings in 
regard to them ; for males are not always to be trusted in rearing their offspring. 

Mithras is often seen with a human body, a lion s head, and round him a large 
coiled snake, and with such inscription as " Deo Invicto Mithir, secundinus dat ; " his 
usual sign is a youthful countenance with " Invictus " written below ; he is Azon, or 
the god Zon with the zone or belt ; and from his winged forms, no doubt, the Hebrew 
seer Malachi got his idea of " the Sun of Righteousness." The Greeks, although calling 
the Serpent Daimon or Demon, yet for the sake of brevity in writing, says Seldon, 
they made the hieroglyphic I give on page 228, Fig. 99, VI. 2, and of which VI. 3-4, and 
VIII. 1, are but variants, thereby shewing that they considered the Serpent as the active 
power of the Sun, the male in that ring through which man is usually seen appearing. 
Curiously enough, as the reverend writer of Serpent Worship who reminds me of 
some of the above says, this is almost exactly the plan of the Abury remains ; and 
if Britons will still persist in cutting out huge men and animals on the turf of their 
hill-sides, there is nothing strange that in ancient days they should have indelibly, as 
they thought, marked out with sacred upright stones,, which no ancient peoples would 
on any consideration remove, this sacred Solo-Serpent-sigri of bfapuv. The Serpent coil, 
in most old Asyrio-Kaldiac and Persian figures, runs through the circle, as in the two 
figures, 99 IV. 3-4, in the first of which we see our heir-apparent s symbol or its origin. 
Wings or feathers denote, as elsewhere shown, virile power and ubiquity ; also swiftness. 
In the days of universal Serpent-worship, Ops, who is also Rhea, was by Greeks 
called Op-Is, and by the Egyptians Apis always a very Ophitish name, and one 
1 Deane, 47, quoting Vopiscus Hist. Aug. Script., 218. 2 Praep. Evang. I. 42. 

140 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

conferred on many gods, as well as goddesses. Even Ool-Kan, " the Lord of Fire " 
(Vulcan) was, says Cicero, called Ops, and the offspring of Ops and Terra ; Diana and 
Vesta shared this proud name with Rhea, Cybele, and Juno. As, from a literary 
point of view he was "Passion," emblematically the Serpent really represented nearly 
every god and goddess ; and in nearly every. land, from the sacred cone of Japan in 
the East, to the oceanic base of the Andes in the West, he was the king of hills as 
well as king of men. In the eyes of the ancients, his sacred figure made every object 
on which it was traced, whether a temple, wall, pillar, or rude stone, at once most 
holy ; and the starry sphere, as well as earthly ball, seemed full of him ; he was all 
wisdom, and opened the eyes of the blind as well as the dark gates of futurity ; nay, he 
inspired men to unfold the darkness of the past, and to reveal the cosmogony which 
the gods had veiled; he healed the sick, comforted the afflicted, gave joy and offspring 
to those who longed for such, and prosperity and power to nations. These may rise 
and fall, nay, all be submerged in a universal cataclysm, and buried under the waters 
of the ocean for many months ; yet he Pytho rises to shine out again as powerfully 
as ever in the so-called new world. He was more powerful than Jehovah, or Jhavh, 
or Jahve-Elohim, for he it was who at once spoilt, say Jews and Christians, all the "very 
good " that was said to have been created and who therefore forced Jehovah to wipe 
out his great creation after he had done his best to improve it for over two thousand 
years. The new creation, at once and universally, again acknowledged Pytho s sway, 
and has, and ever must hold empire, unbounded and invulnerable, against all assaults, 
save those directed by scientific and rational mental culture. 

All persons, especially ascetics and those who for private reasons eschewed 
carnal desires, shunned the Serpent, calling it Woman, and a burning fire, whose very 
touch all were to beware of, so that we find our god female as well as male. In the 
Greek mythic tale of creation, Pandora was woman, on whom the gods had lavished 
all the treasures of their beneficence, mental, moral, and personal, and . whom Jove 
sent to corrupt man the new creation of Prometheus, so that Pandora is here the 
Serpent. But so was Zeus, as well as the Sun, Fire, and Water, for all these terms and 
attributes are applied to him at times by the Greeks and the Asyrians. The Serpent, 
or Fire, was the first god of the Trinity of Nineveh great Hea-Hiya or Hoa without 
whom there could be no creation or life, and whose godhead embraced also the female 
element water. Hea, as the Serpent, was the " Ruler of the Abyss," the nin chavach, 
cleft or cave, and " King of the Rivers," T as well as the Eve of the Jewish Genesis. 

" The enmity " between this Eve and the Serpent (Nakash) is not comprehended 
by Christians ; for, as Dr Donaldson and other Hebraists have pointed out, the transla 
tion here is incorrect, or at least the meaning of her woman " bruising the Serpent s 
head," and it " bruising her AKAB," is obscured ; and necessarily so, as it is too gross 
to put before the ordinary reading public. Dr Donaldson further assures us, as the 

1 Ancient Faiths, I. 86. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 4 1 

result of very extensive learning, we may lay it down as a rule, that the Serpent 
always has a Phallic signification a remark very gratifying to me, as it exactly 
accords with my own experience founded simply upon close observation in Eastern 
lands, and conclusions drawn by myself, unaided by books or teachers, from thousands 
of stories and conversations with Eastern priests and peoples. Jacob, or IAKAB, is a 
very important word, regarding which I beg the reader will consult Dr Inman s 
learned work (Ancient Faiths), especially about page 602 of his first volume. 
The quarrel between the mythic brothers so important here to those who build 
on this feeble foundation the genealogy of their Christ seems to have been merely 
what we in India so well understand, a quarrel between the Lingaites and Yonites, 
"the right and left hands" the gods and Titans or Devas and Dasyas. lakab 
apjN, Yakab, or Jacob, was, we know, a persistent worshipper of pillars, erect 
stiles, rav or sun-stones, which Rebekah was also ; and no more devoted followers of 
Lingam- worship exist in India than women. Jacob 1 is a female name, and hence the 
change to Israel a male name, that the people might be shewn not to be descended 
from a woman. 

Of course all my readers except Revelationists who have not been accustomed 
to exercise independent thought and investigation on writings they hold to be 
" revealed " are aware, that the Hebrew tales of Yakob and Esau are myths, although 
we may freely acknowledge them to be most valuable myths, which teem ivith history 
of a kind, if we can only divide the wheat from the chaff. So also in the story of 
the creation in Genesis, we have a very valuable myth, though a purely Phallic tale, 
such as my Indian brethren, and perhaps they only, can thoroughly comprehend. 
And here I would pause for a moment to state distinctly, that I am not one who 
would in any way seek to detract from the great value of myths ; for besides their 
own intrinsic worth, these stories also exhibit to us many phases of ancient life and 
thought. I would never venture, therefore, to contemn them, far less to call them 
forgeries and false. Mythus I consider but history which we have not yet been able 
to read ; and especially \vould I beg my readers never to misunderstand me when I 
discard as untrue or unhistorical any tale, biblical or other, as implying that it is false 
and unworthy of consideration ; on the contrary, I hold that we cannot too earnestly 
and patiently ponder over every ancient tale, legend, or myth, which all have some 
foundation and instructive lesson. 

. Mr Pococke states truly, that " the great mythi of antiquity are not feelings 
embodied to relieve the mind ; still less are they concrete images, fictions, and in 
ventions. Whenever an important mythos has existed, an important fact has been its 
basis. Great principles do not arise from idealities ; a national myth cannot be gene 
rated without a national cause, and a national cause implies agency not invention ; 

1 See Origin of Legends about Abram, Isaac, and Jacob ; by A. Bernstein, an important paper of 
Mr Thomas Scott s Series. 

142 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

but a theory based upon the evidence of feeling is as mythological as a myth itself." l 
Grote says on this subject, that " the curtain which he, writing purely as an historian, 
depicts, is all the picture he has to show, but nevertheless the true picture is there, if 
we but contrive to lift the curtain." Zeuses and los, Europas and Hellens, Titans, 
Toths, and gods, are all history in process of incubation : we must unravel the skein 
and see the real actors, their acts, principles, and faiths. 

This being so, it is necessary to proceed very cautiously if not suspiciously with 
all mythi, and especially to watch over changes, however slight, in the names of gods, 
temples, mountains, and rivers, as these usually denote changes of ideas if not of 
faiths. This has been entirely lost sight of .by Christians till quite lately, and nowhere 
is this care more necessary than in dealing with Hebrew writings, and especially with 
such roots or words as El, Ja, Elohe, Yahve, Yac/^ave, Adonai, Shadai ; and AR, AD, 
AL, OB, AB, ABA, or ABADDON, he whom the Christo- Jewish writer of Eev. ix. 1 1 and 
xx., mentions as the then hated, though long loved Apollyon ; Abaddon, thus spoken 
of, marks a change from Python to a purer Solar worship, at least on the part of the 
writer. Clement of Alexandria 2 tells us, that the great symbol of Bacchic orgies " is 
the consecrated serpent," and that when the Bacchanals have butchered their victims 
and feasted, like the Jews, on raw flesh, 3 they crown themselves with snakes, and rush 
about shrieking "Eve, Eva, lievia, Havvale the female serpent." Hevia is equiva 
lent to Zoe, life, from- Greek " to live;" thus what is called " the fall," ascribed to Eva, 
or Hevia the female, and Adam the male, becomes in reality the acts connected with 
germination, conception, and production, and the destruction of virginity regarding 
which the Jews had very unhallowed ideas. Everything sexual was held by the pious 
as irreligious, and indulgence was "listening to the voice of the charmer." Adam "fell" 
from listening to Eve, and she from the serpent tempting her details which merely 
assure us, that we have procreative acts signified in all stories regarding Hawa (in 
Hindostani, Wind, Lust, Air Juno), and Chavah or Eve, or as the Arabs called it 
Hayyat, life or " creation." " Eating forbidden fruit was simply a figurative mode of 
expressing the performance of the act necessary for the perpetuation of the human 
race, an act which in its origin was thought to be the source of all evil." 4 In the 
myth of Pandora, the gods are represented as enraged at the creative act of Prome 
theus ; and so even yet, as in all past times, a large and influential class of religionists 
have preached against the legitimate and healthy acts of marital intercourse, as tending 
to lower and defile the spiritual nature of both man and woman. In all such 
ideas it would seem as if the Zoroastrians had been the leaders, at least in Western 

The Aryan writers- of the Zoroastrian faith undoubtedly held that the procreative 

1 India in Greece. 2 " Anti-Nicene Library/ iv. p. 27. 

3 Ex. xxxii., which describes a veritable Saturnalia ; also Anc. Faiths, .1., 565. 

4 "Anthropological Journal," July 1870, p. 102. Hawa is also Eve in Hindostani. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 43 

act, was a "fall," or grievous if not mortal sin. The Bound-de-hesch says (9th Yakna 
v. 27), that Meschi A, and Meschi A ne, that is A and A ne, were seduced by Ahriman 
in the form of a serpent, although the wise writers possibly only meant that A or Ar, 
the Sun, caused warmth which produced fertility, and did not mean their allegory to 
be crystallized into a hard and fast story, as the illiterate dwellers in Syria did, and 
after them Europe. All Asiatics looked on Sun and Serpent as at times almost inter 
changeable terms, but it remained for Jews and Christians to show the Sun, or Jhavh, 
as the worst Deity of the two, the bestower of curses and of death, and of a blessing 
labour, though he gave it also to us as a curse. The Serpent remained in the memory 
and affections of most early people as wisdom, life, goodness, and the source of know 
ledge and science, under various names such as Toth, Hermes, Themis, the Kneph or 
Sophia of Egyptians and Gnostics, and Set, Shet, or Shem of the Jews. Even the Mexican 
tells us that he, the Serpent, is the Sun, Tonakatl-Koatl, who ever accompanied their 
" first woman " the woman " of our flesh ;" their " primitive mother they said was 
Kiliua-Kolmatl, which signifies a serpent." 1 So that the serpent here was represented 
as both Adam and Adama ; and their Eden, as in the Jewish story, was " a garden of 
love " or " pleasure." Truly, writes Mr Stanisland Wake, a director of the Anthropo 
logical Society of London, " the fundamental basis of Christianity is more purely 
Phallic than that of any other religion now existing, and its emotional nature . . . 
shows how intimately it was related to the older faiths which liad a Phallic basis" 2 
The italics are mine. 

Quite in keeping with the Jewish idea of man and woman becoming debased on 
" knowing " each other, or " their nakedness," is that habit still prevalent in many 
lands of self -mutilation "for the kingdom of heaven s sake" (Matt. xix. 12) ; a doctrine 
which Christianity has probably carried to a more injurious extent than any other 
faith. Asiatics have rather yielded to the vice as a provision for life, equivalent to 
a caste or profession, or because they were in youth dedicated to a goddess as the Dea 
Syria, or Phrygian Kubele, than for conscience or religion s sake. Fathers of the 
Church, as Origen, Valentine, and a host of followers, set the fell example which in time 
emasculated and enervated the power of the great eastern and western empires, until 
the once invincible legions of Rome were no longer a terror to any nation a matter 
which I will hereafter consider when speaking of the degrading asceticism introduced 
by Christianity. Thousands more than we can number, women as well as men it 
appears, and fervid Christians, still follow out this frenzy ! In the Russian SJcoptsi 
sect (from Skopet to castrate), we are told that many hundreds thus annually 
butcher themselves, and all for that wretched text which not one of the poor souls, ^nor 
indeed anyone else, knows who wrote or when. These Christian fanatics teach that 

1 " Serpent Symbol in America," by E. G. Squier, M.A., as quoted in " Anthropological Journal." 
July 1870. 

2 " Anthropological Journal," July 1870, p. 226. 

144 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

" the millennium will be when all are mutilated I " a doctrine somewhat similar to that 
of the ascetic Sivaite, who stands on a leg or an arm, or in one position till he dies, and 
preaches that heaven or Meroo will be attained by all, when every bodily feeling is thus 
destroyed. It appears that notwithstanding the severity of the initiatory ceremony, 
and the rigour with which the Russian Government tries to put down the Skoptsi, yet 
scores of converts are " added daily to the faith," an astonishing fact in the records of 
religions. Such a sect, as we may suppose, despise parents, whom they even call 
fornicators, as well as the saints of the Christian calendar and the civil power ; they 
have initiatory ceremonies to teach this, say Drs Kopernicl^y and Dennis writing on 
them. 1 The Skoptsi " Sacrifice " is made at secret nocturnal meetings, amidst songs 
and great dancing, which is often carried on till they drop from exhaustion. The 
act is called the sign and seal of God, which marks they say, the " Lord s people," as 
in Rev. vi. The emperor, Peter the Third, as a eunuch, and a sort of mythical " queen 
of heaven " called Akoulina, are worshipped by this sect, and by the Shaloputs, a 
variant of them. We may, perhaps, look upon these poor people as exhibiting that re 
bellion which, at times, springs up in our hearts when we find any acts or worship carried 
to excess. As surely as we have seen an abundant crop of Atheism spring up to check 
the superstitions of the dark ages, or, indeed, of our own (and even Atheism has many 
good aspects, and is probably a proof of the love of the race for a purer faith) ; so in 
the Skoptsi, and Ascetics of Egypt, Asyria, India, Greece, and, no doubt, Mexico, do 
we but see that revulsion of feeling from a too voluptuous worship of Khem, Vool, 
Siva, Priapus, or the Mexican generator, Triazoltenti. That which is good in itself, and 
which the Polynesians called their " great sacrifice " the sight of which horrified even 
the sailors of Cook is like all the emotional part of our nature, correct in itself, but 
most dangerous in excess and ever prone to take the bit in its mouth and run away 
with poor weak man and woman, plunging them into every folly and extravagance. 
Yet listen to what Mr Wake says, " the Phallic is the only foundation. on which an 
emotional religion can be based," which is, I fear, a stern but humbling truth. It 
is Phallic faith which taught us to love and honour our father and mother, to revere the 
rising orbs of day, and the seasons with their varied properties and fruits, and to 
enhance, as a fete or even sacrament, every social feature of our lives, as birth, 
puberty, marriage, conception, &c. ; it glories in all manly manifestations of " tJie great 
father," and every womanly office of "the great mother," and it is undoubtedly the 
foundation of every past and present faith. 

It was Ahriman or Satan, said Zoroastrians ages before Jews, who introduced the 
serpent to make man fall, which he did in the lovely garden of Ahura-Mazda, where 
the poisonous monster was known as Angromainyus "father of lies," deceit, and 
every evil passion. Ahriman, says Lajard, w T as an old serpent, with two feet, 
a species of reptile we often see in Egyptian paintings, especially in the region of 
1 " Anthrop. Socy s. Journ.," July 1870, p. cxxvi. 


Serpent and Phallic Worship. 145 

Sheol, or what our ordinary Egyptologists call "scenes of the dead and judgment ;" 
see my chapter on Egypt. The snake Bed (very like Hai or Hea of Asyria) was one 
who guarded the portals of the dead, for the serpent is " all the circle of Eternity" 
in opening as well as closing life. He is also the Ru&ch or " creating-breath " of 
Genesis, and Siva the king of serpents and father of the winds. 

The serpent or satan, in his own person, may be held to represent the " male and 
female," or sword and sheath (zachar and nekebah) of Genesis, under passion s rule. 
The word Pithon, " the inflated On," is compounded of nnQ Patliah and On 
he who expands, 1 " cleaves asunder," " decides," &c. In the two Sanskrit 
words " Ananda," the god of desire, and " Ananta " the serpent with tail Ij 
in mouth representing eternity, and in Mary s emblem " the vesica piscis," 2 
we see the full force of the reptile-emblem. It is by Ananta or Sesha 
that Vishnoo created all things. His vehicle was the thousand-headed 
serpent resting upon the waters of life or generation, which will be fully FIB- 56 
explained in my chapter on Hindoo Faiths. 

Ananta, the serpent is said to do the necessary, though menial work of crea 
tion, from over-zealous performance of which, he caused or created wickedness, incurr 
ing Vishnoo s anger. Some poems even represent him as an enemy to Vishnoo or true 
religion, which must only be understood in the same sense as the Delphic quarrels 
of Apollo and the Python. No Vishnooite procession or great ceremony is complete 
without the serpent, just as no great shrine of the Solar " God of Eeligion and Truth" 
is perfect which is not abundantly adorned with the Naga. At one of Vishnoo s 
holiest shrines in Southern India the temple of Tripaty in Tanjore on the first day 
of the procession Vishnoo comes forth, first on a great gilt Tree ; on the third he is 
borne aloft resting on a gilt serpent ; on the fourth he appears resplendent as the Sun, 
and, doubtless, significant of Fire also ; and on the fifth he is seen going to visit 
Maiya, or the abode of mirrors, illusion, and fertility. When he returns in state he is 
seen again resting on the golden serpent, and we know how serpents overshadow him 
in the greatest drama of creation. 

Krishna, the eighth Avatar of Vishnoo, is a man devoured by the serpent who is 
there as a demon. Vishnoo in kindness, however, restores .him as his incarnation, to 
life, and enables him (Krishna) to overcome the serpent. "Eternity" is represented 
as dancing upon this serpent s " tongue of fire," which reminds us of the Pentecostal 
narrative. I shew him as Eternity in Fig. 12, and with tongue of fire in Fig. 55, 
as lately, if not still carried in some Roman Catholic processions. 

The story of Krishna s war with the great Naga runs briefly thus : When a 

fair youth, called Basoo-deva, he was playing with a ball on the banks of the holy 

Jamna at Bachban, near Basai, which, like all rivers, is represented as a fruitful 

woman. Some say that, to refresh himself, he plunged into a deep pool ; but others that 

i See Inman s Anc. Faiths, I. 70, and II. 497. 2 The Yesica signifies a bladder, or purse. 

I. T 

146 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

his ball fell into the sacred stream then infested by the Nagac called here Kaliya 
or " black one " who, afraid of the eagle, the great god s vehicle, had fled from 
the regions assigned him by Vislmoo, and troubled and even rendered poison 
ous the holy river. The youth s ball, and his plunge into the troubled water to 
recover it, awoke the Naga who enveloped him in his coils, and seized him with his 
poisonous fangs. We are then told that his foster parents Nanda and Jasooda, and 
his brother Baliram, found him in the coils still and motionless, but smiling and in no 
pain; and it is said the Naga s attack poisoned Basoo-deva s blood, rendering him what 
he was then, and for ever after represented and called, Krishna, or the Black One. In 
this fight we may perhaps consider parabled, with other matter, the Aryan war with 
the dark Naga Dynasties of the aborigines. Krishna, says the tale, jumped and danced 
on the head of the snake, and would have killed him ; but on the representation of his 
(the Naga s) wives, who represented their lost condition if deprived of their lord, he 
merely put him under subjection, making him leave the sacred river, and go to the 
Island of Rawana, where he assured him that the eagle of Vislmoo would no longer 
molest him. Of course my readers will see the parable which runs through all this, 
as well, I believe, as glimpses at the early history and faiths of ancient India. The 
story runs on to say, somewhat parallel to that of Genesis, that God set his mark 
upon this Cain, so that no .one might molest him. Though punished, the serpent of 
Eden as well as that of Hindoo story was let go free ; surely a .good God should 
have destroyed the demon. 

In Numbers xxi. 6, we find that the Lord sent fiery serpents or seraphim 
(corresponding to scorpions in Deut. viii. 15), which, with the assurance in Isaiah vi. 
that " to Thee cherubim and seraphim continually do cry," informs us that these 
creatures lived in close companionship with the Jewish Jhavh, just as the serpent 
did with Jupiter, Amon, and Osiris, and still does with Siva. 

I know it is quite unnecessary to take so much pains to establish jn the eyes of 
well-read men, a distinct, universal, and long-enduring Serpent faith ; but I have met 
with such ignorance and unbelief on the part of many who profess to have looked 
into such matters, that I write this chapter to heap proof upon" proof. 

Europe seems to have satisfied itself that ophiolatry was a sort of rude Paganism 
which probably sprang up in the days of those to all ordinary readers most incom 
prehensible people, known as Koothites or Kyklops, &c.; who also dealt in cists or 
boxes, which ignorant, sceptical men presumed to call " arks," as if such boxes had 
some connection with that ineffable divine mystery and poetic abstraction " the Ark 
o f (or for) the Testimony" a box, which with the Jews was used for keeping two stones, 
an "Eduth" or Testimony (which I shall shew to be a lingam), a baton or rod, and 
sundry other articles used by Diviners, but which with most peoples was commonly 
used as a crib or coop for their sacred serpents. I will therefore here try to clear 
up this idea of ancient peoples, and especially Jews, speaking clearly, though I fear 
very .unpleasantly, in the opinion of many who call us "blind leaders of the blind." 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 147 

None of us can use another s eyes, but let us see that we all diligently use our own. My 
readers will now no doubt grant, at least in regard to all arks, except their own 
Mosaic one, that speaking broadly, arks, shells, buccinae, trumpets, cornucopias, eggs, 
sistrums, and such-like, all signify the feminine principle or fecundatrix generally ; 
and in particular, such deities as Isis of Egypt, the Multimammia, or Diana of Ephesus, 
the Maya of the East, and Mary of the West, Rhea, Ceres, Kubele, &c. 

An ark indeed is nothing by itself, just as a woman was esteemed incomplete or 
nought without her husband; and important and venerated as the ark was in all 
ancient faiths, it was chiefly so as " the dwelling-place of a god " the place of creation 
or generation mundane and mortal anciently, but spiritual and immortal said the 
peoples of these days the Archaic Sakti, "Grove" or female energy, though always 
merely so even then, in a sort of spiritual sense, such as Parvati is to Siva, and Lakshmi 
to Vishnoo. Creation there was indeed, but not brought about or manifested in any 
mundane way ; nevertheless the ark without the god, and the god without the ark was 
imperfect in all respects, as a city without a king, or a church without a bishop. 

When correcting the above written several years ago for the press, I 
observed, in confirmation of it, that the Rome correspondent of the London Times, 
of 8th April 1875, says the Roman Catholic Church still keeps up this idea in fact and 
in deed. As the ancient Temple or Dagoba was the womb or feminine principle of 
the god Siva or Bod and others, so the new Cardinal Archbishop Manning " was after 
his elevation/ says the Times, " conducted to his church," which is here entitled in its 
relation to him, " bride " or " spouse," he calling it " SPONSA MEA ! " The Cardinal 
is called " the bridegroom," and the actual building (the shrine of St Gregory) HIS 
SPOUSE, and not " the Spiritual Church, which is called Christ." The Times corre 
spondent writes thus of this " Sacerdos Magnus," as he is termed, going to meet "his 
spouse the Church." He stood reverently at the door, " when holy water was presented 
to him, and clouds of incense spread around him, to symbolize that in as much as 
before the bridegroom enters the bride chamber, he washes and is perfumed, so the 
Cardinal, having been espoused with the putting on of a ring to the Church of his 
TITLE, holy water and incense are offered to him, . . . when the choir burst forth 
with the antiphon -JEcce SACERDOS MAGNUS." We are thus assured, as far as this is 
possible, that the Phallic idea, and a Phallic faith lies at the base of this creed ; and 
we are reminded of Apis of the Nile entering his palace for his " works of sacrifice and 
mercy " terms applied to the duties of " the great generator," or Great Creator. The 
ancients all taught that their great one, Manoo, man, or Noh, ru, was in the great ark 
which floats "in the midst of the waters," and that the whole was "a mystery," 
incomprehensible to the uninitiated, or " unregenerate mind." 

He who is lord of the Christian ark, is the Lord of all nations, which the Great 
Sacerdos, or Pope, claims to be. He is, or was till very lately, a temporal as well as 
spiritual head of kings and nations, so no wonder that the holder of the "rod," baton, 

148 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

or " banner," who occupies the place also of Moses to lead his flocks through " this 
wilderness," is always examined as to his Phallic completeness before being confirmed 
in the Pontificate. This, we read in the Life of Leo X., by Roscoe, is required in the 
case of Popes just as the Laws of Moses required that all who came to worship their 
very Phallic Jahveh should first prove their completeness as men. From this we may 
conclude that eunuchs or incompetent men were " children of the Devil," or at least 
not of this phallic god a fact which the writer of Matthew xix. 1 2, and the Fathers, 
Origen and Valentine, and a host of other Saints who acted on this text, must have 
overlooked. Wm. Roscoe, the historian, thus writes : "On the llth of August 14.92, 
after Roderigo (Borgia) had assumed the name of Alexander VI., and made his 
entrance as Supreme Pontiff into the Church of St Peter." After the procession and 
pageants had all been gone through, Alexander was taken aside to undergo " the final 
test of his qualifications, which in his particular instance might have been dispensed 
with." The historian, of course, alludes to his numerous progeny, which, like those of 
" the holy people " the types of the Christian Church, were, as we know, occasionally 
due to incestuous excesses. Roscoe gives a foot-note to explain matters more succinctly 
and authoritatively, to which I add a few words. 1 

A man or a living serpent in an ark was called its "life," zoe or hoe, "joy" and 
" peace " and " repose " that on which we can rely. One of the Targums calls the 
serpent which tempted Adam it does not speak of Eve being tempted, the Hui or 
Huia, so that we get the idea of the man in the ark, or chief of an ark, being a manoo, 
mens, or menes, the mnr of Phenicians and Minerva of the Greek ; also Nous, 
mind, and wisdom, and hence, no doubt, Sir Wm. Jones arrived at the conclusion that 
"Noah was the Indian Menu" allied to the Minos of Crete, the wise son of 
IAO and 10, as Noah was of Jahveh. Eratosthenes tells us that "Mines the 
Tliebanite" that is, Mines of the Ark, means "by interpretation Dio-nius," who 
in this very feminine kingdom " was succeeded by Hermagenes " or him begotten 
by Hermes, 2 that is, Maha-Deva, king of serpents. Noh is indeed "the leader" or 
"preceder," as Higgins reasonably supposes. Moses makes him the Husband ofGe or 
Terra (Gen. ix. 20, ncnxn BN, Ish haadamah), which makes him Saturn. Where 
the moon was masculine, Noh seems to have been connected with this very snaky 
luminary, but it is usually said to be his ark ; and, curiously enough, " Osiris entered 
into the moon, and impregnated her on the 17th of the month Athyr, the day on 
which the Jews say that Noah entered the ark. 3 

Let us now consider the object, and probable origin of the article which the Hebrews 
had inside their ark. They had no Serpent in it, though they had two stones and Moses 

1 NOTE 5. Finalemente, essendo fornite le solite solennita in Sancta Sanctorum e domesticamente 
toccatoyli i testicola, e data la benedizione, rifcornb al palagio. Corio, Storio di Milano VII., 980." It 
is said we will find the origin of this custom in Shepherd s Life of Poggio Bracciolini, 149. Toccatogli 
appears to signify " the Toucher," " Tip Staff," or Baton (Dav. and Petronj s Italian Die.) 

2 Anacal., I, 235. 3 Do., p. 526. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 49 

rod, which was at one time a Serpent. They carried about with this ark, the real and bond 
fide form of a Serpent on a pole, 1 which is a highly Phallic object, and which in India 
signifies Serpent and Lingam. The first God Elohim, who preceded the God Jhavh 
or Yac^veh of Phenicia, and whom the Greeks properly called IAH (IAO), was clearly 
the Eduth who was sometimes put into, and sometimes on the top of his ark the 
latter, of course, being the proper place when the people halted, as I shew in Fig. 
76, page 194 where I put it between the pot of manna and the sprig of almond 
tree. This Eduth, we see from the Bible narration, was not made by the hands of 
artificers, like all arks and temples. Only after a long and very careful study of this 
and all similar faiths, have I arrived at my conclusion as to the Eduth of Ex. xvi. 34 ; 
and so important is it, and so perplexing, perhaps, to those who have long looked upon 
the Jews and their faith as something highly monotheistic, and surpassingly better 
than the faiths of all other people, that I must here try and make clear the grounds on 
which I have come to this conclusion, for it is one which can scarcely be heard of by 
Christians without horror viz., that the Jews had a Phallus or Phallic symbol in their 
" Ark of the Testimony," or ark of the Eduth, nny, a word which I hold, tries to veil 
the real object. 

This view is, I confess, not well supported by Hebraists or by the learned ; indeed, 
I do not know that it has ever presented itself to any one but that Father in this occult 
research Dr Inman whom I am sorry to say I have never met; and he has not given 
any one much encouragement here, though he has thrown out many clues towards the 
solution of the problem in his article Ark, Vol. I. of Ancient Faiths. 

It is not likely that any Hebraists, especially of orthodox habits of mind, could 
here assist us, for the whole subject is quite foreign to those who have never studied 
this class of Oriental faiths, especially out of Europe. The Hebraist, like the judge on 
the bench, must follow his records, and not make words or laws, but interpret these ; 
so we must here look to men who practically know Sivaik faiths, and cannot be 
deceived by a blind in a word or words, but can gather up the meaning by analysing 
the old ideas, and who know by abundant experience that priests often veil, in language 
which defies philological research, what afterwards turns out to be degrading ideas 
of their god. It is here quite clear to us that if this Eduth a was a lingam or "grove," 
it would be very obnoxious ; and I have already stated in my Introductory Chapter, 
pages 14 and 15, that the most orthodox Christians have acknowledged, that the tribes 
were ashamed of their personal God in the third century B.C., when all their writings 
and oral sayings began to be collected. 

In the translations of that period, we are assured that they softened down the 
strong expressions where human parts were ascribed to God ; 2 so we may be quite 
certain that in this word eduth rrny, or gehduth, we have an emasculated or mutilated 
word such as good Hebraists tell us we have in the word translated as " emerods " in 
1 As it existed to Hezekiah s days, I conclude it always accompanied the Ark. 2 Art. Sept., S. Bible Diet. 

1 50 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

1 Sam v. 9 ; see page 52, before. Scholars say, that all they can make out of the 
Hebrew word emerods, is the signification of a " protuberance ; " and hence, owing to 
the addition in the text of " secret parts," they say emerods may be " bubos," which 
is, I suspect, only half the meaning, for we know the penalty which is said to have 
followed in the case of all other peoples who looked into arks or neglected their Phallic 
deity. There is, then, a length in Sivaik lore at which it says to philology, and even 
to the most learned analysts of its language, through mere book learning, " Thus far 
shalt thou go and no farther ; " and I believe pure Hebraists have reached that stage 
in the investigation of this word eduth. The ark, I must repeat, was built for it, 
not it for the ark, see Exodus xxv. 16, and elsewhere. Of course it came direct from 
God, as do all Palla-Diums and Lingams ; which is the universal fiction of priests, just 
as in the case of books, and moral and other laws, &c., with which they wish to indoc 
trinate us. This riddle of the eduth, or "geduth," which had an altar and offerings long 
ere an ark or " testimony " (law or covenant) existed, can then be approached by paths 
apart from philology ; and well it is so, else we would oft remain dark indeed, 
especially in India, were we to await in Sivaik lore, the investigations of even this 
powerful arm of flesh ; and this I have had abundant experience of in studying as I 
have done, and in some original tongues, the occult nomenclature, rites, and customs 
of Lingam-worship. My poverty in Hebrew has been somewhat compensated for by 
having a tolerable smattering of several Oriental languages, in which I learned how 
dense is that veil which modern as well as ancient priests throw around their gods and 
rites a veil intended not only to defy all philological approach to their mysteries, but 
to hide these from ninety-nine hundredths of their followers, as well as from their 
scholarly co-religionists. No one can read of religious matters in even ordinary Tamil 
or Telogoo, not to say in the hiyh-flown and orthodox writings of Eastern priests and 
mystics, without meeting the impenetrable curtain with which they so easily hide all 
from the vulgar gaze. To do this is pious ; so let us approach the subject of the 
Eduth on grounds which I think are much more sure than even those of philology. 

All Africa, Arabia, Syria, and Phenicia indeed all Asia, aye, all the world 
bowed to stones, as these volumes will, I think, abundantly shew, if others more able 
have not already done so ; and why should not poor Jews bow to stones ? Why 
should not these poor quarriers and brickmakers of Lower Egypt and Idumea, who 
had at this time been expelled from Egypt, as the most reliable writers assure us, 
for dirt and diseases connected with uncleanliness ? They anointed them, and 
rejoiced in calling their deliverers, such as Cyrus, and the great and long-expected 
one " the MESSIAH, which is a name of Maha-deva as the specially and continually 
" ANOINTED ONE." They were slaves, and the lowest of the low, in that land which 
tolerates more filthiness than most. Of course the gods or idols of such a race, if any at 
all, would be of a still lower type than those deities which are still common to similar 
labourers in Asia ; that is, gods represented by round or conical stones (female or male 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 151 

symbols), stuck up on a little altar of mud under any tree or shade near to their works; it 
would be decorated by the women with rags from their coloured garments, and smeared 
with any oils or pigments which they could get hold of, red or yellow being preferred. 
We know that such humble Sivaik altars abounded and were adored from time imme 
morial all over Africa ; as indeed they are still. Christian converts stated, as cited in 
page 106, that they worshipped such up to their conversion. 1 

It is in vain to ask for light on this subject from Jews or even European- Jewish 
students ; they, like Christians, are, I have found, for the most part quite ignorant 
of the ancient symbols and gods of their faith ; the first idea of the ark and its 
mysteries has as completely passed away from the Jews of Britain, and even of Asia 
Minor, as have the Serpent and Solar faiths, which were once those of our ancestors, 
faded from our ken. We must go to the so-called general history of the facts, or 
acts of a faith, and study what other peoples did to know what Jews did, what was 
then and now going on under the same circumstances on similar altars ; doing this, 
and taking for the present their own statements, as facts, and the occurrences in their 
order of time, what do we find ? 

Exodus xii. 37,38 A "mixed multitude" of Jews, Egyptians, and hybrids, number 
ing, they shew, some 3,000,000, left Egypt by Eameses and Succoth in the month of 
Abib, or the vernal equinox, "Eostre." xiii. 18-21 Their god Elohim led them a 
round-about way from fear of the Philistines frightening them back again, 2 and guided 
them by smoke in the day time, and by fire at night. Ex. xvi. The tribes had in one 
and a-half month reached the wilderness of Sin, between Elim and Sinai. Their gods 
Elohim and Jhavh, or " Jhavh their Elohim," have all along been spoken of by them, 
though this is, I think, an interpolation; but no altar, tent, tabernacle, or ark is 
spoken of in this chapter, nor up to this date in the Bible do we know of the tribes 
having such, when we suddenly hear (verse 33) Moses say to Aaron, "TAKE A POT OF 


this Eduth which stands for Jhavh ? for no " law " or " testimony," nor even fixed 
place in which to lay such, then existed ! Clearly this was their Beth-el or "Kock," 
which we find in so many instances is the principal god of the Old Testament ; 
see some details of this in page 103. Exodus xvii. In this chapter we come to 
the FIRST ALTAR OF THE TRIBES, and it was evidently not built in the manner which 
their deity liked, for he afterwards gives out from Sinai, which they do not reach till 
the xix. chapter, or after three months marching, the way in which his altars 
are to be erected (xx. 24-26) viz., of mud, or unhewn stone without a step, in case 

i Arnobius, of the 4th century, A.C., wrote thus, see Ar. Ad. Gentes, trans, by Bryce and Campbell, 
T. T. Clark, Edin. : " I worshipped images produced from the furnace, gods made on anvils and by 
hammers, the bones of elephants, paintings, wreaths on aged trees: whenever I espied an anointed 
stone, or one bedaubed with olive oil, as if some person resided in it, I worshipped it, I addressed my 
self to it, and begged blessings from a senseless stock." 2 " 600,000 fighting-men " need not have feared. 

152 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

the god sees "their nakedness," shewing us that this deity was a smallish lingam 
emblem, which, if a person stood beside, or on a level with, dressed only in the long loose 
robes of Arabians, and not much of these in the summer season, he would probably 
expose " his nakedness " to the god. Illustrations follow shewing the kind of altar and 
deity, and the probable order of advancement of such Phallic architecture. 

It is not seen from the 15th verse of Exodus xvii. what kind of altar this 
" Jahi eh-Nissi" had, but in all probability it was a hastily -thr own-together karn of 
stones with the Nissi or standard stuck in the centre, a still common enough deity 
among all rude Eastern people, and especially so from Cape Koomari to the table-lands 
of high Asia. Hooker, in his Himalayan Journals, shews us these among the 
glacier torrents of the Upper Himalaya, and every picture of Tibetan and Tatarian rites 
and cult gives these equally clearly. It is one we may meet with two or three times 
in any morning s march among most of the hill aborigines of India, and so also, say 
travellers, all over Central Asia, Mongolia, China, and Japan. I may quote, in 
confirmation of this assertion, the following from a paper read before the Eoyal Geo 
graphical Society in February 1874 by Dr Bushel, physician to Her Britannic Majesty s 
Legation, Pekin, 1 in which we have the result of a most interesting itinerary he made 
outside the Great Wall of China in September and October 1874. On visiting, he 
writes, the lake of " Ichinor, some three miles in circumference," he came upon 
" TENGRI OBO, one of the most sacred hills at which the Mongols worship." It was 
only " a smooth grassy elevation raised a few hundred feet above the general level of the 
plateau," but sloping up from the south edge of the lake, a situation Phallically correct. 
The Doctor continues " It is crowned by a karn of stones heaped up AROUND A 
CENTRAL POLE, and hung about with strips of silk and cotton a relic of ancient nature 
worship," of which I give many an example, notably so from the Arabian deserts, 
but which is equally applicable to this Mongolian one. In one illustration, the god is 
a tree, because trees are generally to be found suitably situated ; but where they are 
not so found, then Phallic -worshippers merely place the stem of a tree, or, which is 
the same thing, a pole, rod, or standard, as emphasizing the part of the tree which they 
more especially desire to symbolise. It appears that this Mongolian karn and pole 
had an ark like the Sinaitic one ; not the grand and impossible ark which is described to 
us by some after interpolator of the 25th and following chapters of Exodus, but a mere 
box or " ark of wood" which Deut. x. 1 says Moses was to make, as it were, on the 
spur of the moment, in order to carry more carefully the two new stones which the 
Deity said he would re-engrave for him. Dr Bushell writes : " On one side of the 
kairn a wretched wooden box was placed enclosing a porcelain image of Boodha" 
and one no doubt as symbolic of the great prophet as the obelisk is of the creator 
Qsiris or Jove, and the Eduth or rod was of Yahveh or Yac/^veh. " It was odd to 
observe," says the Doctor, " our priests looks of unutterable horror when one of us 
1 See Jour. Royal Geo. Soc., Vol. XLIV. for 1874, pp. 78, 79. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 53 

unwittingly offended, by climbing- to the top of the karn to get a better view of the 
country ; he afterwards made not a few propitiatory kotows." It would, no doubt, 
have fared much worse with him who ventured to climb on to that " JAHVEH-NISSI " 
upon the slopes of holy Sinai, than it did with Kora and his company, or poor Uzzah 
who tried to steady the toppling-over "ark of the testimony." 

We would like very much to know the meaning of the Mongolian name of Tengri- 
Obo. The latter part is very serpent-like, and occurs among a race of determined 
Serpent or Dragon- worshippers. Dr Bushell says, at page 84, that " OBO is a kairn 
covered with ragged streamers of silk and cotton tied to sticks," so that it may signify 
" a Serpent-shrine." Tengri may be related to Tenar, Tenaris, the thundering Jove 
of Kelts and Komans, &c., or, more likely, he is the great founder of Japan, " TENSIO- 
Dai-Sin, or TENSIO the god of light whose temple ivas called NAIKOO," * which I take 
it is in Sanskrit Naga, and in various idioms Nak, Nakoo, Nagoo, &c. Tensio 
has a cavern near his temple, where he is at times hid, "when no sun or stars 
appear." He is the " fount of day," his priests are called Kanusi, and they occa 
sionally exhibit Tensio as a great deity sitting on a cow, which may make him Osiris 
and Siva ; anyhow, in TENSIO we have the Sun, for " Japan is the kingdom of 
CHAMLS, whom we hold to be the same as SCIN, the origin of all things " the words 
of a Japanese emperor to the Portugese viceroy in 1585. 2 The result is thus the same 
in Mongolia, Japan, and Ireland, viz., that the erect object, whether wood or stone, is the 
Sun-stone, the Akro-polis, or Jahveh-nissi, or god, the pole of fertility, which connects 
the Sun and Phallus. The Polus or Nissi on an altar, mount, or karn of stones etc., 
is a polis on an Akro, or Akro-polis, which in time came to mean a place or city 
around which tribes congregated and built. We must take our stand here, even should 
students of modern Greek object to <x/ being voi.og, Latin polus, a pole, for all 
Eastern travel shows us that the shrine of a god, who at first is always the obelisk, or 
"standard," or "creating one," is the centre of all old cities just as fine old trees 
became sacred centres, this from Mamre to Vienna ! 

In this case the wandering Edumeans had, by means they believed of their Phallic 
god, gained victory over the great Am-el, Ham-el, or Sun- worshipping tribes, under 
the shadow of Dio Nissi s Mount Sinai, and this by holding, up the wonder-working 
" rod of God " or Elohim (Exod. xvii. 9), for he was a deity of Thyrsi, Kaducei, and 
such emblems, and would be appropriately called the Jahveh-nissi, or " Lord of the 
standard" The victory was obtained not by the skill, numbers, or bravery of Israel, 
but only by Moses standing erect, or sitting on a stone on the top of a hill, holding up 
this baton with both hands ; which he did, till so tired that Aaron and Hur put him 
down on a stone and " stayed up his hands " till sun down. One is thus led to con 
nect the scene with solo-phallic lore, and with men who used to stand on the Phallic 

1 Holwell s Myth. Die., 108. 2 Do., 109, and Bryant, iii. p. 553. 

1. U 

154 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

pillars of Syria, see fig. 16 of Dr Inman s plate v., vol. ii., and this other which 
he gives us at page 491 of the same volume, exemplifying the Phallic pillar, 
on an altar, or a mount of sacrifice, but which may mean 
something more; I give many figures of the Phallic Thyrsus 
and Serpents. The two supports of the man Moses on 
this occasion are suggestive. Hur "iin, says Inman, is the 
moon as a male god, and was a deity in Babylon and 
Phenicia (i. 96, 596) ; whilst Aaron prix, or Ahur "in, 


Fig. 57. MOSES, EXODUS xvii. 9-11. . . 

is held to be the air, later Aer, and Greek (Juranos, pro 

bably light or brightness and heat, with the root -n, or, aur, or Ur. Hebraists tell 
us that n is " one of power " or strength, who extends, is firm like a tree or mast, 
etc. (see Inman, i. 277). Aer was one of the second Asyrian triad in conjunction 
with the sun and moon (p. 176), and the sky, or air, whether Jupiter tonans or pluvius, 
is the connection between god and his children between .the sun and his earthly 
ark ; and this link between Jhavh and his people Israel, was here the high priest 
A-aron. If the A at the commencement is held to be prosthetic, and the two last 
letters merely formative, as we have many instances of (I-esh-wdra and Par-vati are 
in point), then we have Hur, as an Omphi or mouthpiece of the deity, precisely similar 
to Hermes, who had a blossoming club, which gave life and dealt forth death ; who 
originated worship and sacrifices, and taught eloquence all points, in which Aaron 
excelled, see Ex. iv. 14-16 and onwards, and Dr Inman under Art. Aaron. It is 
mere trifling with Israel s God to tell us, that we over-reach ourselves in likening a 
man on a hill top with a rod, and two men supporting him, to a Phallic triad, for 
these here are clearly no mere men, and this no mere rod. The figure, and then the 
group, swayed warring thousands and determined victory, which neither skill nor 
numbers had any effect over; so it is our duty to try and see what God is here, 
and how he manifests himself. Immediately after the victory, the god is brought 
down from the hill, and we may conclude that "his rod" Nissi, or a pole emblema 
tical of " the rod ofElohim" which had given the tribes the victory, was erected on 
this altar, which thus takes the place of the erect man Moses seen on the right hand 
of the figure. This Nissi, which I take to be merely an enlarged edition of the Rod, 
as the outer columns of temples, or the obelisks of Egypt were of the rods of the 
priests of Egypt, was then their god of victory, and the Jews say they had only one 
god, which none dare make light of, nor would wish to do so, for he gave victory on the 
very easiest of terms ; he had but to be erected, to discomfit Israel s foes " from gene 
ration to generation ;" his rod budded as did that of Bacchus, see Figs 5 and 9, PL V., 
turned into . a serpent, cleft asunder rocks and seas, and was therefore in all 
respects a veritable Soter Jcosmou, so that no wonder the tribes kept the God s 
symbol carefully shut up in their " holy of holies." 

These two figures seem to embrace the same, or a very close similarity of 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


ideas ; the man Moses on the mount, is a veritable Beth-el, or oracle of the 
god, and so is this Phallus on the altar which is reduplicated here by a man upon 


it again, who holds a budding rod with serpent streamers. Eegarding this last, Dr 
Inman writes thus, " In this we notice the peculiar shape of the altar, the triple 
pillar arising from it, the ass s head and the fictile offerings, 1 the lad offering a pine 
cone surrounded by leaves, and carrying on his head a basket, in which two phalli 
are distinctly to be recognized. The deity to whom the sacrifice is offered is Bacchus, 
as figured by the people of Lampsacus. On his shoulder he bears a thyrsus, a wand 
or Virga, terminating in a pine-cone, and having two ribbons dangling from it ; . . . 
the thyrsus represents the Linga, and the pine cone its appendages" (pp. 491-5, vol. 
ii. Anc. Faiths). Dr Smith s Diet, of Antiquities tells us, that this " thyrsus of 
Bacchus is called a spear enveloped in vine leaves, whose point was thought to excite 
to madness ; . . . very frequently a white fillet was tied to the pole just below the 
head." The vine leaves, conically arranged, often take the place of the pine cone, all 
having the same meaning. This figure 58, is copy of an ancient gem depicted by 
Maffei (Gemme Antiche figurati, tome iii. pi. 40). The pillar is divided by fillets 
precisely like that of the supreme Polynesian god Terao, of which I give a drawing 
further -on, and I cannot help thinking that the twining scroll, running about the 
altar, is the serpent, which, if so, makes the picture as complete , and perfect an 
illust ration of the worship of generative power as any I have come across. 

In regard to the supporters Aaron and Hur, of Fig. 57, and the whole group, I 
need only say that I have seen many similar, from furthest West in Mexico to the furthest 
1 See Faber s Pag. Idol. III. 130 as to the head of the Ass, and offerings. 

156 Rivers of Life , or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

east. It is, I think, a sample of one of those strange features of early religions such as 
visitors to our Indian collections in museums must have often seen, where a group of 
devotees or fanatics form themselves into the shape of a god and his vehicle, as Vishnoo 
riding the Eagle ; the Sun-god, his chariot and horses ; Kama, her love-bird, &c. The 
great figure is often built up on a basement of four men or women, who form the 
legs ; and by extending their arms, support other upright figures, or else reclining men 
or women, who again carry others, and so build up the body, head, &C. 1 In this case 
we have the clear fact, that in the eyes of all Israel, the three men on this mount over 
the field of battle, engaged in supporting " the Rod of God," actually represented their 
Elohim or Jahveh Elohim himself, and well indeed did they call him a " God of Battles." 
He was a veritable Jupiter Victor, bound by covenant to give them victory over all their 
enemies; and a generator who was " to increase them from generation to generation ; " 
and one especially required therefore at this time. The feud with the Amaleks had 
become one of extermination, and the leader had assigned as the reason for raising an altar 
to Jehovah, or rather Jahveh-nissi, that "a hand, the standard of Jah will have war 
with Amalek from generation to generation" (verse 16); so that the god of greatest gene 
rative capacity was he whom such a people joyfully looked to for victory, and Siva is the 
god of the hand. Figs. 57 and 76 give this Almighty rod, and its equivalent emblem 
the Eduth, before which stood the pot of manna as the true god-idea of the tribes at this 
period of their history, and it seems absurd to credit them with any higher one. It was his 
holy hill, Nisiah or Sinai, that they were warring to approach to, for he, Siva, is "a moun 
tain god," and on its slopes did they as it were become men, and receive his Testimony 
or two Stones, and an Ark, his Sakti, for she was also the "mountain goddess," great 
Parnasi or Parvati. Here it was then that THE SECOND ALTAR of the tribes was erected, 
but not for some time after the first altar to Jhaveh Nissi in Rephidim or Sinai, had been 
reached, and for an unknown period been their residence ; here we learn from xxiv. 4, 

that they erected their SECOND ALTAR, 
which was a gilgal or stone circle, evi 
dently like the stone circles or Eachans 
of Keltic lands a group of twelve mono 
liths under the great Phallic, and I believe, 


Leslie s "Early Races," for many similar altars, and this one, Fig, 65, which I give 
as the cone and stone circle of Loch Stennes and Harray, Orkney; the reader 
will find it fuller in that writer s frontispiece to vol ii., E. R. 

In speaking of theirs* and second altars of the tribes which it is customary to 
consider as here erected in the last decade of the fifteenth century B.C., but which 
modern orthodoxy grants as more probably in the thirteenth century B.C., I have not 
counted the altars of the patriarchs (1900 B.C.), said to have been dead more than 
1 Two very good samples of such a god-like group, forming one deity, may be seen in the Indian Museum. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 57 

400 years before the Sinaitic wanderings (1490 B.C.), because during all this time the 
tribes had existed in Egypt only as poor oppressed slaves, knocked about from public work 
to public work, and we are therefore justified in assuming, that whilst in Egypt, they had 
always been in an utterly disorganised state, and perfectly illiterate more so than any 
band of African slaves in the West Indies and America, in the worst times of such slavery. 
This being so, these Jewish slaves could not have carried forward the ideas of their 
ancestors, nor avoided adopting the most superstitious beliefs and rites of the lowest and 
most depraved classes in Egypt, even had they cared to remember the Betyls of Jacob, 
and the little Lingam idols of Rachel. Up to the days of David these Edumeans were 
poor and uncivilized beyond that of almost any tribe we now know of, save a few 
small ones here and there, who still wander about with no weapons save bows and 
arrows, stones, slings, and sticks. Up to the days of Saul (1090 B.C.), " there was no 
king in Israel, and every man did that which was right in his own eyes," and (as the 
keen but very fair investigator of the Hebrew history, Mr T. Lumisden Strange, here 
adds), "it was anarchy socially, politically, and, as the position of this sentence 
occurring in the midst of Micah s idolatrous ways shows, also in religious practices. 
. . . There was no safety in the highways, and travellers resorted to by-paths ; the 
villages were deserted, and the people, surrounded by hostile races, unarmed." 1 For 
Deborah, the valiant prophetess, twits them by asking if a spear or shield can be found 
among 40,000 in Israel ? (Jud. v. 8). One great hero had distinguished himself before 
Deborah s day by slaughtering "600 Philistines," but it was with "an ox -goad," and 
another killed 1000, sometime after the days of this Joan of Arc, but he also had only the 
"jawbone of an ass ;" and the mighty David had to start on hiswarwith giants with nought 
but a sling and a stone, and was glad, says Mr Strange, to arm himself with the giant s 
sword. Even up to the beginning of the tenth century B.C., " there was no smith found 
throughout all the land of Israel, and the tribes had even to go down to the Philistines to 
sharpen every man " his agricultural instruments ! the Philistines only permitting them 
to have "files ! " and in the day of battle none save Saul, and Jonathan, his son, had 
either sword or spear ! (1 Sam. xiii. 19 to end.) It is clear that the tribe occupied, and only 
on sufferance, the high and wilder parts of Syria, and "did stink" in the eyes of, or were 
" held in abomination (xiii. 4) by the Philistine" kings and princes who ruled the country; 
they were troublesome, and made raids, but when attacked in earnest, "they hid them 
selves in caves, and in thickets, and in rocks, and in high places, and in pits!" (verse 6). 
The idea of such a tribe building an ark, or even tabernacle, &c., such as is de 
scribed in Exodus xxv. and onwards, in the deserts of Sinai, about 1500 B.C., is 
therefore preposterous ; and we do not require Bishops of the Church to tell us that 
these chapters here are all interpolations, nor yet Hebraists to explain that the Eduth 
and Jahveh-Nissi of such a tribe, is philologically incomprehensible. Common sense, 
if allowed to range freely over the histories of all similar peoples, assures us in a 
1 Legends of Old Testament, Hebrews, pp. 144, 5 : Triibner, Lond., 1874. 

158 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

manner which no hidden words or language can gainsay or impose upon, that these 
poor wanderers worshipped in the crudest and grossest manner the organs of procrea 
tion, symbolised by poles, rods, arks, " groves," and such like. Nevertheless, let us turn 
to other parts of the Bible to see the after-signification of Nissi the banner or standard. 
This word occurs twice amongst other very relevant matter in Solomon s love song. In ii. 
34, the " love-sick " one says, " as the apple tree amongst other trees, so is her beloved one 
among sons ;" that she is in raptures sitting under his shadow, and that when he takes 
her to "a house of wine," ".his Banner or Nissi over her is love." I need not repeat 
the rest, here so gross. In the 6th chapter, this " banner " is described as fierce in love. 
In Isaiah lix. 19, we learn that " the Jhavh s " spirit is a Standard against the enemy, 
as was the Rod of Moses ; and in Is. xi. \ 0, that a root of Jesse is to stand for an 
Ensign among the people ; so that we have here the Toth, obelisk, or Sun-stone, and 
that Standard or Banner, as with Serpent, Hand, or Eagle on summit, (Fig. 53, page 
134), such as we know the Roman legions followed and bo wed down to. We know 
also that the Jews seem to have retained their Serpent and Pole more continuously 
than their ark, which is natural ; as it was of no money value nor use except for 
worship, and w T as an object too universally revered to be injured by any of their many 
conquerors and masters. It is reasonable to expect that the tribes had sacred poles 
and pillars, for every civilized people had these, which the wide-travelling merchant 
princes of Venice imported into Europe, planting them all about and over that 
fine old Venetian shrine, appropriately dedicated to that unknown writer MARK, but 
w^ell-known Lion, a brave and salacious old emblematic deity whom wise Priests 
purloined from Sol s world- wide faith. 

It has been said, and not unreasonably, that we are not to assume that the 
serpent pole was a great unwieldy flag-staff, but rather a Kaduceus, which priests held 
up as an exerciser, as later priests hold up a cross, with or without a man on it. From 
the important part which I have shown tree shoots or stems to have played in Phallic 
faiths, especially in Africa and Asia, and what we know of Phenician Venuses and 
wooden idols among many peoples, the expression of Isaiah as to "the Root of Jesse" 
standing for an ensign has a real significance. My plates VI. to VIII. give abundant 
examples of such "root" and "stump," and tree gods. Mr J. T. Wood also, to 
whom we are so much indebted for his searching out " Diana of the Ephesians," spoke 
thus in a late lecture of this " root " deity. " The Goddess Diana was first represented 
as a simple tree stump, and afterwards as a motherly fostering goddess of earth, 
vegetation, animals, and men, of which many figures are given ; all Asia Minor 
abounded with these rough and shapeless ideas of this deity, whom the Greeks called 
Artemis." She was old when Herakles founded Ephesus in 1250, although flourishing 
still when it was one. of the Ionian confederacy, under Androcles in 1044 B.C. 
In the third century A.C., this famous temple was entirely subverted. If, then, the 
temple of Diana had only " a simple tree stump" we have not a shadow of excuse for 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 59 

saying that the Jews had anything so good, especially if they desire to antedate their 
Jehovah Nissi to 1490 ! All armies used a bond fide standard to support bond fide 
images, as serpents etc., and so, no doubt, did Jews who would not be likely to under 
stand woven or painted symbols, but be ambitious to carry, like all nations, a real rod 
or baton, like that of Mercury or Hermes. As in the case of all standards also, this 
would be revered and worshipped like a god by the soldiers as well as generals 
who led " the armies of the Lord." The Syrian and all Arab tribes were inveterate 
mountain-worshippers, as will be made very clear as we proceed ; and that Sinai, as a 
great conical, dark, frowning and, perhaps, fiery mountain should be " THE MOUNT 
OF GOD," was quite agreeable to the views of all sects in the Jewish camp. So we see 
that as soon as the wanderers came near to Sinai, all understood that Elohim or 
Jahveh was there ; for it is related, as a mere matter of course (Exod. xix. 3), that imme 
diately Moses approached the hill, the Yahveh " called unto him out of the mountain," 
and "Moses went up unto Elohim." Then follows one of those strange eastern tales, 
in which we are told of mighty trumpetings, the rage of the deity, and a host of 
puerilities, such as we so often read of in temple-tales in India. The people are warned 
again and again that Jhavh or El is a violent god, constantly apt to " break forth " in 
ungovernable rage ; that whatsover creature even touches the mountain with his hand 
shall die ; that the cloud and the fire, lightnings and thunders, and loud trumpetings, 
are his manifestations, that the people are to sanctify themselves in Phallic fashion 
by not going near their wives, &c. ; all of which, however, comes to nothing, and 
the next chapter opens, with, it is justly suspected, an interpolation of the so-called "Ten 
Commandments" or rather "ten words," regarding which, see Bishop Colenso s 
excellent Lecture viii., on The Pent, and Moabite Stone. 

Chapter xx. ends with the tribes being instructed not to make gods of silver or 
gold, and how to make altars; verse 22 being apparently the beginning of the celebrated 
" Covenant " or " Law of the Lord," which ends in the xxiii. chapter, and which 
Bishop Colenso thinks may be eleven hundred words, and as such, have been engraved 
on the four sides of two stones of about 3x2 feet; but this is not my idea of the 
stones of ancient gods. 

Thus, not till the tribes had been for some time at Sinai, did they know anything 
of their after altars, sacrifices on them, tents, tabernacles, arks, or laws or writings : 
so we crave to know what our Eduth of xvi. 34 was, which, when Moses built the ark 
of xxv. 16, he was to put into it, " that Eduth which I shall give thee," not what you 
can obtain, or make for yourself, like an ark, altar, or temple, but a real PALLA-DIUM, 
and evidently like all such, believed to be the gift of Jove. I should here notice that 
after the tribes got their victorious rod, and worshipped Dio-nissi, and had shown their 
capacity for war, they are recognised as an independent desert tribe; and Moses is visited 
by his father-in-law, Jethro, " a priest of Midian," who now graciously brings to him his 
wife and two sons out of Egypt, and forthwith begins to instruct this "man of God " 
how to manage and judge the people of God ! All this Moses strictly attends to, and 

160 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

gets on better after his lesson. Jethro and Moses, that is Egyptians, Midianites, and 
Jews were, we see by this story, clearly serving one God, whom both indifferently call 
their Elohim, or Aleim and Jhavh. Jethro found no fault with "the Jhavh, my 
Banner" and he and Moses parted great friends. 

All Hebraists are now agreed that the name of the Jewish God had precisely the 
same signification as that of the gods of other nations around them, notably of the 
Phenicians, viz., "He who makes life" or "generates into life." Yachveh is more 
frequently used, says Bishop ColeDso, than Yahveh, but this is a difference due only to 
pronunciation. The favourite God of the masses was Ba-al, which signifies " erection" 
" upward;" whilst Pcor, its adjunct, has also the meaning of "open" or " spread," so 
that Baal-Peor is nothing more or less than the simple Sri-Linga or Linga-m-Arghsi. 
Let me repeat, then, that the idea is preposterous that these tribes were more 
monotheistic than their neighbours. Baal and the " Grove," or Astarte, were, we see, 
their dominant gods, together with Eduths, stones, arks, and ephods ; and seeing that 
this faith in such Phallic emblems, though slightly spiritualized in the minds of their 
prophets and sages, continued down to long past the days of Mahomed, when we know 
that they still worshipped El, or Elohim, Baal, and the Grove or Ark, and 
revered the unhewn rock or cap of Mount Moriali, which Moslems have placed 
a temple over, and all Phallic mountains like Sinai, Horeb, Nebo, Peor, and 
Hermon ; that their faith was exhibited in setting up holy stones and 
circumambulating them on all great occasions ; in revering, if not worshipping 
ancestors who worshipped Betyls or Matsebas, whose greatest and wisest monarch 
erected temples to Molok and Chemosh on "sacred mounts;" that they universally 
circumcised, and considered no uncircumcised or sexually imperfect person fit to enter 
their Phallic shrine or appear before the god ; who, when they had not an ark to place in 
their second temple, placed, like their countrymen of Meka, a stone in it ; x when we are 
told that their El, or II, or Al, or Jah the common Phallic or Solo-Phallic god of all 
the peoples of these parts, minutely described to them how to erect Phallic pillars and 
sacrificial altars, and all the paraph arnalia of a Sivaik temple, in " lavers, basins, candle 
sticks," and such utensils, scents, perfumes, and unguents for the deity, also strange 
Seraphim and Cherubim figures ; looking, I repeat, at all this, and how imperfect any 
ark or Argha would be without its Pallas, or Argha-nat, a Caput-oline without its 
Palatine, woman without man ; can we hesitate to pronounce that Edyth to have been 
a Lingam, which Moses and Aaron both called their Elohim or Yahveh ? " We see at 
once that these words were synonymous, though it is possible that the Eduth was meant 
only as the god s symbol; and that just as we might ask in India pointing to a Sivaik 
shrine, "what- is that?" and the Brahman would reply, "Maha-Deva" (the great god), 
so possibly it (verse 34- of xvi.) may mean "The Eduth the Jhavh s symbol," but this 
strengthens and not weakens my argument. Look again at that which is presented to 
the Eduth manna or bread, the only bread they have, and to the god of l&cili-lehem (the 
1 The Rev. J. Wilson s Arch. Diet. Art. Sanctum S. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 161 

place of Bread) here again, Siva for his emblem is always seen overwhelmed with bread 
and rice, and all the food of the season. Look at the occasion of the manna-offering ; the 
leader gets puzzled for want of bread in the desert, as he well may with some three 
millions, or more likely three thousand mouths to fill, and quite enough too, if we are 
to credit the tale at all; so the manna miracle is invented from a probable substratum 
of fact. Manna, as food, is an absurdity ; but we have the well known produce of the 
desert oak or ash Fraxinus ; see Bagster s Comprehensive Bible, marginal notes. 
An omer of this was precious, and in this quantity, at the spring season, not difficult 
to get ; it was a specially fit tribute to be " laid up " before any Phallic Jah, as it was 
the pollen of the tree of Jove and of Life, and in this sense the tribe lived spiritually 
on such " spiritual manna " as this god supplied, or was supplied with. Manna, my 
readers may perhaps know, is a mild purgative, and does not keep following and fall 
ing upon wandering Arabians all over the deserts, just as they require it ; on which 
accounts, of course, Biblicists are compelled to call it miraculous, and to say that it 
was " angels food " which fed the tribes ; but discarding the substance as one never 
eaten by either angels or these Edumeans, nor peculiar to only six days in the week, 
I incline to think that from the juice of the flowering ash (Fraxinus) or Oriental oak, 
as a very holy tree, they manufactured for religious purposes, a small quantity, as an 
" Omer," and " laid this up before the Eduth " as the most suitable offering to this 
deity. The comments of even the most orthodox men lead me to this possible solution 
of the manna myth. 

The Jhavh or Yahveh was in many other respects very completely represented in 
this Eduth as a Maha-Deva ; he had all his offerings of cakes, spices, &c., as in Exodus 
xxx. 36, and elsewhere, quite according to present Sivaik practice, and he had also 
cruel and bloody sacrifices as Jhavh latterly, and Elohim formerly. Such Deities were 
represented by Er, Har, or a Stone, Eock, or Conical Mountain, and were not only 
generative power (J. Genitor), but wisdom. (Higgins Anac., i. 645.) Jupiter was 
not only " the God of the Covenant," or Fcederis, but men swore their most solemn oaths 
upon Jupiter Lapis,having to take the Lapis in their hand, 1 as the patriarch s servant did. 

Jahvh or Jove was also J. Ferctrius, " the smiter of his enemies," and " the 
giver of peace ;" but the ambassadors or suppliants had to swear on the holy stone of 
the Temple (Tooke, 20). He was the lord or husband of Olympus, the " God of the 
holy hill of Zion," the " God of Bethlehem," J. Pistor " the bread-giver," and Zeus 
of Mount Hymettus ; because the author of all life, J. Pluvius, and Dies-piter, 
or " father of our days " the Divum Pater atque hominum Rex ; and Lucetius, God of 
Light (Lux). The Augurs called him Jupiter Tonans, and Fulgens, and hung 
a bell upon his statues, and we know what this means, as ancient sculptures show us 
curious objects as bell-suspenders ; the Greeks pronounced him the Saviour of men 
and Jupiter conservator orbis. 

1 Tooke s Pan., 21, quoting Cicero and others. 
1. X 

1 62 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

The Kcv. T. Wilson in his Archeological Diet., art. " Sanctum," tells us that "the 
Ark of the Covenant, which was the greatest ornament of the first temple, was wanting 
in the second, but a stone of three inches thick, it is said, supplied its place, which they 
(the Jews) further assert is still in being in the Mahomedan mosk, called the Temple of 
the Stone, which is erected where the Temple of Jerusalem stood." My figures Nos. 64, 
93, pages 181 and 218, make this matter clear, and show that the lingam of "three inches 
thick," if it ever existed on the ovate mass of stone which covers the present rock and 
cave, must have been so during the reign of Lingamites, and that these therefore were 
dominant over Yonites when the second temple was built. It- of course is always admis 
sible in Sivaik lore to substitute the Eduth, " covenant " or " testimony " which dwelt 
inside the ark, for the ark itself. I cannot help thinking that this lingam of " three 
inches thick " is the one precisely of this size, which has been built into the corner of 
the Al-Kaba of Meka, regarding which see a drawing in my chapter on Mahomedanism ; 
for Moslems conquered and long held Jerusalem, and would .very likely purloin this 
relic. The Kev. Mr Wilson calls the " holy of holies, the most holy place and the 
oracle." . . . The roof, contrary to the Eastern custom, was not flat, but sloping, 1 and 
covered all over with golden spikes. . . . The length of the Sanctum Sanctorum 
was twenty cubits. Its situation was towards the west, and its entrance towards the 
east." It was a sort of crypt such as mythology usually connects with the idea of 
Ceres, and would present some such appearance as I give in illustration No. 93, page 
218, Fig. in. Seeing, then, that the natural rock, and a stone three inches broad, 
was a great treasure of this late period, is it wonderful that the poor wanderers put 
stones into their itinerating ark-box ? 

Newman, in his " Hebrew Monarchy," rightly says that the Jews were " not 
Monotheistic in the sense of denying the existence of other gods, but that their creed 
rather degraded them to devils ;" 2 but it is scarcely possible thus to generalise, 
for the Jewish writers who have become celebrated amongst us were no doubt thought 
dangerous and unorthodox men by the mass of the people, just as our " Essayists and 
Reviewers," Stanleys and Colensos, are held to be. The greater number of men and 
women detest thought and uncertainty, and usually love churches ritualistic and 
ornate though some think it evangelical to be Puritan and rude ; and so it was with 
Jews ; they for a long time, opposed a grand temple, preferring simple Betyls, Ba-als, 
and " Groves," and erecting these all over their land " on high places/ , on the banks of 
all rivers, the bases of all mountains, and in the centre of open spots, as at. Gilgal or 
Jericho ; where their judges, and favourite seers circumambulated these stones or circles 
of stones, and prayed for the people before such emblematical gods. The tribes had not 
many feelings, in common when they came to be writers, and told us what they thought 
of each other ; as a rule they bitterly reviled each other s gods and temples. Moriah, 
that is Meroo or Miriam, the female element, scorned and detested Gerizim, the male 
1 On this account I show a low sloping roof to the Sanctum in my Fig 39* 2 P. 29. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 163 

energy ; Judeans called the Samaritan temples where calves or bulls were holy, in a word 
of Greek derivation, DUKB^B Xetfoc va6$, the dung-hill-temple, and ipp Shikar (instead 
of Shechem), a lie. The Samaritans in return called the Temple of Jerusalem the house 
of dung Krfcpfjpjva, and since its destruction feroorpa, Mdes Plagae, the house of calamity. 1 

The tribes were quite proud, perhaps are so still, of having carried about idol 
arks during all their so-called forty years of wandering in the desert. Amos and others 
tell us that Moloch (Siva, Fire, or Passion), and Kiun (the star or sign of woman) 
were inside of these. Hosea speaks in chap. iii. ver. 4, with regret that Israel is de 
prived of king, sacrifice, and lingam, stone, or pole, or Matsebah (" Image "), and 
Ephods and Teraphim. The Kiun 2 or Chiun was an emblem of Astarte or Ish-tar, 
and is no doubt the root or origin of our word queen or quean, which is in Greek ywfi ; 
0. Sax., quan, quena; Icel., qvinna, kona, given; 0. Ger., quina, and Irish, coinne. 
There are amongst us similar feminine terms not yet dead, which these words recall. 
Calves or bulls and serpents were natural manifestations of this Jewish faith, and so 
also quarrels as to whether the Lingaites or Arkites (right- or left- hand sects) should 
prevail. As I have said, numerous nations possessed arks, and prominently Hindoos, 
Egyptians, Phenicians, Greeks, and Tibetans, down to Eomans ; and so also we have 
much made of Eods, Spears, Batons, Kaducei, and such Phallic emblems of the pillar, 
tree, stone, or obelisk. Dionysus, like to Moses, but in a higher sense, for he was 
a god-man and God of an Ark, was the possessor of a wonder-working Rod and very 
wonderful emblems or insignia. His great emblem, both in Thebes and Troy, was an 
Agalma, "AyaX/^a, or " image," " statue" " anything that delights ; " it was also a 
"shrine," a "res auro ornata" and bond-Jide simulacrum of the God. The initial 
letter of these words, and of the Greek alphabet, seems also to be here full of meaning 
as regards this god. A, or alpha, signifies a male, that is Phallus, or "fellow" as 
A-koites, a bed-fellow ; whilst A-gapo is to love or embrace ; Agape is love, and gala 
"something rare or precious," and in medicine the milky juice of a plant; whilst gameo 
is to marry ; the husband is gametis, and the wife gamete, which, straws though they 
may be, show how the wind blows. 

We gather, further, from that excellent publication by Mr Thomas Scott, " The 
Physician on the Pentateuch" that the usual article in heathen arks or coffers was 
roy A/oi/oio-ou "AidoTov, the pudendum, male or female ; for one or both are commonly repre 
sented in these shrines, just as they are in present Siyaik ones. This learned Physician, 
whom I have not the pleasure of knowing, and whose work I had not read till after 
most of this article was written, says, " Is not the Greek Attofa the Hebrew Eduth ? " 
He also draws attention to the fact of Joshua s "great stone " which he " set up as a 
witness under an oak," being an actual god who " heard all " that was said to him 
(Josh. xxiv. 26, 27), and of Joshua s spear taking the precise place of Moses Phallic 

1 "Letters on Mythology." Lon., 1748, p. 136, said to be written by the Archdeacon of Durham. 

2 In Sansk. Kun signifies " to cherish or support," and hence "Woman or Womb. 

164 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

rod, which of course godhj spears do, as those of Siva and Bacchus. This stone is 
distinctly called a witness, Latin, Testis, so we see that even Jewish translators of 
their sacred scriptures, have here granted what I urge, for they call the Eduth before 
which the manna-vase was placed by the same English word testimony. The spear in 
the hands of all gods and great mythic leaders signified the obelisk or Phallic god ; 
and Joshua, in holding up his spear as at the destruction of Ai (viii. 26) and elsewhere, 
is shewn as perfectly understanding and following up the Yahveh-Nissi worship, insti 
tuted by Moses after the destruction of the Amalekites. Both chiefs and people were 
evidently severe and relentless in human sacrifices to their Phallo-solar god, which is 
a proof that he was Siva. This is manifest in the but slightly disguised story of poor 
Aclian (Josh, vii.) and all his sons and, daughters, who clearly became cher&m, or 
" devoted," because of the first repulse of the tribes before Ai. 

From Joshua s dying speech (xxiv. 14), it seems very clear that when the book bear 
ing his name was written, the writers, of probably about the time of Manasseh G50 B.C. 
as we gather from such learned theologians as Bishop Colenso and Dr Davidson, did 
not acknowledge all the previous gods of Israel, calling them with but little respect 
" those (gods) which your fathers served on the other side the river," although the 
people are made by those writers to say, that it is Jhavh who brought them out of 
Egypt. If the writer did not mean that his tribe had changed their god, then we may 
charitably suppose that they now intended to serve Jhavh spiritually, and no longer in 
his mere Betyl or creative symbol. 

Most learned men, not blinded by preconceived views indoctrinated into them in 
childhood, are now of opinion that Edomites, Moabites, and the mongrel and later 
Cana-anites and Jews, were practically one people, of the Solar or Shemitic family, 
with always very similar social laws and customs, and therefore the same religion 
that is, Solar, or Shams, 1 or Shemish faiths after they rose above the grosser 
Phallic ones of Betulia, and Baal-Peor and his arks. It was then they began to call 
their El or Elohim, Jhavh, Yahveh, or YacAveh, and Zabaoth or Tsabaoth, and became 
pretty tolerably pure Sabeans. Long after this, however, the mass stuck to their 
Matzebahs, Steli, Asheras or " Groves," and to Kiun or Kewan of their earlier days. 
The Star, Molok, Serpent, and Shaft, had gradually, but very gradually only, to give 
way to great IA& as the Greeks very properly called the later JHAVH. Not, however, 
till the sixth, or even fifth century B.C., diet the Jews form any clear "perception of the 
unity and omnipresence of Jhavh, or of his being the only God, and there being " none 
else beside him;" for though Isaiah, and Jeremiah, the probable Deuteronomist, and one 
or two others use this language, yet the dates of these writings are now thrown back by 
the best scholars to about the time of the Captivity, or a hundred years later, of which 
I will speak elsewhere. The tribes were more benefitted by contact with wiser and 
1 In Sansk. Ksham is to " endure " or " be able," lience The Sun. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 165 

more civilised races, than by any gods they took up with, and in this respect have been 
like us all. The clever writer of " The Pentateuch " * truly says, " The Keligious Idea, 
under whatever shape it has been formulated, even to the latest and noblest Chris 
tianity, has only been humane and beneficent as men have been enlightened and truly 
civilised." As our education progresses, by travel reading out of, and beyond our own 
small grooves, and by mixing and arguing with all classes of our fellows, of all other 
nations and religions, so do we gradually see the errors in which we have been brought 
up, and far other reasons, for not bowing down to Matzebahs and Asheras, than those 
which are said to have actuated these little Jewish tribes, as they advanced in civilisa 
tion. He who will not read save in his own line of thought, and will not travel, or if 
travelling, sees all only through his own national spectacles, and so with a jaundiced 
eye, must remain ignorant ; argument and evidence are of no use with such persons, 
but a " new man," -the regeneration of the whole creature by education, out of himself. 

I will now advance other arguments to prove that the god of the Jewish ark was 
a Phallus or sexual symbol, by what I termed " a bye-path," though perhaps not very 
correctly ; I mean by accepting the word " testimony," which is given to us by the 
LXX. translators in the third century B.C. for the Hebrew Eduth. These translators 
must have had not only great learning, but great experience of all ancient Jewish faiths 
before their eyes, such as we can now only approach to, by a close study of such faiths 
where still living that is in Eastern Asia ; also, the translators must have well and 
long considered this term " testimony " as here applied ; so I address myself to 
unravelling the ideas which induced them to put the " testimony " into an ark when 
no " laws," " commandments," or " ordinances" yet existed among the wandering tribes. 
In doing this, I must crave pardon for speaking very freely, and using language which 
ought perhaps to be veiled in a foreign tongue, but which, after all, does not make 
matters more decent. I speak to men, as I said in my opening chapter, and we must 
spare no one s feelings or modesty in our endeavours to find out the REAL GOD OF 

El or Yahveh, and the ark-box, was the old Egyptian idea of the Light, and 
Enlightener, of Osiris and Isis, Toth and Nox, the Pyramid and the Box ; and there 
is no doubt that from Toth or Th-o-th we gradually came to The-oth, then The-os, 
Zeus, and Deus. Toth was " all knowledge" an obelisk of light in every temple, in 
which was engraved all the wisdom, faith, and hopes of the people ; and hence this 
came to be called Hermes, " personified wisdom," but also El or Helios, whose rays 
enlighten the dark Box earth or ark, the womb on which El acts. 

The Jewish ark carried within it for long dark ages, two stones, which we are 
asked to believe were only put there because there was engraven on them " all wisdom" 
concerning the social questions of our hearths and homes, for which the goddess of the 
ark Sophia has been ever held famous. This is too much to ask from any one. It 

1 Scott s Series, " Pentateuch in contrast with the Science and Moral Sense of our Age," Part V., p. 412. 

1 66 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

is more likely that the stones were first put there for their own sakes, just as the obelisk 
was in Egypt, as representing a distinct Phallic phase viz., the worship of virile 
power such as we still see in India, when the devotee of Siva s shrine reverently 
touches the testes of the Nanda or Bull, (the god s representative, which the " testimony " 
was in the Jewish shrine) as he enters upon, his worship. As the Jews advanced in 
knowledge, and we may add modesty, they apparently took advantage of the presence 
of the stones, as did the Egyptian of his obelisk, to write thereon their laws and 
learning, social and other ; and told their children that this was the original purpose of 
the stones. Mayhap the tale about the destroying of the first two stones, which would 
be round, as we see these usually are, and not adapted for writing on, was related to 
after generations as a blind. It was quite natural, as I have shewn, that the ark 
should be the abode of a virile emblem of some sort ; and therefore, had the two stones 
not been mentioned after we had heard of an Eduth which represented Jahveh or 
Elohim, we might with great reason have concluded that " the Eduth " of Exod. xvi. 34, 
was the Testis, because the old translators, considered "testimony" a fit word by which to 
lead us to understand what an Eduth meant ; but the after-mention, and so far on as the 
end of the 31st chapter, precludes this idea I think, although I speak with great diffi 
dence, for it is a noticeable fact, that the first two stones were the gift of Elohim a 
regular Palla-dium obtained direct from Jove and not made nor graved by man (see 
verse 16), and therefore precisely what a Phallic worshipper requires in the case of a 
Sri-Linga. The throwing away of these god-made stones, and breaking them in pieces, 
seems to mark a change of faith from the Lingaite to the Yonite ; and so also the 
violent grinding to pieces of the calf, or rather golden cone or bull. Great importance was 
attached by all Shemites to stones as emblems of virility ; even to the present tune, as 
with the Jewish patriarchs, oaths have been exacted on them, and hence no doubt arose 
the Latin term testis, meaning a witness. So in India no more solemn oath could be 
exacted from a Sivaite, or probably any Hindoo, than by making him swear with hand 
on the testis of the temple Nanda ; nor could son or servant in the eyes of all Easterns, 
give a more enduring oath or pledge, than by acting as those of Abram s and Jacob s 
did. As the leader of the tribes was furnished by the god of the tribe with two stones, 
so does the Pope present to the bishops of the church two very symbolic loaves of 
bread, one gilt with gold (Ami?), and the other silvered (Hea?), with the arms of 
the officiating prelate and the bishop engraved on them, and two tapers. Picart at ii. 
132, gives us a drawing, shewing the kneeling recipient carrying a too emblematic 
flambeau, and the attendant with the two citron-shaped loaves. The oath which the new 
bishop takes is to be faithful to Petrus, alias the Tsur or Rock when he is then married 
to the church with a ring, and kisses his new love ; on which day, like a bridegroom, 
he takes precedence of all others. The bishop s pastoral staff is blessed by the Petrus 
and anointed with oil ; it corresponds with Moses rod, the Lituus of the Augurs, and 
the Kaduceus of Mercury, but it is more Phallic in form than most of these. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 167 

There is nothing new or strange in our finding stones in arks, caves, or caverns, 
but, on the contrary, it would be strange not to find them in such places. Most of 
the kistvaens or karns and tumuli of our islands, have yielded white stones, and 
usually in pairs ; see an account of some of the last opened, 
as given by the writer of the excellent article in Good Words 
of March 1872, where is described to us so ably the Earthen 
Serpent of Loch Nell. The same holds good of existing caves 
in India, where we usually find either pyramidal or ovate stones 
in secret niches or ledges, if not in the most prominent place of 
the cave or shrine. I give here a drawing of a not uncommon 
Eastern holy cave. In the Loch Etive karns, opened by Dr 
Angus Smith, writes Miss Gordon Gumming, " the white stones 
were arranged in pairs, on a ledge of rock projecting above 
the urns, a single stone being placed at each end of this double roiv ; another 
single ivhite pebble was found inside one of the urns! .... "A considerable 
number of similar pebbles of white quartz have recently been discovered in 
various old British tombs, more especially in those tumuli lately examined by Mr 
Phene* on the principal Isle of Cumbrae. Others have been found within the 
Sacred Circle on the Isle of Man ; a circle which, from time immemorial, has been held 
in such reverence, that to this day the parliament of the island is there convened." 
Thus we have in Kal-IOnia urns or arks and dark adyta, with stones just as in 
Indian shrines of this day. Further, we are told that near Inverury at the village of 
Achnagoul, or " Place of the Stranger," there was lately " a great oviform kairn 
opened, measuring 120 by 30 feet, and running north and south;" and, says the writer 
previously quoted, "in one of the principal chambers, there was discovered a 
conical stone of ivhite quartz, which undoubtedly had some connection with these mys 
terious rites, being identical with that discovered by Mr Phene* at Letcombe Castle, 
Berks, while a third has been found at Maiden Castle, near Weymouth ; each in con 
nection with human remains. Precisely similar pillars of white quartz were found in 
the excavations at Nineveh, and are now to be seen in the British Museum. In the 
neighbourhood of this great chambered tumulus were found various incised stones, 
bearing the cup and ring mark, precisely like those near Lochgilphead." The "in 
cised stones " convey, no doubt, such meaning as the learned author of the Hindoo 
Pantheon alludes to in the case of incised trees ; see page 69. We observe that 
these kind of stones are always kept in dark adyta or arks, just as serpents are 
kept, whether in Benares, Phrygia, or Syria, and the whole world has known of such 
arks, serpents, and stones ; so we need not be at all surprised at finding stones in the 
Jewish Ark, but on the contrary, we should expect to find them ; and therefore as soon 
as we hear of the "ark of shittim wood," as a bond fide ark, and not a mere 
description of how an ark, &c., is to be made (such as we see in the plainly interpo- 

1 68 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

lated chapters from Exodus xxv. onwards, but rather in the simple order for a box, 
given in Deut. x. 1), as soon I say as we hear of such an ark, we also have the 
stones described as the articles for which it was made, or vice versa, for precedence 
would be given according to whether the writer was an Arkite or Lingaite. 

It is becoming to write with diffidence, as I desire in all I have here said to be under 
stood to do; but it would be equally unbecoming, nay unmanly, to refrain from putting 
these important points of the God and sacred records of Jews and Christians before my 
countrymen, as I believe any intelligent Brahman, acquainted with the lore of his own, 
and the Jewish people, could do. He would assuredly see- all these tales concerning 
sacred stones, Eduths, and arks as I have tried to depict them. It is unreasonable to 
suppose that a small rude tribe should at, its first birth in the deserts of Arabia, be 
able to cut and grave stones not an easy task with many hundreds of words, not to 
say write volumes of parchment or dried leather, laying down on these intricate laws, 
rites, and ceremonies, which mostly concern only settled peoples living in towns and 
cities ; especially as the very writers of Exodus do not even pretend to say they did 
prepare or engrave any stones whatsoever, but on the contrary, allege that they 
never did so, but that they got them in some mysterious and incomprehensible way on 
the summit of a lofty mountain ever held sacred, and inhabited by a fierce and fearful 
Deity or Demon. .They candidly confess also, that long years after the scenes of Sinai, 
there was not so much as a smith in all their settled territories in the lands they had 
seized and appropriated ; that they had even to seek aid from the rulers of the plains 
and meads of this land to sharpen their few rude agricultural implements ; and though 
capable of raids armed, no doubt, with stones, and slings, and bludgeons, or with bows 
and arrows, pointed probably with hard wood, bones, or natural flints ; that yet, when 
attacked, they had to " hide themselves away in holes and caves, pits, and inaccessible 
hills ; " that their very deity could not help them, even when all were in full armed 
array, against a single tribe of " a valley," who had " chariots of iron ; " seeing all this, 
it is unreasonable, I think, to suppose that such a rude untutored tribe had any capa 
bility of extensively graving stone tablets, or writing long, intricate, and advanced 
laws on religious rites and ceremonies, as well as on minute social and political sub 
jects; and able to build or frame arks and tabernacles such as are described in the latter 
parts of Exodus ; nor is it to be suppose.d that they had or could comprehend any such 
spiritual, immutable, and Almighty Father as Christians desire we should understand. 
On the contrary, all the early Jewish writings divested here and there of most evident 
interpolations of a far later period of their history, when Hebrews had long served as 
slaves and labourers amongst the great peoples around them, recall to our minds many 
tribes in the .East who now live as they did, disorganised, brutal, and superstitious, 
and. dependent for every sign or symptom of culture, for every graving tool or war im 
plement among them, on their raids upon their neighbours, or on their goodwill and 

Serpent and Phallic 

Let us now go into some details of the word " Testimony," for this is perhaps not 
yet put so forcibly as it might be. I mean the word as it occurs in Exodus xvi. 34, 
before any laws or even altars were known, or Sinai, its God and thunder heard of. 

This is a most important word, both in its roots and derivations, so let us recur 
to our text and remember, that the Jewish ark is nothing by itself, but only as " the ark 
of the testimony" (Ex. xxx. 26), that is as the Eduth s dwelling-place or abode, which 
was ever and again rendered still more holy by the fire from heaven and the voice of the 
God speaking on it, "between the cherubim," which again represented creation, that is the. 
winds of heaven in the four wings 
which each cherub had two upper 
and two lower, and in the four heads 
or four seasons. These were, it has 
been often demonstrated/the zodia- M 
cal signs, viz., aquarius, a bacchus- 
looking head, the vernal lamb or ram, 
the solstitial bull; and thirdly the 
hawk or eagle-headed one, as swift 
ness, wisdom, and omnipresence 
soaring over all, and to which, there 
fore, no particular place is assigned ; 
see Ezek. i. 10. This the learned 
Calmet, not understanding, mourns 
over (Diet, of Bible Frag. p. 123); 
but of this more hereafter. I give 
here one drawing of these Jewish 
idols, and others will be found fur 
ther on. From the most elemen 
tary dictionaries we gather food for 
.grave reflection in regard to "the testimony." Testum, in Latin, is an earthen vessel, and 
testudo is a tortoise ; that old, old idea " which sustains the world," he who goes about 
with a covering, to and from that " urn " or " ostrakon " (offrpaxov). He not only has a 
carapace, which the ancient world loved to mark as a sort of labyrinth leading to the holy 
mysteries, but that symbol peculiar to all male organs the posthe. Our lexicons further 
tell us that the testudo was a lyre or lute, as that on which Apollo played, mixing up, 
as usual, music and love ; it is also " an encysted tumour, resembling a tortoise in 
shape." Testula was the voting tablet of the Athenians, and Cicero aptly says 
in regard to invoking a testis or witness, " dii patrii ac penates, testor, me defendere" 
thus bringing the two deities curiously into conjunction. To die testate was to die a 
completed man, as intestate meant one who died not having completed a good citizen s 
duties. Tester, English, and testa, Latin, is a covering or canopy over a pulpit, tomb, 

L Y 

Fig. 01. CHEKUBIM 

i jo Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Afan in all Lands. 

or other upright thing, and is now applied to the covering over a bed. The cetacean 
>r whale order in zoology, is called testicond, from condere to hide; so the botanical 
order of some tubers and orchids is called testiculate from the prominence of ovate 
members, such as I show in page 51 in speaking of Rachel s mandrakes. Testudo was 
also the name given by the Romans to the shield which protected their warriors, so that 
even here it seems to convey the idea of virility and manliness, qualities which can alone 
save a people from extinction, and these are held to be gifts from Jove, which none can 
produce or acquire by their own aid. As Jhavh gave the eduth or testimony, so did 
lie give the sacred palladium or first stones ; and everywhere we see him busying him 
self with the social and domestic matters of his children ; the increase of their families 
and flocks, circumcision, and such-like -sexual matters. He was specially a God of 
oaths and covenants, and very remarkable ones of which a few words. 

Abraham told his most faithful servant to " swear by the Lord, the God of 
heaven and earth," by putting his hand "in sectione drcumcisionis mece," according 
to the received orthodox translation of Gen. xxiv. 2; see the margin of Bagster s Com 
prehensive Bible. The same reverend writers tell us that the Israelites as soon as 
they got quit of Gideon the Ephod-ite, or Yonite, went back to this great " Lord 
of the covenant," called in Judg. viii. 33 Baal Berith; the margin of this same 
Bible tells us to here read " Jupiter fcederis, or Mercury " -fcedus being " a treaty " 
or " agreement," which is the orthodox " testimony;" and also something " ugly " and 
" disgusting." Jupiter fcederis was the Roman deity who presided over all treaties or 
compacts, and of course was a Lingam-god, just as Hermes and Brahma were. The 
Jewish covenanter bled in and for his " covenant-God," the God of the " Testimony," 
and so the Christian is said to be sealed by the sanguis novi testamenti, for it was the 
testamentum drcumcisionis which sealed the Jew to his Eduth-deity of Exod. xvi. 34. 
The testament, says the severely orthodox Calmet, " is commonly taken in Scrip 
ture for covenant." Yes, very commonly, for the later writers who have given to us 
our present Bible speak of it as " the law of God," by which we may understand that 
as the race got a literature, they drove out their eduth and put in their liber, though 
this I think was so slow a process with all people, that these 
words, Liber and Libra, the waterpoise, the scales and plum 
met, the zodiac, or solar dwelling-place, and the licentious 
Bacchus, have all got inexplicably mixed up, though in every 
phase very distinctly partaking of an aphrodisiacal character. I 
give here Libra and his two zodiacal signs as we find him com 
monly represented, by merely copying from the new Supplement 
Fig. M.-L.BRA ou T,,. SCALES. of our ^^ Webster s English D/ctaowm/. We should notice 
that the signs of A res or Mars correspond with Libra, and are not, I think, in character 
much different. In the root of the word librarium we have the meaning Themis, justice, 
the upright one, or right-doer, and Hermes ; and also, as I before said, all the roots 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 7 1 

connecting liber with a book. Ceres daughter, Proserpine, was the holder of the 
" Balance" in the old zodiacs, and Romans called her Libera; he, the Balance, being 
Libra ; so that the idea of this Season which Leo or Sol opened with his fires, was the 
conjunction of the young maid with Libra, There are more signs in the zodiac than 
" the Balance," which have a very different meaning from what is popularly supposed. 
As the pious and orthodox author of Idolomania says, " I would rather not explain what 
the Gemini mean," and so he might have said of the two fish and Virgo, or mother Ceres, 
for they were identical. Egypt shewed this mother to be as bad as her daughter, 
inasmuch as, instead of her daughter s " Balance," the elderly lady carried in her hand 
the blue lotus, emblem of celestial love, which is frequently seen on the back of 
Leo, and is there addressed, as Mr Maurice tells us, 

" Child of the sun ! Why droops thy withering head, 
While high in Leo flames thy radiant sire 1 " 

Blue is Siva s colour, and Leo in flames is Siva, or the Lingam, as Agni, god of 
passion. To Ceres, say some, as the first goddess of ceremonies (Cereris-monita?}, we 
owe the beginning of all religious rites. Let us remember, also, that Libra was not in the 
old faith always separate from Virgo ; as in the case of Christianity, here one disciple 
proved false ; the Scorpion merged in Virgo, and the claws, " bruisers," or " crushers " 
became the sign of Libra (see Baldwin s Pre- Historic Nations, p. 118, and many 
other works) ; and the Serpent, we may remember, is called in Gen. iii. 15, he who is to 
"bruise" Eve on the " Akab" mistranslated heel. Higgins shews us in his Ana- 
calypsis, that the words liber, free (from "the solar ^^ of Egypt"), and liber, a book, 
are indissolubly connected. Bookish-men, or men of Bac, Boc, or Bacchus, were 
free from all the laws which controlled others as to peace or war, and this has con 
tinued down to our time in what is known as " benefit of clergy." 

From the Sun came Apollo, who was worshipped, like lakos, with great shouts 
and merriment, for lako signifies in Greek "to make a great noise;" inasmuch as he is 
I0-Bakoth and I0-Triumplie, the god of triumph ; whoever approached to his proces 
sions or to join in his fetes, did so with such exclamations as " Hosannas to the 
highest," or " Save, oh save us, thou great Sun god ! " This the Jews thoroughly un 
derstood, and hence their " feast of trumpets," with such shouts as above. 

Let us, then, clearly understand that the sign of " the Scales " was by no means 
" the Balance," which Europe has generally accepted ; nor was it a mere book or 
liber, but something more vitally connected with the Liber-pater. If "justice" be 
meant as his sign, it is that which is meted out by the Sun of Righteousness (<5/*a/- 
offiwj), the fertilizer, the Toth or Pillar-god of justice Hermes, the base of all 
learning and civilization, who was also the tree-stem on which the people always wrote 
in Europe as well as in Asia, just as the Egyptian did on his Toth or pillar. Teutons 
also danced and shouted round their Boko (bocco) or holy beech, as others did round 

172 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

their lakos. It was the bark of the beech and the birch which contained all the 
wisdom of ancient Europe; and what in modern Latin is called liber, the Skands 
and Kelts called Bed or Bee, and the Sanskrit Aryans their Ved, or what enlightens 
them. The Irish called their letters by the names of trees. Only the youth who had 
come of age could have or use this liber or liberty, and the god was therefore called the 
Liber-Pater of all who had just come of age, and joyous were the fetes with which he 
welcomed his children. Latterly his Bacchanalia became so gross, that the good sense 
of the Roman people put these down ; this happened in 186 B.C., but the Liber alia 
continued under considerable restrictions, though not severe enough, for we find St 
Augustin describing the licentiousness of the festival, as in his day (400 A.c.) some 
thing very bad indeed. But this seems inherent to the season of the vernal equinox, 
when animal life in all lands responds, perhaps too demonstratively to please our civili 
zation and sense of what is proper. 

Wherever people were unable to engrave on stone, they scratched or cut, 
especially on their most holy trees, all that they desired to express to those following 
after them, or to show off their feelings or learning ; and this spirit may have induced 
the Jews, as time wore on, to so engrave the stones which had at first only found a 
place in their arks, as the bull and serpent still finds a place at present in temples 
representing the energies of creation. One may often witness strange inscriptions on 
prominent or holy tree-stems, when travelling through the wilds of .aboriginal or very 
rude tribes, as well .in Barma as in India. 

I always expected to find that the Libra or Balance, and its accessories 

which we are told were kept so reverently in the 
temple of Saturn at Rome had a Phallic mean 
ing ; and this we see is the case in this beautiful 
design of " a steelyard " or statera, which J. Y. 
gives us in Smith s Classical Dictionary under 
the head Trutina, a word signifying both Libra 
and a balance or "weighing-yard" The last 
word reminds us that before it came to 
signify a specific measure, it signified a baton 
or rod (as that of Moses or Hermes, &c.), 
Fig. G3.-THE BALANCE, OK STATED OF THE CAP,, and was pronounced in Old Saxon, gerd or 
gyrd; in Dutch, gard ; C. Gothic, gazd or goad that is "a thorn stick" or 
" enlivener ; " in Icel. it is a gaddr, a " club," and closely related to gardr ; Gothic, 
yards and " garden" & private place or yard around a house, accessible only to the 
lamily ; Heb. Gan, as in Gan-Eden. From the term Trutina we can only get the idea 
of "a great pair of weights, one good in judgment," &c., but from its equivalent in 
Hebrew, bbs, we get back to the old idea of the "divider," "tearer," or "cutter 
asunder, that which breaks through, as lightning does the clouds " (Furst) ; also "Making 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 73 

firm," and " establishing," which is the hidden meaning of Boaz, the left-hand pillar of 
Solomon s temple. The Libra then, as seen in the museum of the Capitol, conspicu 
ously bears out my surmises, written long ere I saw this, viz., that the Liber-god, is 
Libra, and his real support a Tree and Serpent. Note that the Cock or equipoise here 
is a Minerva with pyramid or the cone of fire on head, as we observe all Egyptian women 
have; though difficult to show in this small scale, she has in her breast a babe, or gorgori 
as it is usually called, denoting passion. The spare weights here seen lying at foot suggest 
a Lingam origin, and so does the astronomical hieroglyph which we have in Fig. 62 for 
this Zodiacal sign ; the horizontal surface below the Omphi-looking handle of 
the scale stands, I fancy, for water, and therefore woman. The serpent coiling round 
the tree stem ever the Phallus, and especially when reaching away outwards, suspending 
the balance of Life and Justice, is sufficiently clear. We must also remember that all 
pendulous objects have not only formed subject for joke and banter amongst mankind 
in most nations, in all times, but that the pendulum, as in the bell, &c., is known as 
the Phallus, and so also Tassels in architecture and otherwise. 1 The results which 
such investigations yield are too important to skim lightly over. 

Even taking the ordinarily understood Bible term for Covenant, as Testamentum, 
Greek Diatheke, A/ad^, and looking only to orthodox authors like Calmet, we learn 
that in no part of the Old Testament does the word occur in this sense as a " will " or 
" testament/ But Diatheke is in Hebrew Berith irna, and referring to Fiirst we are 
told that it only metaphorically signifies a covenant, as in Genesis xxi. 27, "from the 
custom of going between parts " of that which is cut for sacrificial purposes, as spoken 
of in Jeremiah xxxiv. 18. It is " the sign or media," continues Fiirst, so that we see it 
becomes in reality the symbol of the god, by which those people, as well as their deity, 
made oaths, as in Acts vii. 8, where it is said, God made a covenant (dedit illi Testamentum 
circumcisionis), hence Fiirst actually says the SIGN of the Covenant of Circumcision is 
Berith, which sign is a sacrificial circle such as envelopes the Lingam ! If we investigate 
the accessories of the covenants also, which were called Beriths, we see still more the full 
force of the symbolism, as in this very tale in Gen. xxi., which Fiirst quotes ; there 
we find every Sivaik rite, a grove, or tree, and well, and offerings of sheep and oxen, 
&c. We also see how frequently all who had covenants tp make, had to go to the 

1 In Higgins Anac. we learn that Tally, Tolly engaged on, and we must not remain blinded by 

(Tassel) is a common Phallic term among boys in ignorance through a false modesty ; let us know 

the North of England, which does not seem so far exactly what mankind have revered or worshipped, 

removed from the Hebrew Al-Tuld, or Al-Talad, and let us remember that xvvdog (Kunthos), gene- 

and the common Greek Phales or P ale. In rally written Cynthus, is the membrum femineum. 

Hebrew and Irish we have nearly the same word This was the name of Latona s mountain in Deel or 

for Pudendum, ma, Phuth, and Phuddh. Is not Delos, from whence Apollo came. Kunthos is 

the same meant in Basar or Miplei basar of the therefore called his Isle, and this word agrees with 

Hebrew 1 ? See Job xli. 14 (iBO^lb) for the similar Indian words meaning the same. Kunti is 

Basar, which was " the word made flesh," was the mother of the Pandoos, wife of the Sun, &c. ; 

the same that was circumcised. These names are Kunda is a sacred cave or well ; Kooa or Kua, is 

of great consequence in fathoming the cults we are a well. 

174 Rivers of Life, or FaitJis of Man in all Lands. 

Covenant or Pillar-God. See the ratification of the Covenant as related in 2 Kings 
xxiii. 3, where even the righteous reformer Josiah, who, it is said, removed all Phallic, 
Sun, and Serpent images from the temple, stands by the pillar to swear to "the 
Jhavh," who was therefore a Pillar-God or Jupiter-Lapis. 

Thus " the Testimony " is simply a sign or symbol, and so then was the Eduth. 
Moreover, it was the same symbol as that which dominated all over these Shemitic 
lands. Phenicians also called their god Elohim ; and the Bow with them was also his 
sign, as being a heavenly arc, and connected with water. 

If Abraham made the sign of his God in circumcision,- so did Jacob and Laban, 
in raising to him "a heap of witness," or a stone in a karn or heap. This God, as the 
pious Father Calmet points out (Fragments, cxxix.), is he who " makes all naked and 
open," or JV/M& rtTpa%riMgft,iva, "like to Agamemnon s sword." "Words which," adds 
the orthodox old writer, "are sacrificial ones ! " Need we say more to prove the kind 
of deity the Jews honoured and symbolized in their Eduth, and his pot of 
manna, and in Jahveh-Nissi ? Further on in their history we find this deity delighting 
in savage butchery ; in hecatombs of cattle which bled before him, and whose blood 
and fat he was supposed to "lick up" daily, nay, hourly. His altars were mere 
shambles, and he himself was constantly anointed with unguents so holy, that none 
save Aaron and his sons were to presume to use them ; nay, not even the ingredients 
of these ointments, under penalty of death (Ex. xxx. 32, to end), and this also in the 
case of his perfumes or incense, which Moses and others ever offered before him in a 
manner which is disgustingly familiar to all of us who have so constantly wit 
nessed the operations in the shrines of India. The priest, the king, and the deity are all 
thus anointed in many lands, and indeed with such words as Israelites and cognate tribes 
used, viz., " God anoint thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows." Moore, in his 
Oriental Fragments (page 133 et seq.), gives us some amusing notes on the coronation 
of our last King William and Queen Adelaide, quoting the facts from the London 
Times. It appears that both their majesties were anointed from " la Saint e Ampoule" 
which vessel \vas in the form of an eagle with outspread wings (Jove), through whose 
mouth (Pi or Phy) the oleo santo flowed into a spoon (query, Argha), "curiously 
ornamented." Three swords and three wedges of gold were carried before their 
majesties, so that truly, as Moore says r "Lingams were offered by the king" to the 
gods, priests, or people ; and rings with ruby stones were selected and bestowed, and 
the king kissed the priests, and then his nobles regarding all of which The Times 
indignantly says : " Why this fuss with palls and ingots, spurs and swords, and oil for 
anointing (greasing) their sacred majesties, and whipping on and off of mantles ? " 
The reply is simple. The old faith is in the old rite, and rulers require to be careful 
in standing upon old rules, faiths and ceremonies, else old laws might declare the 
whole illegal, and it might be difficult to get new laws passed, authorising kings and 
coronations. On this occasion the prayers, it is said, were those used at Queen 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 75 

Judith s coronation in 856 A.C., and the ampulla was after the pattern of the one used 
in anointing Clovis, the first Christian King of France, regarding which Dr Middleton 
writes (Mis. Works, i. 361, quoted by Moore): "This vial is said to have been 
brought from heaven by a dove (lOna ?) for the baptismal unction of Clovis, . . . and 
dropped into the hands of Saint Remigius, then Bishop of Rheims, about the end of 
the fifth century, where it has ever since been preserved. . . . Its descent is said to 
be confirmed by this miracle, viz., that as soon as the coronation is over, the oil in the 
vial begins to waste and vanish, but is constantly renewed of itself for the service of 
each coronation." Mark that this oil-vase or ampulla is, like the Eduth and the first holy 
stones, and all holy books and Palladiums, received direct from Jove, and, like Apollo, 
this oil or holy water is also " ever young," and never failing ; it is fecundative 
energy. In regard to " the palls and whipping on and off of mantles," which Tlie 
Times indignantly relates, we see the remnant of a very old faith. As Moore says, 
" the Pallium was an old and most mystical thing, an essential part of a Bishop, sent 
or given by the Pope with much ceremony and cost, both at episcopal consecration 
and translation. The Bishop could not wear the same Pallium at two Sees, and it 
was buried with him." The monk s cowl was his pall, and Asyrian kings were Pals 
or Asliers, but regarding this more will appear further on ; for Ps, not to say Pals, 
are suspicious subjects, and these strange customs were not idly instituted. 

Whilst sending this to press, I observed in the London Athenaeum of 12th Sept. 
1874 some notes on the labours of the Palestine Ordinance Surveyors, which speak of 
the old faiths of Syria and Moab, regarding which I wish here to make a few remarks. 
Nob is called, in the Old Testament, the city of the priests, and is constantly 
mentioned in connection with Ramoth (Er-Ram), Anatoth, Gibeon, or El- Jib. 
Isaiah says the Asyrian army will rest at Nob, and " shake his hand against the 
mount of the daughter of Zion" (x. 32), showing the popular idea that the rounded 
mound of Zion was an Omphi, whilst the holy " Nob or Neb," a lofty white peak, was 
only holy as a Lingam. It was " a great altar to see to" (Jos. xxii. 10), that is a 
lofty "Ed" (verse 34), or "a witness, testis or testimony," that is, Eduth : it was a 
"stone or "great stone," specially stated not to be an altar for burnt offerings or 
sacrifices. No doubt the Ed was Neb El, or the God of the conical hill, but the Hebrew 
might by :a mean merely " a high place," such as the " high place of Gibeon," 
where Solomon sacrificed in a tabernacle " still," say the Palestine Ordinance Sur 
veyors, " existing there," which is not in the least wonderful, as the date at which 
tribes with arks have here worshipped, is by no means so very ancient. These faiths 
only perished nationally on the rise of Islamism, and the symbolisms and customs of 
Solo-Phallic Worship, have no more departed from Western Asia than these have from 
Eastern. The explorers say that the Ed on the Peak or Neb (this is the Danish ; in 
Saxon and Dutch, Nebbe) is still an immense monument of fine masonry. The Arabs 
call the mountain Ayd, which is the Hebrew Ed. Can it be related to our Ed-uth ? 

176 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

The " Tabernacle " was supposed to have remained in Nob and Gibea (a hill), on two 
occasions, and the surveyors now tell us that a platform suitable for it adjoins the Nob 
or Ed, " which seems to have been made for it." All the same, we have no authority 
for saying that the Jewish tribes then had a " tabernacle " nor anything probably, save 
the small box of Deut. x. 1. Mount Neb or Nebo was apparently Mount Peor or 
Priapus ; or else these two holy cones, because so closely adjoining each other, were 
called indifferently NEB or PEOR. The explorers seem to be of this opinion. Some 1 
persons allege that Nob is from OB, the serpent, or sun-hill, which would also embrace the 
term Pi-or. Later intelligence from the American Exploration Society tells us that one 
of the names of Jabel Neba or Nebo, is Siaghah, which Professor Paine reads Pisgah ; the 
explorers fixing on this high peak principally because it gives most of the view which 
Moses was said to have seen from it, viz., from Dan to Negeb. 1 What is of more con 
sequence, and likely to give a truer result as to the ancient faith of these parts is the 
fact which the explorers tell us, of all the hills having abundant cromlechs or hermi. 
On the southern portion of this Nebo is, they write, a truncated cone of small stones, 
130 feet in diameter and 25 feet high. Cromlechs abound, have broad, flat stones, but 
" not a sign of hewing or preparation beyond the rough straightening of edges can be 
found about the stones, nor any trace of letters." The ruins of a large temple were 
found on the summits of Jabel Siaghah, " or, as Professor Paine says, Beth-Peor, our 
Ob or Nob. In Hebrew, Ob, Ab, Aub, Oub, Oph, Op, Eph, Ev are all from the root 
2K Ab, or 31K Aub, which signifies inflare, and is therefore applied to the inflating and 
irritated or irritating one. In the LXX., says the Kev. Mr Deane, in his Worship of 
the Serpent, p. 81, nik is rendered " one who speaks from his belli/, which is the Greek 
notion of inflation or a familiar spirit ; " the italics are those of the reverend writer, 
and require no comment, being much nearer the mark than much else that the 
orthodox gentleman states in his nevertheless most excellent volume. We see the 
force of the italicised words when we remember, that in the rites of Mithras as well as 
" the mysteries of Sebazius, a serpent was thrown into the bosom of the initiated, and 
taken out at the lower end of his garments," as Mr Deane relates, attaching much 
importance to the fact (p. 49) ; "initiation," we should remember, is our "confirma 
tion," or coming of age," when the sacred serpent-thread of the Hindoo should 
be able to reach from bosom to "thigh." Aub is also the "familiar spirit," 
for dealing with which a Jew was to be put to death, according to Lev. xx. 
27 and Deut. xviii. 11 ; and as we know what an important part of Ophiolatry 
this divining by Serpents was, the Serpent being a " fascinator " and " persuader," 
so we see in the condemnation by these books, which date from the sixth or 
seventh century B.C., the probable decline of our third faith among Jews at 
this period. The Rev. J. B. Deane, in writing of serpent-worship, makes this 
dearer when he assures us that the reading of the LXX. here should be, that 

1 Siaghah or Pisgah is 2300 feet high, and near it is Muskar, 2 GOO feet, and Neba, 2700 feet. 
Pisgah may be Phasga, Phogor, or Phegor, i.e., Priapus ; in Irish Ferragh. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 1 77 

whoever " is an Ob" or " priest of Ob," or " consulter of the priests of Ob," should be 
put to death (p. 84). She whom we usually call the witch of Endor, he says, was 
really " a priestess" of the old faith of the country and tribes, or of Ob; Ab or Pethen. 
Sankoniathon tells us that " the son of Thabion was the first hierophant of Phenicia," 
and son may stand for priest ; whilst the name may be analyzed, says Mr Deane, into 
Th = God, Ab = Serpent, and Ion = Sun, making the whole the serpent-solar-god. 
In Ab we have the ^6a-father, and in Ion, no doubt Jah. As we investigate the faith 
of the early Syrian tribes, whom the Jewish writings mention as in the land before 
them, we find Sankoniathon s remarks regarding them true ; and here also the Rev. 
Mr Deane aids us, requiring us again and again to recur to the root op , and those 
words which gave to the Greeks *op/c. 

The learned and orthodox Gale, in his Court of the Gentiles, *- identifies Kadmus 
and Hivites, and tells us that from Belus sprang Phenix or j^a, the father of Kadmus, 
which signifies, he says, in the Phenician tongue, " oriental" (I. 38), as does Hivite a 
" serpent, in the Syrian," K^n. He agrees with Bochart, that the Hivites lived on 
Mount Hermon, and were also "called Kadmites, i.e. orientals, Gen. xv. 19." 
Kadmus married, we know, Harmonia or Hermione, that is " both were turned into 
serpents;" and in Josh. xi. 19, we are told the Jews thoroughly fraternized with Hivites, 
and therefore also with their brethren the Gibeonites and Shechemites, or those holders 
of the sacred Mounts of Gerizim and Ebal, the southern extremity of that very holy 
range, which culminates in the cone of high Hermon, some eighteen miles E.S.E. of 
Sidon. From Judg. iii. 3, as well as Bochart and Gale, we are to conclude that all 
Hivites and Kadmonites, therefore " Canaanites " were Hermonites, and therefore 
worshippers of Serpents and holy Conical Mountains ; that is, were true followers of our 
first four, and latterly of our fifth and sixth streams of faiths. 

The complete fraternisation of the Jews with Hivites, Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, 
and such true Phallic and solar worshipping races is very clear from Judges iii. and on 
wards, although little divertissements are introduced, showing how the good writer winces 
under what he is nevertheless compelled to acknowledge. No dagger of the assassin 
Ehud, nor voice of the songstress Deborah could charm a whole people out of all the 
ways, thoughts, and hopes of their lives, for reformations are matters of centuries ; not 
to say make them disown their wives and families, for we read that the Israelites 
married and intermarried with all the peoples " from Mount Baal-Hermon unto the 
entering in of Hamoth " (Ham or Amonsland), and " served their gods," that is be 
came Ophites = Hivites = Evites - Ephites, from root Eph or Ev variant of ns Aub, 
and evidently sincere Serpent and Mount-worshippers, in this pre-eminently serpent- 
loving land. We know also that they kept up their faith till Hezekiah, some 700 
years after, destroyed the god s symbol, and abusively called it Nehushtan or "a 
piece of brass " (2 Kings xviii. 4), an act which evidently hastened the fall and 

1 Printed by Hall, Oxon., 1669, in two parts. 
I. Z 

178 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Alan in all Lands. 

misfortunes of the tribes, as I will further on more fully show. Very shortly after this 
the nation fell, never again to rise into a kingdom if they ever before gained this rank. 
It seems most probable that some insults to the dominant faiths of all the great nations 
of Western Asia, by this obscure little hill tribe, may have tended to their destruction, 
for great kings, whatever they may personally think, do not like to have firebrands 
cast into their midst, which most religious questions or reformations are. 

Let us look for a moment at the important phase of Ophiolatry, " Divination 
by Serpents." We read that Helenus and Cassandra by means of serpents 
were able to see into the future ; the serpent, it is stiid, " cleansed the pass 
ages of their senses by their tongues ; " and, adds the " scholiast on Euripid, . . . 
serpents approaching licked their ears and made them so sharp of hearing that they 
alone among all men could understand the councils of the gods and became very 
excellent prophets." * The narrator of the gospel tale of Christ giving sight to the 
blind, seems to have borrowed the process from the example of the serpents who cured 
the blind Plutus ; for Aristophanes says, they licked his eyelids and his sight became at 
once " more than humanly acute." 2 The Paracce (sic), says Philostratus, ate serpents 
flesh and thus understood the languages of the brute creation; by eating the heart and 
liver " they understood their thoughts." It is the erect serpent-rod of Mercury which 
conducts mankind to hell ; Ceres went thither drawn by serpents ; and the reptile s bite 
sent Eurydike to hell. Was not Cerberus the watch-dog of that very hot place almost 
a serpent ? He had " a dragon s tail, and a skin studded with serpents heads," says 
Apollodorus; and looking from " the fathomless abyss up to the realms of eternal light," 
what do we see ? Still a serpent ! For yonder is Khea or Ops the serpent, deceiving 
her Lord by giving him a Stone (Betulus) to devour, called the " Ab-ad-ir or SERPENT 
DOMINUS SOL," instead of his offspring: in which tale we possibly see the origin of the 
gospel-saying in regard to the Stone, the bread, and the serpent. 3 This Abadir Stone 
was indeed a serpent and sun-stone, for it was a Lingam, and it " assumed a CONICAL 
figure," 4 so that Saturn took to consuming his own strength, which is the case with 
the midsummer sun, when all the crops, as in the tropics, have been by that time 
reaped ; when the sun may indeed be said to consume himself on bare fields, and 
pastures, and desolate, and almost leafless forests, having nought but hard, parched 
soils, and naked rocks and stones, from off which his fierce heats have eaten away all 

In all lands and faiths the serpent is he who gives knowledge. In Eden as well as 
in the Punjab it is shown that nag as or TaJc Shaks bring in learning ; it is a very 
doubtful matter if we can say as much for the pious prophets of mankind. Boodha and 
Confucius, as philosophers, are exceptions, and must rank before Thales, Pythagoras, 

1 Bochart, quoted by Deane, 336. - Spanheim, 212. 

3 The bishop or head of the Christian Church of Abysinia is styled Ab-un, which is I suspect derive.! 
from a serpent ; it looks very like Afi or OB-ON i\\Q Serpent-Sun. 

4 Serpont Worship, 340. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 179 

and other wise ones of earth ; but pure pietists like Rama, Sakya, Christ, and 
Mahomed, rather brought in turmoil, bloodshed, and misery, than joy, peace, and 
learning ; nor was the misery assuaged, until scared-away philosophy and science re 
turned, to damp the irritable and inflammatory matter which had been aroused ; and it 
seems as if all dogmas founded on superstitions, or the marvellous and incompre 
hensible, and carrying strong cursings or anathemas against all who oppose them or 
introduce learning at variance with them, must have this retarding and injurious effect 
upon us. If so, it becomes our duty to repress all superstitions and " mysteries ;" 
assured, that when these disappear, turmoil, misery, and crime will also fly away. 

Colonel Tod writes * that the serpent of Boodha possessed all science and pure 
religion, which Krishna as an Eagle had to fly far and wide to obtain from Boodha. 
Christians say that Mahomed flung the world back many centuries, especially in 
Asia ; but Mahomedans rightly repel this as a slander. 

Let me here make a few remarks upon that good, because necessary feature in 
the Jews common to us all, viz., the continual changing of their ideas of God as they 
advanced in intelligence. Jews for ages clung to the stone which they said their 
patriarch Jacob set up, and which they removed to Jerusalem. The houses of their 
gods were Beth-els (literally houses of El), and all over Syria, and indeed Asia Minor, 
Sivaik Shrines were known as Betuli, that is Lingams, or Maha-Devas. According 
to Lewis and the learned Bochart, the Phenicians were the first worshippers and 
anointers of Betyls. During this rage for Lingam-worship, the southern tribes 
condemned Yonism, or as they called it Dove-worship, by their kinsmen the 
Samaritans on Mount Gerizim. Maimonides disliked the worship of Ba-al-Peor, which 
lie said (but I think ignorantly) " consisted of exhibitions of the Yoni to him," for 1 
find that the worship was that common in the east. St Jerome said, " it (Peor) was 
principally worshipped by women" " Colentibus maxime fceminis Baal Phegor ob 
obsceni magnitudinem quern nos priapum possumus appellare." 2 

We have lost much of the true worship of the Jewish tribes, from the various 
destructions of their records ; but above all from that weeding out of gross, degrading, 
and objective features of their early worship, which necessitated the obscuring, if not 
blotting out, not only every term or sentence which showed the " image " of a God a 
feature forbidden in their faith, about perhaps the time of David, though little 
attended to till the fifth century B.C., but also the obscuring of everything too anthro 
pomorphic for the advanced ideas of the third century, when their " shreds and scraps 
of leather "-literature, began to be gathered together, and took a form which seemed to 
consolidate the people and make them a nation. 

I long since came to the opinion, to which every student of Asiatic faiths must 
come, and which I am glad to say Bishop Colenso has now thoroughly established as 
correct, that the worship of the Jews was precisely that of the people amongst whom they 

1 Rajasthan, I. 537. 2 Sellon s " Hindoo Annotations," p. 27. 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

dwelt, and that the only God they knew of in Arabia, or until they got into Canaan, 
was El-Elohe or Elohim, after which they adopted the God Yachveh of the 
Phenicians, calling him Yahveh, Jahveh, or Jhavh or Jhuh, which perhaps was the 
reason their Arabian brethren called them Jews. This change did not, however, 
apparently take place for many centuries after the era which we are asked to accept as 
that of the mythical Moses (1490 B.C.). It seems most probable that the tribes of II, 
that is, " Is-Ra-El" remained true to El and Arkite, or the more gross forms of 
Phallic faith, until the period of full contact with the great Solar-worshipping nations 
on their east, viz:, the eighth century B.C., as the period treated of in 2 Kings xvii. 
There we are told that the King of Asyria sent men, no doubt priests, from the strong 
holds of Sun-worship, Ham-ath, Kootha, and Sepharvaim, all words which taken in 
syllables or together signify the sun. A priest of El or of Beth-el went up to try and 
stop the defection, but it was of no use, see verse 29th and onward, for they feared not 
the Lord, who had " named Jacob, Is-ra-el " or a son of El. Of course the change 
had begun long before then, but this was probably the final flicker of the national 
worship of El. 

Dr Inman gives this subject much learned criticism in chapter x. of Vol I. Ancient 
Faiths, and here I mean only to point the young reader s attention to it, for I do not 
write here for the learned, but only the ordinary orthodox public. Any cursory reader 
will observe that in Samuel s time there was a very apparent change in nomenclature : 
Terminations ending in El are less frequent, giving place to Al, Ar, Ah, Jah and 
Ja ; whilst Shams and Shemish or Esh denoting a solar deity, then constantly appear. 
This may be shown in juxta-position thus : 

Micha-^/ (who is like God). 

Ur-i-El (Fire of God). 



El-Shemesh (The Sun is El). 



Araka-El (The Marshal of God). 
Gabri-.7 (strength of God). 

Jr-Shemesh (City of the Sun). 



Ram-i-El (Son of God). 

Abdi-l (Servant of God) 



JEn-S/temish (Fountain of S.). 


Ab-deus (Tyrian). 

These names have visibly gravitated towards the Greek I AH, (which the Hebrews 
preferred pronouncing, 1AOU) ; he who was Hades in winter, Apollo and Zeus in 
early summer, Helios in the heats, and " loved IAO or AD-ION A or Adonis" in har 
vest. This subject will be found well worked up in Bishop Colenso s excellent Lecture IV. 
on the Pentateuch ; see also the nomenclature as developed in Judges ii., iii. and vi. 
All the above words if analysed, would lead to very important results which I cannot, 
however here dwell upon. Most of my readers probably know that ADONIA vnx 
usually translated " Jehovah " or Lord, is the Phenician GOD OP LOVE, and in Hebrew 
signifies " a pillar," that is Toth or the Jewish Seth ; see Leigh s Hebrew Lexicon. But 

Serpent and Phallic IV or skip. 


I must not anticipate all my chapter on Judean Faiths ; I only here wish to establish the 
facts of the so-called Israelites being like all the tribes and nations of ancient times, 
and indeed more than three-fourths of all on earth even at the present time, ad 
dicted to the practice of Phallic or of highly sensual solar faiths. The Jews are indeed 
one of the very last western peoples who had a temple built over an unhewn natural 
rock or " Parvati," as we in India 
would call this. I give here an 
outline sketch of the shrine over 
the holy rock, which Mr W. Simp 
son, the well-known artist, has 
kindly sketched for me. I neg 
lected to do this, or even consider 
the subject, when I visited Jeru 
salem now many years ago, being 
unaware then of the very ancient 
faith it pourtrayed, and its extreme 

From this sketch which shows 
all in relative proportions, it is 
difficult to realise the effect of a 
great, rough, ugly and unhewn rock, 
rising up in the very midst of a 
beautiful temple; so will my readers 
try to imagine for themselves the Fi - 64 - 
effect of seeing such a primeval production several feet high, with a well and dark cave 
below it, in the very centre of St Peter s or St Paul s ; or still better, exaggerate the idea, 
and suppose it a score of feet high, and they will then perhaps appreciate more clearly 
and forcibly the real faith meant to be pourtrayed, and here still asserting its intense 
endurance and obstinacy. It is of course the same faith as that which for many long 
centuries has prevailed all over the parent land of the Syrian tribes, and which still 
sits in theMekan Shrine; but the male or right hand phase, the Siva is there, and the 
Sivi here ; for the place of the ark was, say some, over the top of the sacred rock of the 
temple, now still covered by a noble dome. 

Both Jews and Mahomedans thought their own shrine the centre or " navel of 
the earth;" and for a long time Mahomed could not make up his mind which to select, 
the Argha or Akros of Hierosolyma, or " the black stone " of Abraham in the Al-ka- 
ba ; he abhorred the idolatry of the laud of Syria however, and this with his native 
Arabian love for the free desert of his youth, determined him to choose the latter. 
We see in this holy Jewish shrine one of the oldest features of the Phallic Faith 
viz., that of the Cave and holy covered well, which no one may see into ; and it is 


1 82 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

believed that pure water exists here, though the highest point of the hilly range. 
The mass above the well the Yoni or womb, is of course the Umbo or "Ovpig, the oracle 
or Pi of Am or Ham : the sun or heat ; and the whole, " the Omphalos of the earth." 
Plutarch in his Is. ct. Osir. 42, tells us that Omphis was an Egyptian deity Euergetis 
Evtpyins, or Benefactress ; and we know that anciently all such spots were called 
Har-Al-Ompi, which Greeks called for brevity Al-Ompi, or "oxv^os; Delphi was such a 
place, and called Omphi-El, or umbilicus of the world. Temples built on such 
spots were often called Prutaneia or Puratheia, and had a tumulus or high altar 
for fire rites, for Siva or the Sun is nothing separated from Agni. 

I wish my readers very clearly to understand what we have here on this Jeru 
salem Omphi Moriah, or Meroo, now surmounted by what Europeans call the Mosk of 
Omar. The proper name for this fine building is Kabet-Es-Sakra, usually translated 
the Dome of the Rock, but which appears to me to signify the Tomb of the rock, or cave, 
or rocky abyss ; for this cave is, I think, here the principal and most revered object, 
and has no name if we take the word " Kabet " to signify a dome instead of a tomb 
or cave, which its Indian analogue Kaber does. Under or below the cave floor we 
have a " well of spirits " called locally Bir-Aruan, the entrance of which is shut and 
forbidden to all unbelievers. It is thus the ancient Ark or lOna. I extract the fol 
lowing details from the handbooks of 1872, given to visitors of Mr Wm. Simpson s beau 
tiful paintings of " Underground Jerusalem," in the Pall Mall Galler-y. 

The Sacred Cave under the Sakrah. " It is thought that this cave extended under the rock beyond 
its present dimensions. The wall on the north sounds hollow when struck, which confirms this idea. 
There are four stations. The one at the foot of the stair is that of David. It is a Gothic niche of 
marble. The Place of Abraham is the square hole to the right. The Place of Solomon is a fragment 
of marble on the left, and that of Elias, also called St George, is the largest structure on the right. The, 
Hole in the Sacred Rock has a light suspended through it. The circular plate in the floor is the i hole 
leading down to the Bir Aruan, or " Well of Spirits," a second cave beneath. The slanting pillar across 
the stair was put to preserve the rock (which was supposed to hang in the air) from falling, and causing 
accidents. This cave, according to Mr Fergusson s theory of the topography of Jerusalem, is the real 
Holy Sepulchre ; the splendid building above, called the Mosk of Omar, being, according to this theory, 
the church built by Constantine." 

The Sakrah, or Sacred Rock. " The so-called Mosk of Om ar is called the Kubbet-es-SakraJi, or 
Dome of the Rock, because it is built over this holy stone, supposed to have been the threshing-floor of 
Araunah the Jebusite, and hence the traditional site of the Temple. According to some theories, the ark 
was placed on this rock ; according to others, it was. the site of the great altar. The Sakrah was described 
by Sophronius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, to Omar, as the rock on which God spake to Jacob ; which 
Jacob called the Gate of Heaven ; the Israelites, the site of the Holy of Holies, which is in the middle of 
the earth, and was the holy place of Israel, and is held by them in such veneration that, wherever thev 
are, they turn their faces towards it when they pray. The Franks (Christians) had built an oratory 
and altar over the Saki-ah itself, and filled it with images and idols ; these Saladin removed, and re 
stored it to its original condition as a mosk. The Christians are also said to have cut off portions of 
the Sakrah, and sold them in Sicily and Constantinople for their weight in gold. In the present day the 
traditions respecting this, wonderful rock are principally Mahomedan. Moslems believe that it is the 
centre of the world, and on the Day of Resurrection the angel Israfil will stand upon it to blow the last 
trumpet. It is also eighteen miles nearer heaven than any other place in the world : and beneath it, is 
the source of every drop of sweet water that flows on the face of the earth, that is of all female energies. 
It is -supposed to be suspended miraculously between heaven and earth. They believe that it came from 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 183 

heaven, and that it will return again on the last day. According to the story, it is the scene of the 
Prophet s night journey from the Holy City, his footprint, whence he started, being a shrine on the 
western side. It also bears the mark of the angel Gabriel s hand, who had to lay hold of the rock, or it 
would have ascended with the Prophet, and the end of all things must then have come. The traditions 

connected with the sacred rock are far too many to relate The north end has been all cut 

down ; so has the west ; and although the first impression of any one looking at it is, that it is just 
like any rough rock on the top of a hill, a more careful inspection indicates that a tool has been used upon 
it in many places. It is about 60 by 50 feet in extent, and is surrounded by a circle of four piers 
and twelve pillars, which support the dome above. The impression produced by this rough rock, 
canopied by silk of many hues, and covered by one of the grandest of ancient temples, built of 
the finest marbles and mosaics, is difficult to describe ; for it is exceptional among temples. The 
real rock, rude as it seems to the eye, is more awe-inspiring, under such circumstances, than the 
finest picture or sculpture which art ever produced. The sacred cave is under the south-east 

At the north end of the rock, there is a place scooped out as if for some rite, and 
a cavity in front of it, which, it is said, was for sacrifice by those who assert that the 
rock was the altar of the temple. Christians used this rock as an altar, and some of 
the tool marks upon it are held to have occurred during their domination. Cave and 
Fire rites are not yet extirpated from Jerusalem, nor, indeed, from any nation of 
earth. Christians still rush for sacred fire to the holy cave at the birth of Sol, and 
men and women strive, in secret nooks, to pass naked through such holy fire as will 
appear further on ; see also Inman s Symbolism, 2d Ed. 1874, p. 112. Nor has Mount 
or Omphi- Worship (that is Venus Mount, or the Mons veneris), or at least intense 
veneration almost amounting to worship, disappeared among Jews and Syrians. Mounts 
Moriah, Zion, and Calvary are as sacred to thousands, as Mount Meroo is to hundreds of 
thousands. Wherever we find a dome or skull (Calvaria) shaped hill (and of course a 
Lingam one also), whether in Asia or Africa, we are certain to hear that it is revered if 
not actually worshipped; and not only so, but that all objects like this skull and cone, 
are so too ; moreover, as many as possible will be made like to these, as cakes for the 
gods, or even for use in temples, &c., on which a few words. 

The Rev. J. Bathurst Deane tells us that " honey cakes, with raised lumps upon 
them like navels, were carried by noble virgins in their hands in golden baskets," and 
that such formed "a very important part of the procession," and rites, and ceremonies 
of Bacchus, that in these baskets " were also Sesamum, small- pyramids, wool, grains 
of salt, and a SERPENT." (Serpent Worship, p. 188). "The people followed" these 
maids with these occult insignia " crowned with serpents, carrying them in their hands, 
brandishing them over their heads, and shouting with great vehemence sum, tSia, Euia, 
which, being roughly aspirated, says Clemens Alexandrinus, will denote a female serpent." 
Some thought the words meant " Eve, Eve," as connected with the serpent, but the 
Rev. Mr Deane says there is no doubt it simply meant Ephia or Epia, or Ob, Obia, 
&c., meaning the Great Serpent Deity. The shape of the cakes was, in plan and 
section, like the priestly hats and shields, page 185, Fig. 68, 69, and these are con 
tinued by the Roman Church in the symbolic hats of all orders below the rank of 

184 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

bishop. Hats or head-dresses have also always formed a conspicuous emblem of faiths, 
from the Phallic cone on the Tibetan Lama worshipping Boodhist though he be 
(see that strange Phallus which Hue gives us at page 92 of his 2d vol., figure further 
on) to those of Western Asia, Europe, and Africa, which I give in Figs 66 and 105, 
iv. 5, and elsewhere. The Rev. Mr Deane correctly says, that the cones were intended as 
representations of the sun s rays, and are sometimes seen in the hands of priests kneeling 
before the sacred serpent, .... the supplicating minister of the god offers a pyramid in 
his left hand, while the right is held up in adoration ; on his head is the deadly asp." 
Now, what is this worship but the requests of this " man of god " that he would make 
these emblems of the people fruitful, and so bless the nation with abundance of offspring, 
the only blessings early races appreciated. I give here an 
illustration from Mr Sharpe s Egyptian Mythology, page 
61, of such an offering being made by a king or priest " to 
the dreaded Kabiri." Mr Sharpe considers this suppliant 
to be a King of Sais, and states that similar drawings 
abound of Thebaic Kings making these " offerings to 
Amon-Ra," that is to the Heated or Passionate Sun of Fer 
tility. The learned gentleman is not however acquainted, 

Fig. 65. EGYPTIAN KING AT WORSHIP. y , 1 T ,1 A -L - T7< J." TTl 11 1 T 

1 think, with Asiatic or Egyptian rhallic lore, for he 

calls the Phalli here " Cones of baked clay ! " I should fancy they are just such 
Lingam-like sweet-bread as we still see in Indian Sivaik Temples. I think the 
double-headed bovine deity is Isis, or Osiris and Isis, that is, Sun and Moon in con 
junction, and that the two cones represent male virility as well as the Lingam, all 
such emblems being made, if possible, with a double signification. They correspond to 
the two stones on coins as seen in Plates IV. 2 ; VI. 2 ; XIII. 1, and elsewhere. We 
can imagine the afflicted Philistines, Bethshemites, and Attic Greeks, who offended 
against the Arkite and Bacchite energies, making just such offerings . as this royal 
Ophite is here doing. 

" The sacred cakes of honey and flour were marked," says the Rev. Mr Deane, 
" with the Omphalos, and were offerings made at the shrine of the Sacred Serpent ;" and 
we know, as a matter of correct history, that the live serpent kept in the Akropolis of 
Athens, and the serpent of Metele, were fed on these cakes (Deane 189) ; so also the 
dragon of the Hesperides, and the serpents in the cave of Trophonius. This 
Omphalos cake, the Rev. writer explains, " is a boss, upon which is inscribed a spiral 
line " similar to that which is seen on rude stones in Ireland, and which, as Quintus 
Curtius says, is also found on the rude stone at the temple of Jupiter Amon in Africa ; 
it is simply the prepuce in a slightly disguised form, and I say this after having seen 
hundreds of these quite undisguised. It appears that a spiral is also made to 
envelope the mystic baskets of the Bacchic orgies, " and that such an Omphalos with 
spiral, or, in this case, I. fancy, a zodiacal zone round it, was kept at Delphi (Strabo 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


and Deane), because, says Pausanias, this was the middle of the earth. The Pelopon- 
nesians had a similar Omphalos at Phlius in Akaia, but I fancy this was not so clearly 
a boss, so that perhaps the object was a Sri-Linga ; see Bryant II. 109, who very 
correctly derives Omphalos from Om-phi-el, the mouth or oracle of the Sun (An. I. 
307). I suspect that the peculiar broad-brimmed hat of Italian priests, with boss in 
centre, denotes a Yonite instead of the old Phallic Worship with which the ancient 
hats of the Flamens were in accordance. Hats, Helmets, Crowns, and Tiaras were 
all highly significant objects, as will appear from various matters hereafter to be treated 
of ; here I desire merely to call attention to them, and give this drawing to let my 
readers bear this feature in mind. Kings, Chiefs, and Priests do not wear such symbols 
as these without thought and meaning, and in the 
first line the symbols are clearly meant to de 
note upholders of Lingaite faiths, and those in the 
other two columns, Solar, and phallo-Solar cult. 
The spear, or Quiris (after which the Quirinal hill is 
named) with its wrapper, was the oldest symbol of 
the purest Nature-worshippers. The boss upon a 
shield was an Omphalos and a highly venerated 
part ; and added much to the high value all the an 
cients set upon their shields. Warriors specially re 
vered and held sacred rites in connection with their 
shields, as sailors did in the case of their rudders ; 
indeed, both classes here and there still do so in 
the East. I have already given at page 131, draw 
ings of rudders and a shield adorned by serpents, such as may be abundantly found in 
classical atlases and dictionaries ; and pointed out that the great Cesar s first gift, after 
his conquests in Britain, to his favourite the Venus Genitrix of Rome, was a shield 
embossed with British pearls, a highly significant ornament, which a Cesar and a Solomon 
.could appreciate, the latter having made, 
we are told, three hundred shields of gold, 
which we see from 2 Chron. ix. 16, were for 
religious and not war-like purposes. Dr In- 
man gives these drawings of what he con 
ceives, not without reason, to have been their 
shape. No. 70 was the very peculiar Argha 
and Yoni-like form of the shield of the pious 
Templars, all of whose relics teem with 
Phallo-Solar ideas. 

The orthodox Hislop, in his " Two Babylons," tells us that the " bouns," buns, or 
bread offered to the gods from the most ancient times, were similar to our "hot-cross buns 

i. 2 A 

Fig. 66. THE ! 


1 86 

Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

of Good Friday, that . . . the buns known by that identical name were used in the 
worship of the Queen of Heaven, the Goddess Easter (Ishtar or Astarti) as early as the 

days of Kekrops, the founder of Athens, 1500 years B.c the dyed eggs of 

Pasch or Easter Sunday figured also in the Kaldean rites just as they do now." 

Captain Wilford, in " Asiatic Researches," VIII. p. 365, says that when the people 
of Syracuse were sacrificing to goddesses, they offered cakes called Mulloi, shaped like 
the female organ ; and Dulare tells us that the male organ was similarly symbolised in 
pyramidal cakes at Easter .by the pious Christians of Saintonge, near Rochelle, and 
handed about from house to house ; that even in his day the festival of Palm Sunday 
was called Le Fete des Pinnes, showing that this fete was held to be on account of 
both organs, although, of course, principally because the day was sacred to the Palm, 
the ancient tree-Phallus. The procession was one of women and children carrying 
Pinnes at the end of thin palm-branches (highly Bacchic), which, it appears, were 
then taken home and carefully preserved all the year. This is exactly as still 
practised in India with household Lingams, and reminds us of the Sacred Fires, and 
Lares, and Penates, which were all renewed or reinstated annually. Clermont in 
Auvergne preferred the female organ, but in Lower Limousin and Brives the cakes 
were Phalli. We may believe that the Jew r ish cakes and show -bread were also 
emblematic, somewhat as I. show in the table of " show-bread," Fig. 76, p. 194. The 
Omphic Navel, Nebo, or Nabis 33, idea figures conspicuously in Vishnoo s grandest 
Avatar. From it all creation issues as he rests with his consort on the serpent Sesha 

the Ark of Life on the "sea of milk ;" Vishnoo is here, 
as in most instances, the Sun ; and the Nabi is here the 
Umbilicus or Olympus of the gods, from which the 
whole world proceeds. It is different from Siva s Argha, 
which, when shown separate from him, is, as in these 
two figures, a sort of Patera, corresponding to the 
Hebrew cups and bowls mistranslated " spoons " in 
Exodus xxv. 29. The real word is nsn Kapoth, mean 
ing cups for holding the oils and unguents sprinkled 
over all Lingam-gods, and which we can still see in 
Indian Sivaik Temples. . course, all such vessels, like 
everything else here, from the foundation-stone and 
Lingam buried under ground, to the Tri-sool on the high summit of a Sivaik temple, 
and again on the high side-pole where there is also a fire- cup and serpent-streamer, 
are all, and every, made strictly symbolic. Every line nd figure is so, as well as 
the colour and even the quality of the material if practicable. 

.We must here return a little to the Syrian, Arkite, and other Phallic worship, and 
to Jews, as those regarding whom we probably have most details. 1 think it is estab 
lished that the Ark was at first merely a simple box,- made up in a hurried manner at 

Fig. 71 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 187 

Rephidim, to contain the two later stones, which the leader is said to have taken up 
to " the Jhavh " to be engraved by him, and also probably to contain the previously 
worshipped or revered articles viz., the Ecluth, or first testimony of Exodus xvi. 34; the 
pot of manna ; rod, or Baton ; the sprig of almond tree, and other articles of divina 
tion. Bishop Colenso makes it abundantly clear 1 that we had no grand ark and 
paraphernalia, as alluded to in the closing chapters of Exodus by some interpolating, 
though no doubt pious and zealous adherent of a later faith ; all this is foreign to the 
ideas and knowledge of the first Elohistic writer. 2 

The Bishop truly says, " There is no record of the construction " of any such 
article as Jews and Christians commonly believe in ! The original story, he con 
siders, is a very clear and simple one, if we try to see it as given to us by Elohistic 
writers. Thus, when Moses required two more stones to replace the first heavenly 
ones, " the Jhavh said to me, Hew tliee two tables of stone like the first, and come 
up unto me into the mountain, and make tliee an ark of wood! " This was probably 
to prevent a second fracture. Moses replied, " So I made an ark of shittim wood." 
Then we are unceremoniously told in Num. x. 33 that they took up this ark-box and 
departed from the mount, with no doubt the Eduth and the two stones in it. At 
this time it may be inferred that neither Moses nor others knew of any representative 
of the terrible nature-God of Sinai, save the two stones, the Eduth, and his 
outside representation the " man of God s " rod, baton, or Nissi. I look upon it that 
the Jewish Eduth represented the temple obelisk, Moses rod, the magic rod of Egyp 
tian priests, and the Nissi, Bet-el, Betulus or Standard usually of stone, which this 
people erected and worshipped all over their land as soon as they settled down. 

Adam seems to have been the first God-like idea, and was naturally sym 
bolised in the Lingam. The word still means a Lingam, more especially with Shemites 
and Mahommedans ; whilst Seth or Set became to Jews, as their own special pro 
genitor, their Adam or Linga, which Greeks called Betuli. Noh or Noah then 
took the place of Seth, and Abraham and Moses followed Noah. All these 
received in their lifetime intense reverence, and posthumous worship. Adam and 
Abraham are still spoken of as the intimate " friends of God," and only men 
tioned by all Shemites with that reverence with which Christians allude to Christ. 
As statuary was impossible in these ages, I have said it was only a natural 
necessity that a lingam or column should represent a male, and a cavity, ark, dome, 
or oval-shaped object, a female progenitor ; so that all worship of these parents at once 
became .arkite or lingaite, and therefore exhibited itself in worship of these forms. 
Numerous old writers assure us of the worship of Adam, Seth, Noah, and others, by 
which we must understand the worship of pillars or Matsebas (Bible "Images"), as the 
only possible representations of these great old fathers, remembering that whatever may 
have been the meaning of pillars and arks (Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah) in 

1 "Lee. on Pent, and Moabite Stone: " Lon., 1873. Chap, xviii. 2 P. 236. Ex. xxiv. ; Dent x. 

1 88 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

the minds of the first setters-up of these, the mass of the people soon came to lose 
the original idea, seeing in them only the emblems of generation and gestation. 
The Jews, say several old writers, adored Noah under the emblems of a man, ark and 
serpent, thus adding the necessary concomitants, heat, fire, or passion. There was, 
says tradition, also a curious early worship of blood the blood of Abel, which is still 
the worship of men of the Moody and Sankey class. The Jews continually spoke of the 
blood of righteous Abel. It took the place on many occasions of the " Stone of Swear 
ing" Jhavh Foederis ; all good Sethians swore on it, just as they also did on the thigh, 
as we see in the learned Gregorie s Notes on Scripture, page 119 et seq., quoting 
the erudite " Master Selden and others." Here also we get the prayer which Sethians 
used to " offer daily before the body of Adam," which, as the volume is now rare, I 
will give some details concerning ; but will my readers kindly remember in reading it 
that which the writers forget, that the word " Adam " signifies lingam. It appears, 
from both the Sabid Aben Batric and the Arabic Catena, that there existed the 
following " short litany, said to have been conceived by Noah ; " and that these 
Sethites used to say their prayers daily in the Ark before the body of Adam, and " in 
the name of the blood " of Abel, so that he was the early Christ. This is given to us 
by tradition quite as good as any on which churches rely. 


" Lord, excellent art thou in thy truth, and there is nothing great in comparison of thee. Look 
upon us with the eye of mercy and compassion. Deliver us from this deluge of waters, and set our feet 
in a large room. By the sorrows of Adam, thy first-made man ; by the blood of Abel ,thy holy one ; 
by the righteousness of SETH, in whom thou art well-pleased : number us not amongst those who 
have transgressed thy statutes, but take us into thy merciful care ; for thou art our Deliverer, and thine 
is the praise for all the works of thy hand for evermore. And the sons of NOAH said Amen, Lord" 

The learned and pious Gregorie then goes on to account for the body of Adam 
being above ground in this year of the flood, said to have been 2348 B.C. ; for even 
allowing to him the mythical age of 930 years, still he had by that time been dead 
7j centuries. 1 It appears, however, that well-established traditional history affirms 
that the great ancestor s " dead body should be kept above ground, till a fullness of 
time should come to commit it to the middle of the earth by a priest of the most high 
God." 2 Now " the priest who was to officiate at the funeral, they say, was Melchise- 

1 According to Usher : 2 We require to accustom ourselves to Scrip- 

Creation .... 4004 tural inaccuracies. Thus, if the figures in Gen. 

Adam s life ... 930 v. 27 are correct, poor Methuselah was swimming 

about outside the Ark all the time it was afloat, 

Adam s death . . 3074 and wandering about in dismal salt water swamps 

Flood 2348 for some 1^ months more, as any careful calcu 

lator may observe from Gen. iv. 27 and vii. 11. 
726 By our calculation, the period of his watery wan 

derings was 14 years. 

Serpent and Phallic lV or ship. 189 

dec ; and that he buried the body at Salem, which might very well be the middle of 
the habitable world" (Gregorie, p. 121). Further, Bagster s Comprehensive Bible 
tells us, in the note to Gen. xiv. 18, that noble Jews and Samaritans held Melchisedec 
to be Shem, which Calmet elaborately supports, whilst our annotator informs us 
that " Salem was most probably Jerusalem " ! Gregorie, quoting Hebrew tradition, 
says " this body of Adam was embalmed and transmitted from father to son by a 
reverend and religious way of conveyance, till at last it was delivered by Lamech into 
the hands of Noah, who, being well advised of that fashion of the old world, which 
was to worship God toward a certain place, and considering with himself that this 
could not be toward the right, which was the east, under the inconstancy and incon 
venience of a ship, pointed out the middle of the Ark for the place of prayer. " Here, 
quoting the ancient Caten. Arab., c. 25, fols. 56 b. he says, " So soon as ever the 
day began to break, Noah stood up towards the body of Adam (lingam-pillar), and 
before the Lord he and his sons, Sem, Ham, and Japheth, and Noah prayed ; " so that 
here we have one of the most perfect pictures possible of a Phallic church the men all 
bowing down in the centre of the Argha before the lingam-god the Argha-Nat great 
Siva the mast of the Ark-boat. Need we ask what the two stones of later days 
were, or how arranged, or what this Tebah, and its type the pix, Aron, or Ark meant ? ! 
Was it not the abiding-place of the God, the " bread-giver," El, Elohe, 10, or he, the 
great Egyptian forefather Yoosef, who reposed, " being personified," like this Adam in 
an ark Aron, see Heb. of Gen. 1. 26. 2 The subject of fig. 28, p, 80. is this Ark idea, and 
still floats on Indian rivers. The keeping of the Adamite lingam, till it could be fixed 
deep into " the centre -navel of the earth, is a thoroughly Eastern and Sivaik idea. 

The Ceylonese Hindoos and Boodhists (see what is said under the head Meroo) 
say that their Nebo or Peor, the holy mount Adam, also sinks right into the centre of 
the earth, and so say all those who make continual pilgrimages to, and bow before 
this great high central mountain. Ignorant pilgrims fancy it is called after the first 
Moslem or Jewish Parent nay Jewish god, and for the most part worship it purely as 
a lingam and call it Siva, of which more in its place. The Delphi triple-serpent 
column, was also buried " in the centre of the earth," and the Maha-Deva of Central 
India is said to be situated "in the centre of the earth," and so on. The meaning of 
Ge and her centre is, in all the stories, very poorly veiled. As connected with the 
Jewish love of Stone or Rock-worship, and confirmatory of what I have advanced as 
to their having early taken to holy stones, and got their first two from heaven, I may 
mention, that we have numerous traditions, as well as historical evidence of both Stone 
and Eock-reverence, if not worship, by them, down to even this century. Gregorie, at 
p. 118, commenting upon Deut. xxii. 3, tells us of a very holy stone, which could not be 
the rock or tomb over which the " Mosk of Omar" now stands. He speaks on the 
authority of the Talmud the Gemara in Baba Metzia, saying, " In Hierusalem there 

1 Tebah is the word used for Noah s Ark, and Aron for the Ark-6oce. 2 Note in Bagster s Com. Biblv. 

i go 

Rivers of Life, or -Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

was a stone of the Strays ; lie that had lost or found anything was to repair thither ; 
he that had found was to stand there to produce it, he that had lost, to tell the signs 
and marks ;... .. the Jew is bound to restore for the satisfying of the name 
of the Lord" (Tser or Hamor), so that it is here plain that we have a stone acting the 
part of Jupiter Fcederis, a "righteous Lord," and Presence, before which all are 
bound to act truthfully and honestly. It was probably a remnant of a Lingam or 
Pillar, such as the good and pious King Josiah " stood beside " and made his compact 
(2 Kings xxiii. 3), as I am of opinion the present fragment of the " black stone " in the 
wall of Al-Ka-aba of Meka is, see my illustration under "-Arabian faiths." 

The Jewish temple idea to the present moment is still that of a fetish or magical 
idol which no unbeliever can understand .or should be permitted to behold. Up to 
the time when the Rabbim were expelled their city, they insisted on the constant and 
miraculous interpositions and even sayings of their Jhavh. Thus " flesh they said could 
not corrupt on his altar, and any woman smelling the offerings could not miscarry ; 
rain could not put out the everlasting fire, nor the wind hinder the smoke from rising 
towards heaven as of old like a pillar." This is a purely Sivaik idea ; it was Siva s 
mode of proving himself to Vishnoo. All Jerusalem is so holy (on account of " this 
rock, my Elohim," 2 Sam. xxii. 3 Ps. xviii. 2), that " nothing that has happened to 
it from the time of Solomon is capable of profaning it," and so on, see Calmet, Art. 
Jerusalem. Can anything be more superstitious? Not Benares, nor any place or people I 
know of in the East, seems to have a more degraded idea of the Almighty Spirit which 
we call God, than the utterers and believers of such nonsense. No respectable Hindoo 
of ordinary education would so talk or think. 

In regard to the shape which the Eduthmay have taken, I have shown in Fig. 
76 the ordinary lingam as standing on the top of the ark " the mercy seat " as we 

have it translated, which is, however, rather too 
grand a phrase, and not at all so appropriate 
as the proper translation, which signifies the 
place of sacrifice, or the place for making offer 
ings, or the propitiatory place " the />.a<rr^w 
of the LXX., in fact, the Argha. The step adjoin 
ing this is where we see worshippers come and 
deposit their rice, flowers, &c. I am half inclined 
to think, however, that the Eduth of Moses was 
feminine, as he seemed to prefer the Arkite 
symbolism to that of the Bull or Aarouic Calf or 
Cone ; and if so, this Egyptian ark an ordinary 
one, such as we see in Kitto s Pictorial Bible at 


Exodus xxv. and in many other books might possibly be what Moses would adopt. 
Whether male or female, of course when travelling it was shut up inside the ark, 

Phallic Serpent and Worship. 


together with all the other articles of the cult, as the phallic rod, almond sprigs, 
two stones, &c. Nor would the Ecluth on all occasions be shown to the public, for 
we read that it was usually behind a veil, see Ex. xxvii. 21, and elsewhere. 

The vase in Fig. 72 represents female nature Isis or Ishtar, which priests are here 
seen carrying, for all people to adore. Its cover is Osiris or Asher, the Ram of the vernal 
year ; at the door sits Apis or Siva s representative, the Nanda or Bull, or it may be 
the tiger of similar salacious signification ; on this chest we see also all the symbols of 
creation and fertility; the head bending over the baskets or corn-sheaf-looking objects 
being, I believe, the Lotus, though it is customary to call them feathers, &c. Of 
course wandering Arabs encamped, about 1500 B.C., under the shadow of Mount 
Sinai, and led by a Midianite Shek, even though he might be learned in some 
Egyptian matters were n.ot likely to have had anything so perfect as the subject of this 
illustration, not to say these wonderfully developed ideas we read in Exodus xxv. and 
onwards. Being, however, brickmakers, and possibly artizans in Egypt for many years 
(not 400 or 430 but "four generations" or some 120 years), we may grant that they 
saw the imagery of the Egyptian faith, and would try to make the best Adam or 
Adama their circumstances admitted of. Moses, we know, gave very special orders 
regarding a pot or vase of manna being laid up before the Eduth (probably in imita 
tion of this Egyptian vase), so perhaps he in this way favoured both sects (the 
Lingam and Yonites) of the tribes, for a vase with bread in it is a veritable God of 
bread Betli-leJiem or Ephrata, a vase being a real " house " Lady or " Distri 
buter of Bread," thus we have our Lord the Eduth and our Lady, the Eduth Siva 
and Sivi. 

Fig. 73. TI 

I give here another well-known Egyptian ark, that usually called " the Ark of 
Phile" in which we see two figures, representing in the language of Egyptian hierogly- 

1 92 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

phics, simply Man; both are seated in cups and surrounded by "cherubim and seraphim," 
winged deities, representing the Sun, and therefore fertility ; the upper one has a 
liugam overhead ; the whole shrine is encircled by a band proceeding from two 
lotuses. The steersman of this sacred boat is Passion, or the Serpent, and on stem and 
stern sits the Solar Virgin, while a phallo-serpent deity worships in front, and over 
all is extended the beneficent wings of " the Sun of Eighteousness," out of whose 
orb spring two upreared serpents. On one side of this Ark of Phile, I have shown 
for clearness the real figure of the inner deity D., as he sits in his cup or argha, the 
personation of Siva, the Argha-Nat; it is so minute inside. his ark as otherwise likely 
to escape notice. Mark the phallic-fire which precedes the Boat of Life. 

All these figures of men are shown, as sitticg with knees doubled up in a very 
peculiar position, thoroughly Asiatic, but thoroughly symbolic, and not without pre 
cedent in regard to double-entendres and banter, of which this faith is most prolific. 
I have therefore shown on the left hand of the ark, the two hieroglyphs for man and 
woman (M. and W.), which makes my surmise still more probable, the woman being 
shown as so very different from the man, the knees down, and holding the holy cross, 
the symbol of life and the faith. In some drawings the symbols spring from the 
centre of the figures. Now Asiatics, male and female, are not so diverse in sitting. 
In fact, women are to be seen more commonly than men sitting in the position here as 
signed to man only, so I can see no reason, on the ground of the ordinary attitudes of the 
sexes, for this extraordinary and marked difference in this single respect. In the 
hieroglyphic man also, we are invited to see other Phallic ideas the Tau T. ancient 
cross, and Crux Ansata ; thus the arms are spread out as far as is generally practicable, 
so that the head, which is always the Sun, forms the yoni or circular handle-idea of the 
(J. Ansata. An ark with any images, but especially with such as we see here and in 
the previous illustration, is a most complete and potent symbol ; it was once the com 
monest in all faiths, for it is the boat by which all creation sails into life. In Egypt 
it was the Tebah ran, the same name as this people gave to their capital, and which 
the wise LXX translators gave to Noah s ark, as already noted. The widely different 
purpose of the Sinaitic ark made them call it an Aron jn, which I believe may mean 
merely a Sun or Phallus-box Ar and On tending towards this signification. Even if 
. we hold to Parkhurst s first meaning of Ar is, the river or flood, we have a name of Siva, 
the On or Sun of the flood or female energy, and this was Jah s box, who was the Sun 
our righteousness. All the Arabs probably called such Arks by this name, and they 
usually had articles in them very like, if not quite an ! A,do?ov. We read that the 
" Egyptians placed the truncated symbol of the generative or productive principle im 
manent in nature " on the lid-cover with cherubim wings, so that these arks or boxes 
most important articles with nomads really formed the pedestal for the Aidoion, 
or Lingam, as well as a safe place for its conveyance when on tour. All these tribes 
dealt largely in necromancy and divination of all kinds, and these chests had therefore 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


to carry the divining rods, wands, almond sprigs, " stocks " and staffs, Teraphim and 
Seraphim, Urim and Thumim, 1 and Ephods, and, in short, all the paraphernalia of 
wild superstitious races, who were just emerging from the grossest fetish- worship. 

Mr Rawlinson in his 3d Vol. of " Ancient Monarchies " (p. 130 et seq.}, shows us 
that the rods of Aaron and Moses had their exact counterpart in those of Egypt, in 
in the magic-working willow-wand of the Skyths, and in the Tamarisk rods of the 
Magi and present Tatars. Hosea tells us of the stocks and staffs of Jhaveh s " holy 
people," and Ezekiel of "the branch" which they put to their nose (viii. 17). Joshua 
was chosen " according to the judgment " of such articles as were contained in the 
holy chest, and this was called com 
ing " before Jehovah." 

Samuel and Saul greatly revered 
conical hills and stone circles, and Saul 
was careful to seek his Deity near to 
stones, the conical Carmel, or gilgals. 
David was more partial to the Ephod 
or Sakti emblem, as arks and such like ; 
see 1 Sam. xxiii. and xxx. Stone circles 
like these, however, which Dr Inman 
gives from India and Ireland under 
the word Beth-gader or "Enclosed 
Temple," or circle of stones, so fami 
liar to us all over the world, were the 
undoubted holy shrines of all these 
tribes down to a very modern date. 

The severely orthodox and pious 

Fig. 74. nvizEL MOOR, IRELAND. 

annotators of 

Bagster s 


Fig. 75. DEKAN W. IXDIA. 

liensive Bible" confess that the grand ark, tabernacle, and tent, so magnificently described 
in various chapters from xxv. to end of Exodus, had an exact counterpart in the Phenician 
temples to Herakles, which is as we should expect; the rude Highlanders would, of course, 
copy as they best could, the structures of the lowland and more advanced commercial sea 
board people. Bagster s marginal reading against Ex. xl. is that the Pheuician temple to 
Herakles at Cadiz (Cedes) was a complete imitation of the Jewish temple and its ser 
vices. Plan, structure, rites, and customs were all here just as the wandering Edume- 
ans had afterwards heard, and no doubt copied ; the contrary is the orthodox inversion 
of history, and oversight of the fact, that no such tabernacle or ark of gold, &c., was 
constructed as related in Exodus, but possibly a simple ark-box as the Deuteronomist 
tells us in x. 1 to 5, and as Bishop Colenso thoroughly establishes in his lecture No. 
XVII. on " Pentateuch and Moabite stone." 

1 Ur or Or is light, and in Sanskrit Turaas is darkness, but see f<age 29 ante. 
I. 2B 

i 9 4 

Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

We must remember that besides all the Phallic lore, and divination or fortune-telling 
apparatus of the Jewish tribes, their "holy of holies " had also a most brutal shamble. 
or altar, where cattle and sheep were daily killed and hacked to pieces, and roasted ; at 

least one bullock and lamb every morning, 
and a lamb in the evening. This was 
the ordinary prescribed ration of the deity, 
together with a lighter repast to flavour the 
same, as twelve flour cakes, olive-oil, salt 
and spice. To- regale his sense of smell, 
which is often particularly dwelt on as 
most pleasing to him, delighting as he did in 
burning fat and blood, there stood near by 
an " altar of incense," which Aaron AVUS 
ordered to burn when he dressed the lamps, 
and at even when he lighted them, for 

Fig. 76. THE JET 


there it was that Jehovah was to give the children of Israel to know that he was their 
God through all their generations, and ever dwelt in their midst a matter which 
seems to have been overlooked for some thousands of years. 

In order to help my readers fully to realise the whole horrid scene, I give here a 
sketch of its principal features ; the ark and cherubim forms our Eduth, manna, 
almond-sprig, and poor bleeding ox, whose flesh and fat is soon to rise " as a sweet 
savor," and burn and crackle on and around the bloody shamble. Without drawings 
and full details, I fear Christians will fail, as for many long years I did, to realise the 
barbarous scenes which this people daily gloated over. It requires colour and an 
artist to do " the holy place " justice. 

Yet this people were not worse than others in the early times we are speaking of, 
but neither were they better. I doubt not but that where this bullock -lies, many " a 
first-born " had been cherim or devoted to their fierce deity ; and I fear we must say 
that such was not unknown down to the fourth or third century B.C., as other parts 
of this work will establish. In their worship, rites, and paraphernalia, then, the 
Jewish people were only like their great neighbours the Phenicians, though un 
doubtedly a little less advanced, partaking more of the Arabian, Hivite, and Perizite 
tribes. In those days all peoples believed in divination by cups, rods, serpents, hands, 
fire, smoke, stars, &c., also in the sanctity of particular spots, as rocks, hill-tops such as 
Hermon, Mount Zion, and Moriah or Meroo, which two last were the Jewish Pal-a-tine 
and Caput-oline. Their early Judo-Egyptian patriarch of the shrine of ON, called the 
"Increaser" or "Supplier" (loseph), who gave them bread in their extremity, is 
described as prominently leading the way in divination arts. He began in his youth by 
foretelling dreams, and is described as owing all his wealth and position, and as saving the 
lives of all his tribe, and therefore enabling their deity to keep his covenant with Abram, 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 195 

solely through divination or the so-called interpretation of dreams. The cup or Egyptian 
vase that same Ismian idea which we see on the Ark in page 190, Fig. 72, and very 
often in the sky over Christ the rising " Son " (Sun), and surrounded by the Thorny or 
Tri-sool god (page 202), was, said Joseph s servants who pursued the brothers (Gen. xliv.), 
" My Lord s divining cup." All Shemites divine by cups, and later legend says, 
that this cup which the ancient Persians called Jo/mi Jamsheed, or the cup of Jam- 
sliced (a phallic term), was found afterwards filled with the elixir of immortality, when 
digging to lay the foundation of Persepolis : the margin of Bag ster s Comprehensive 
.Bible, from which I take the above, adds, that the Mahommedan patriarchs practise 
divination by cups. Most of us have heard of the Poculum Boni Demonis of the Bacch 
analian orgies, which was contained in the Bacchic Ark or Basket, just as a similarly 
holy and highly ornamented cup is kept adjoining, or on the Christian altar. The Bacchic 
cup was passed round to the votaries and called "the cup of the good demon," and was 
adorned on rim and cover with serpents and the Bacchic head, or, as used to be 
thought, Medusa s head, because it was encircled with serpents. This cup is held to 
have been dedicated to the Tria Numina, one of whom was Agatho- Demon. It was 
one of those mysteries, afofaxov titya *; pvsTJjpun,, which all ancient peoples kept in 
their holy of holies or sacred ark, and for which, says the Kev. J. Bathurst Deane, 
"Every nation upon earth had some holy receptacle " (p. 193), and made as sym 
bolic as possible of their meaning, viz., of the dread mysteries of creation and gestation. 
Did not the wise Minerva hide the great Erekthonius, fourth king of Athens, in 
an ark, and warn Kekrops never to open the box ? And where could be have 
found a more appropriate place for such a man-god ? for we are told "his extremities 
(?) were all serpents." The Greek tales remind us of similar and probably much 
older ones, which we may safely say came from the east ; Greeks taught Eomans, and 
Romans and Greeks taught Europe and later Christians, and so Europe learned to 
cling fondly to such fables, and to arkite, phallic and solar mysteries. 

That there should be no mistake as to Joseph divining l>y serpents, the two 
orthodox savants, Faber and Deane, accurately consider the literal meaning of the Old 
Testament words "divining" and "divination" and show us that BTU Nachash, is properly 
translated as o/w{, and really signifies divination by serpents. Mr Faber adds, " Gen. 
xliv. 15, implies the worship of Nachash" and "therefore," justly says the Kev. J. B. 
Deane (p. 153), "I argue that the serpent was an object of veneration in Egypt before 
the Exodus," meaning the fifteenth century, when the reverend gentleman imagined that 
some three millions or more of Jews came out of Goshen. Such divination, which we 
may call Ophiomancy, was a very important matter in early days. Hebrews, Arabs, 
and Greeks, alike denoted this by a word signifying serpent, as Nachash, Alilat, and 
oluovifyddai from oiuvts a snake ; this shows us that the Arab goddess Alilat was of Ser 
pent root. We may remember the case of the serpent which climbed a tree and ate 
up the sparrows, and was turned into a stone before the confederate chiefs of Troy at 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands, 

Aulis in Beotia under the divination of " Calchas" (Kal-ka ?) a priest of the ophite god 
or Apollo. 1 Serpents often changed to stones, and occasionally to vases. 

We have a recorded case in Milner s Church History, of Christians turning a 
golden serpent into a vase which also seems to connect the worship of serpents, and 
vases or arks, with the far older Tree-faith. . It appears from this ecclesiastical history 
(III. 113) that a Christian bishop, Benevento, found the Lombardians in 688 worshipping 
a tree on which was a golden serpent and a wild beast s skin, which thus completely 
identified the cult with the Asiatic Maha-Deva and Hercules. The pious bishop at 
once cut down the tree and melted the serpent into a sacramental chalice, by no 
means, however, thus effacing the old faiths or ideas ; for serpents, cups, horns, vases, 
arks, and chalices, especially sacrificial, ones, have on eastern altars precisely the 
same religious signification ; and however angry the Lombardians may have been in 
the first instance, they had reason here for being content in seeing their serpent in the 
cup under a cross, and at an eastern window. An ark or sacred boat or cist, is still 

maintained in the Roman Church under the name of the 
Pyx, in which they say is the body of the Saviour. Arka, 
in Sanskrit, signifies "a ray of light," and it is also one 
of the names of Osiris the sun-god. Argheia was the 
name of the celestial mother Juno (lOna) and of many 
great persons. Juno was the wife of Argos the builder of 
Argos, a capital of great serpent-worshippers. I give 
in Fig. 77, adjoining, the ordinary Pyx case, which it 
will be seen is highly emblematic, and would equally suit, 
in section, the summit of a Christian church spire, or iii 
plan, the usual Christian altar; see the orthodox church 
plan, further on. As a spire, it is a very good 
approach to the obelisk which is " the ray of light," as 
this phallic cross is in mythology, and which the little 
burning torch at the summit of all obelisks (see Fig. 52, 
page 133) is held to symbolise. In the upper centre of this 
figure I also show the other Roman-Catholic vessel, the 
Monstrance, as this is found depicted in our popular 
Webster s English Dictionary. In this decidedly Phallic-looking article, is the sym 
bolic " Body O/"THE LORD" kept; and by "phallic article" throughout this work, my 
readers are requested not. to understand me as only speaking of a male object. 

Thus then we have even here in our own century and in the centre of all civilisa 
tion, the old. faiths repeated. True, the symbol of " the Lord " is not now a lingam, as 
in all Jewish and ancient arks, because it is now the " Sun of Righteousness ; " neither 
Flesh, Basar IBQ, only Dough, though this also is, we are told, " the GOSPEL " or " good 

1 Deane, quoting others, 228. 


Serpent and Phallic IVorship. 1 97 

tidings " neao (Isa. xl. 9 ; 2 Sam. xviii. 26), "which was made Basar" Flesh 01 Phallus, 
" for us ; " for the <tdp% sarx, or flesh, of John i. 14, is in the Bible, the Greek equivalent 
for the word anciently used for the Phallus ; so we very plainly see that in the times 
when the Old and New Testaments were translated, there was but a very hazy 
distinction between " the Logos," Phallus, Flesh, " Gospel," and " Sun of Righteous 
ness," or the words Basar, Zakar -or, M chaser, and such like. 1 Strange that educated 
men cannot even now free themselves from such gross fleshy fetishes, embracing the 
low animal ideas of phalluses, crosses, arks, or wombs, &c. Looking back over only 
the last two thousand years, we see the painful fact, that we have not even in Europe, 
freed ourselves at the rate of one little fetish in three hundred years. Thus Spencer, 
in his L. Heb. p. 145, names seven fetishes as the usual accompaniments of every ark. 
His words are, " there were laid up usually in arks, Indian Wheat Pyramids, pieces of 
dressed wool, cakes or wafers, made of oil and honey, for use in sacrifice (our Roman 
Catholic fetish, and studded with bosses like navels ), a serpent, Persian apples, and a 
Thyrsus;" so that here we have seven fetishes, the Eduth or Phallus, manna as the 
wheat bread, cakes or wafers for " Showbread;" Apples, very fit representatives of the 
first god-given stones (see Inman s Ancient Faiths), and pyramids and bosses or little 
lingams and omphi. This result of the orthodox and learned Spencer s investigations 
as to the use and contents of arks ought surely to convince the most bigoted, and 
also show them why altars, with bread and wine, a Pyx and Monstrance, a Lord, a 
Cross, with candles and fleurs-de-lis, have come down to us. Mr C. W. King in his 
History of Gnosticism, tells us that in Egypt s most sacred ark that of Isis, " was 
carried the distinctive marks of both sexes, the Lingam and Yoni of the modern 
Hindoos," whilst Spencer shows us that the lingam was that of the Sun, saying (De 
Leg. Heb. 45): " In this mystic ark was only deposited the privy member of Bacchus," 
for looking on which quite as severe punishment was awarded, as that which befel 
Ham for gazing on his patriarchal " stock " (Gen. ix. 22) ; but I am digressing from 
the modern Christian Ark, the Catholic Monstrance, or Protestant Altar. 

These carry metaphorically "the body and blood of the Lord," and are undoubted 
remnants of the gross superstitions of far back ages ; Ark, Altar, and Pyx are of course 
the same in the eyes of the pious searcher out of the roots of faiths. The symbolism is 

1 From ParJchurst and Furst we learn that ") 2 appears from the word Basar being used in Gen. 
Basar is that which spreads itself out, swells out, as xvii. 11; -Exodus xxviii. 42; Ezek. xvi. 20, 
Flesh, &c., is carnal, utters sounds, gives good (that xxiii. 20. " The fleshy object " might be that of 
is intelligence), and hence is used for the Phallus men, beasts, birds, fishes, or reptiles (Parkhurst), 
and gospel, but this last rather as the sing. masc. and the New Testament translators considered 
part. "15JQO mebaser, as in 2 Sam. xviii. 26, and in therefore that the Greek equivalent to be used for 
the form mBGD mebasereth, in Isa. xl. 9, where it "TB>1 in John i. 14 was odp%. The word Zakar 
signifies. a messenger of good tidings; we are justi- 13T then, is that used for a male object, lite- 
tied therefore in saying that the new LOGOS has rally "sword" "pin" or "piercer," see Gen. i. 
taken the place of the old god "IE>2, who was cir- 27, but Zakar has also the idea of Sun and Fire 
cumcised, and is " the secret parts " as very clearly (Ancient faiths, i. 303). 

198 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Alan in all Lands. 

indeed boldly, yet quite safely, I mean safe from discovery, set before Europe, for not 
one European in ten thousand understands it, and I include almost every one of the 
innocent leaders of the worship. Of course Hindoos of ordinary education would very 
soon see through it all. 

The Lord here is of course the Lord -of Hosts, or " Sun of Righteousness," and 
here as usual the symbolism is reduplicated. He is, we observe, in the TOni, or this 
Yoni-shaped Monstrance, but he is also the Sun or " Wafer," or Cross in Luna, here 
shown in crescent form beneath. Unmistakeable fleurs-de-lis complete the side gar 
niture of this very quaint shrine, whilst over all is a Linga-in-Yoni. Below the Pyx 
I show the Hindoo idea of the same, Siva being here also the Solar orb over the Delta 
of Life. The fish or mitre ideas are shown, on each side of the monstrance, and the ordi 
nary Gothic and very lOni like window which usually adorns such shrines, is given on 
the right of the Pyx. The "cornucopia" or "horse of plenty," also so common, with 
the sacred trifoil leaf, Rose and Thistle, are here given as very much in keeping and 
abounding in most of the ecclesiastical sculpturings and architecture of these islands. 

All such Pyx and Ilostie-carrying vessels, then, are Arks ; and arks and boats 
were synonymous terms in Phallic lore. Lucian describes a procession of Isis in which 
the chief Priests carry a brilliant boat-shaped lamp of gold " from an aperture in the 
middle " of which a great flame rises ; another " bore a palm tree ; " another " carried 
a golden vessel like a Mamma, from which he poured milk on the ground," a very speak 
ing symbol, and always denoting Arkite and Ceres- worship. Notice also the lamp with 
Jiame passing through it, for we shall see that lamps are still important in Roman 
Catholic processions. " Another," says Lucian " carried a Chest containing the secret 
utensils of this stupendous mystery;" yet elsewhere he adds that "the insignia of the 
Mighty God were exposed to full view," wiiich corresponds to what Aristophanes 
writes : "0 Xanthias, you must hold the Phallus erect behind the basket (Ark) bearer, 
and I following will sing the Phallic hymn" (Inman s Ancient Faiths I.. 288) ; so that 
probably Lucian s ark w r ith centre fire-pillar, as representing boat and mast, must be 
here considered as exhibiting all the necessary insignia. It is explained by those try 
ing to account for such an indecent faith that this symbol was exhibited by " a grateful 
people," because it replaced by a model what had been lost of their great god, for Isis 
recovered all save one part of her lord ;. more regarding this will appear further on. 

The Jews had similar processions and exhibitions as Amos regrets (v. 26) in the 
matter of Molok and Kiun, which last signifies simply the Sakti of a god. The accom 
paniments of the Jewish, ark, whether the real one of Deut. x. 1, or fanciful one of 
Exodus, were even more symbolic than the vessels and paraphernalia of the Catholic altar 
which takes -its place. Arks and altars require lamps, candles, and huge candlesticks, 
poles, and banners ; and in times of old, serpents ; and both must be " ever in the presence 
of their Lord," which the east window represents, as we do not now see him face to face 
as the ancient Stonehenge worshipper did. No priest of ark or altar would have ever 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


presumed to put the ark or altar away from the Lord s presence" the orient window, 
any more than he would presume to separate husband and wife ; and so inseparable are 
these the ark and her Lord, that as the faith advanced in literature, and to a somewhat 
purer phase, we find that the presence of the ark is held to be the presence of the 
Lord himself, and its oracle may be trusted to be his, just as we often accept the wife oi 
lier sayings for those of her husband. Nevertheless, we observe in several lOnik shrines 
of Syria and Mesopotamia, as that of Juno at Emesa and elsewhere, that none presumed to 
sit on Sol s throne ; it is ever vacant, none daring even to put an image in that almighty 
one s vacant chair, be it one of his female energies or of himself as great Serapis or Siva , 
for Sar-Apis, or Soorya (Sun) and Apis the rider of the Bull, is a true name for him. 
The pious and orthodox but honest Kitto tells us, though regretfully of course, in his 
Pictorial Bible, (I. 240) that biblical scholars started with pain when the " eminently 
learned Spencer, in his great work De Legibus Ilebrceorum " followed by many others, 
showed that the poor wandering Edumeans had only badly copied the great faiths 
around them. Kitto says justly that Christians "appear to be utterly unconscious of 
the new sources of evidence which have been opened within the present century, and 
by which the state of the question as to the religion, rites and ark, &c., of the Jews 
and those of their neighbours, have been entirely altered from one of argument to one of 
fact ; " so that it is now clear 1 " beyond all further dispute, that very important similar 
ities do exist, and which can be denied by no one, without betraying great ignorance of 
plain matters of fact." This is pretty well for a very orthodox D.D. of the English 
Church to admit, and highly orthodox churchmen to publish, but it is honest so far as 
it goes, which is not of course nearly far enough ; still it is a great step for churchmen to 
face " facts," and if they would only do this towards all faiths, and leave the results in 
the hands of God, we should soon agree with each other. 
With reference to those quaint little figures of man 
and woman in my illustration, No. 73, p. 191, I wish to 
draw attention to what I consider is their reappearance 
in the rays of the Egyptian Sun a very natural place 
for them, as well as for Cruces Ansatce, especially during 
the time of Linga and Yoni- worship, which we have in 
this Fig. 78 from Mr Samuel Sharpe s very excellent 
book on Egyptian Mythology. Here the Sun, upheld 
by serpents on each side, is shedding hand-like rays 
which appear to me the ark deity of my Fig. 73 re 
versed; and here we have man and woman engaged 
in worshipping the procreative symbols, or as we 
say in India " at Lingapooja " the Supreme Sacrifice of creation, in the 
immediate and active presence of the Sun, for the serpent and hand denote the 

1 Kitto s Pic. Bible, I., Ex. xxv. 



Rivers of Life, or .FaitJis of Alan in all Lands. 

activity of Sivas nature, which the Lotuses crowd upwards to receive. The sacred 
vase (woman) is here also being presented to the Lingam and to the holder of the Crux 
Ansata. The ray of the Sun is the Darter, Enlivener, Spiritualise!, or Life-Giver and 
so are hands, as well as all goads, thorns, or horns, whether those of Isis, Dionysus, or 
Moses. Horus as " the vault of heaven" is often seen stretching forth his hands to 
quicken all life, and the ends of Isis horns were also often 
shaped with hands if her energies were meant to be con 
sidered in activity. In this other illustration from Mr 
Sharpe s volume we see, I believe, a king worshipping 
Isis or the Yoni, as the sealed and embattled tower, with orbs 
of eternal vision over it, and the Sun shedding forth his 
hand-like rays from which Cruccs Ansatce are issuing to 
fly over the ark and its worshipper ; man, is here 
asking to be blessed with all the good that he desires no 
doubt progeny. Mr Sharpe holds this to be a King Adon- 
Ea-Bakan worshipping the Sun, but it is as clearly Yoni- 
worship, as the last figure is Lingam ; the woman being 
there the vase-holder, the figure abounds with lotuses 
presented to a manly quiescent person, whom Mr Sharpe 
takes to be a Thebau king worshipping Amon-Ra. He evidently sits before his symbol 
the Lingam, on the tall palm- like stem, to receive the adoration of women, as Krishna 
Maha Rajas still do at the shrines of the eastern Apollo. 

It of course took time, probably a vast period of time, for the grand arks of Egypt 
and Solomon to develope from the little " chest " or Aron, which wanderers like those of 
Sinai constructed for their gods and divining tools, and how much longer to grow into 
little dark adyta, and then buildings worthy of the name of temples ; for I conceive 
there is no doubt, that as from the Nomad s hut we have risen to palatial domi 
ciles, so ecclesiastically, from the grove we rose to arks or itinerating sanctuaries, then 
to fixed abodes or natural caverns, and so on, by little and little, till our gorgeous 
cathedrals are the outcome of the cultivated religious idea. The Greek borrowed his 
faith and learning, if not his very blood, from his great predecessors of whom we yet 
know so little the Phenicians ; and we first hear of Greeks bowing down in the pre 
sence of sacred groves, and then claiming reverence for their sacred stories, regarding 
the Beotian boat or Argos, and afterwards busying themselves about arks and 
Argonats, with which the people s whole early history is so intimately mixed up ; 
Beotia means " the country of the Boat." Arkites have in all nations contributed 
a very important part to the world s history, and amongst them Jews may indeed 
be proud to appear, -not only in ancient days, but at present, and to class their 
faith with the modified Arkite ones which Europe has for the most part adopted. 
Her " Queen of heaven, . and mother of her god, is the " Immaculate sailing Venus, 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 

20 1 

or Kubele " MARIA DE NAVICELLA," she of yon crescent-shaped boat of Venus, whom 
we may see in the British Museum as hung, and very properly so, on THE TREE OF LIFE ?I 
or " Life-giving Tree," a common position for Bells, and metaphorically for Venuses. 

I must then ask my readers to dismiss altogether from their minds the later idea 
that Egyptian, Jewish or Greek arks or boats were for looks, codes of laws, or 
" Testimonies," as we now understand this last word, and to see in Arks only sanc 
tuaries -for quite natural elements, or the elements required for that faith which 
we now veil under the cognomen of " Nature- Worship." As Jews advanced 
in knowledge and enlightenment, they of course saw that the idea of their early 
Eduth or Gehduth (so pronounced if the Oin is Ghain), was a very crude and 
lowering one, which falsified the name they later sought to acquire, of having 
all along been good monotheists ; and so a real " Testimony," or Law of their Jhavh 
was no doubt placed in their ark, but not, I think, prior to the days of Josiah, when 
Helkiah (whose son was probably the Deuteronomist Jeremiah) suddenly pronounced 
they " had found a book." There is certainly not a shadow of proof that such a 
" testimony " was known until the tribes were tolerably settled in Canaan, as Bishop 
Colenso makes indubitably cle<ir,and as I shall enlarge 011 under Jewish faiths. It is very 
unlikely, also, that David would have danced naked before any literary production, 
but it has always been the custom at certain solar periods to do this before the Linga- 
in-Yoni, or an ark with a " Jaliveh Nissi" Dionysus, or Osiris in it. I here give such 
an ark, well known as the shrine of Amon or Osiris, in which the Adama, Mast, or 
Deity, is shown more presentable than I suspect the original authorises. It is often 

called the Ismian Car, or Omphe, and the Ark of the Sun, Passion, or Fertility. At 
all great solar phases or fetes, this ark boat itinerated the towns and villages of Egypt, 
when love and matrimony were more especially the themes of the people. It was always 
carried on the shoulders of Nudes, 2 and to touch it, not to say look into it, would not 
only have caused some awful affliction to the offender, as in the case of the Emerods, 

1 See details note p. 9. Idolomania 2 The symbol in rear is the Glans, see Figs. 87, 88 following. 

i. 2 c 


Rivers of Life, or Fait/is of Alan in all Lands. 


and the offending Bethshemites (1 Sam. vi.), but been undoubtedly visited with death, 
as in the case of Uzziah (2 Sam. vi.). 

\Yc have the same Arkite ideas in the cradles of all gods. Moses, in his basket 
floating on the w T aters (Salacia) is such an idea, and so 
is this lovely Aphrodite in her shell, with Love 
or Cupid the only privileged individual peering into 
it. This is the ancient and original, though disowned, 
Maria de Navicella, in the holy naus, and a very femi 
nine and salacious idea it is, which has been repeated 
again and again in all the religions of man. In Christi 
anity we generally have it as a male idea, as in Fig. 82, 
where Horus lies in a cradle (emblem of the Yoni) and is 
called the "Ilostie Sainte," or Jesus the Sunof Right 
eousness. Notice that he springs from the Cross or Tree of Life, and holds, to his breast, 
another cross on a solar disc, as does Minerva the Gorgon figure of the Child or Passion, 

^ which denotes eternity or continuity, and as the Chinese 
Queen of Heaven holds the Lingam (see fig. 38, p. 116), 
which is too gross, however, for Europe, though the 
meaning is the same in both cases, and equally clear to 
the initiated. If the Chinese Maya or Mary, rests 
upon a veritable tempestuous sea of passion, so does 
Horns Cross, and Minerva s Gorgon fit name for our 
oft-disordered minds and breasts, the seat of those 
natural emotions, which the mind or soul has such 
trouble in controlling. The Virgin mother seems here 
at no pains to restrain hers ; for see, she presents to the 
rising Horus or Phallic Cross-in- Yoni, just as we daily 
see Indian maids and mothers do, her whole heart Ain 
orAit, that burning seat of heat and love in the estima 
tion of all faiths and peoples ; and mark that she has 
carefully entwined around it the thorny irritator, ac 
knowledging in it a symbol of divinity, and rejoicing in the bleeding heart as 
symbol of her love-God, who pierces and thrills her with varied emotions : in all 
nations, but especially in Southern Europe and India, have women treasured such 
symbols and devices as thorns, hearts, fascinse, &c. In India, the Ankoos, or goad and 
guider of the elephant, is one of many favorites : it is a spear-headed shaft, with a 
crook or cr-ozier springing from the base of the spear. Gen. Cunningham, in his 
Archeological Survey Report of India for 1873-74, tells us that " the Ankoos is the 
favorite ornament " l on the elaborate sculptures of even the Boodhist ladies, at the 
1 See Proc : As : Soc. Beng : May 1874. Bharahut is nine miles S.E. of Satna Railway Station. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 203 

latest discovered shrine Bharafiut ; that it " is placed at intervals in the long necklace* 
of the ladies. Lingams, Ankooses, and such like, are to be found on the arms or necks of 
most gently brought-up Hindoo children, and we see it on the state-collar of the Asyriau 
kings. The Ankoos, like the Serpent, sometimes denotes a Basileus, as well as the faith 
of the wearer, just as does the priapic cap or helmet of Mars, and Mitre of Dionysus and 
ancient Bishops. We must not here overlook the Queen of Heaven in the Sky, from 
whence our baby-boy really sprang, though through an earthly maid. She is here the Cup 
or Chalice pouring down riches on her child, as Ceres often does upon the thirsty 
earth. At times she is the Chalice d Amertume, and like the heart, surrounded 
by her Lord the king or crown of thorns ; but the Aureole of refulgent light pro 
ceeding from Apollo s cradle is here dimming all around it, and the Cup and its own 
nimbus is sinking into mere lunar glory, of which it is the almost universally accepted 
symbol. It is surpassingly strange that the designers of this beautiful picture, of which 
my woodcut merely pretends to give the prominent outlines, were in all probability 
entirely ignorant of the old, old truths which are here pourtrayed ; for the picture, even 
as we may pick it up in any Roman Catholic book-shop, is one of great beauty, and 
when worked up hi color with artistic skill as it has been a thousand times, and 
will no doubt ever continue to be is artistically, mythologically, and as many of 
our brethren would add, religiously grand. It is an idea the Churches are never 
tired of elaborating, and probably never will be. But a word more regarding holy or 
sacramental cups, chalices, bowls, or vases, and from the learned and orthodox Christian 
writer of Idolomania rather than myself. At pages 39, 40 he says : "Whatever has 
the property of receiving, containing, and producing (the adhara sakti, or literally the 
Mouth-power of the Sanskrit) is symbolical throughout Asia (aye the world) of the 

female nature hence cups, chalices, vases, helmets, and hollow things in general, 

are found with interpreting devices, upon coins. In the Doorgapooja (worship of the 
earth-goddess), the sacred chalice is marked with triangles, and a cup or vase is held 
in the hand of the Trimoorti or three-faced, but one God the Hindoo Trinity. When 
the priest of Mithra converted the Haum into the material substance of the invisible 
God (that is, consecrated the elements ), he held the consecrated chalice in his hand, 
and assured the people that whoever should eat of it, would receive new life, because 

he would then be eating the god of life Much the same takes place in the 

Hindoo rite of Agni God of Fire, in his form of Jivani or Lord of Life. In this case 
the Soma is the subject of the priestly conjuration," so that Protestants must appreciate 
at its due worth the mysterious cup, which I fear they fancy may be any cup, and their 
bread be any bread. The Romish Church knows better, and its southern and eastern 
leaders probably better also, the baselessness of that fiction which fancies the bread is 
merely to typify that supper which the poor Gallileans are thought to have partaken 
of for the last time, ere the Sanhedrim pronounced their doom. At page 196 we have 
seen that the Monstrance, in which the holy bread is kept is a .solar circle of white in 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

the crescent moon ; and here I give a larger view of the same, as generally presented to 
" the faithful." There is no mistaking the solar origin of this myth, for here is clearly 
Horus springing from his grassy bed, in the vernal year, surrounded with " ten thousand 

angels," and therefore he was held up to the anxious 
and wistful eyes of his children, whose very life depends 
upon his now dominant sway ; so the Roman Catholic 
priest raises it aloft before the Mystic Cross, and against 
the soft, rich, light of that orient window, and proclaims 
it "L J Hostie de Noel the emblem of eternal life," 
when down sink the adoring multitude on their knees, 
and tinkle go the little bells to add to the adoration, 
and scare away all evil from the hallowed symbol. 
Before this superstition we have long seen, and will long 
continue to see some of the greatest power of reason and 
intellect sink down humbled, incapable, and abashed; but 
do not let us on this account follow the multitude, nor 
those men, though of varied genius and great powers, 
whom we occasionally, nay often, find in all faiths 
meekly kneeling with hierophants and their docile 
rig. as. VF.RXAI. HOUI s. herds 

There is no appearance in these fetes of L IJostie, of any forgetfulness or disrespect 
of Sol. Although a Jewish child the real and Eternal Father is the ostensible 
worship, yet we see the Sun in every corner of the fretted roofs and pictured walls, 
and we notice that only on Sol s holy days this spnbol the Solar wafer " the bread 
of life" is raised aloft towards "the Bread-Giver," and worshipped by multitudes crying, 
" Give us this day our daily bread." Those who know well the rites and ceremonies of 
the present and ancient Catholic Churches, will be better able than I to. point out how 
near these come to the ancient ones which she now ignores throughout Europe and Asia. 

The Church name for the wafer shows exactly how and why the idea of Redemption 
and Atonement arose, for a Ilostia is the Victima or ?epnov, the smoke of whose burning 
gave such pleasure to all ancient gods. 1 We are told that the Jewish Jliavli delighted in 
the smell of burning fat and blood ; but I must not anticipate my chapter on Solar faiths, 
and I trust my readers will forgive this digression, seeing how difficult it is to keep 
;ipart the first five potent roots of the faiths of man ; especially is it difficult to 
avoid bringing in Sun or Serpent as the energetic agents of what would otherwise be 
passionless and emotionless nature. 

As most closely connected, though not identical with Arks, Cradles, the Pyx and 
Monstrance, I must here add a few words to make the " Door of Life " into these 
Sanctuaries viz., the lOni or Yoni quite clear. The cradle with the baby-boy, the 
1 Greek and Roman Antiquities, art. Sacrificium. . 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 205 

lozenge-shaped window with its tinted lights, in which the Virgin and Child stand, is 
to be seen pictured as an object of the intensest adoration in every Catholic Church, 
Salon, and Gallery throughout the world, and not seldom in the sacred place of all 
Faiths. The Earth, as Ge or Terra, as Egyptian Cytnbium and Sanskrit Boomi, is the 
great primitive Yoni or Argha, into which the Sun shines, and so fertilises ; in it is the 
"Lord-Linga" his emblem, and hence, whether "in Yoni" or not, called the Sun-stone. 
Many a day have I stood at early dawn at the door of my tent pitched in a sacred grove, 
and gazed at the little groups of females stealthily emerging from the adjoining half- 
sleeping village, each with a little garland or bunch of sweet flowers, and perhaps costly 
oil, wending their way to that temple in the grove or garden of the God and Goddess 
of creation, and when none were thought to see, accompanying their earnest prayer for 
Pooli-Palam (child-fruit) with a respectful abrasion of a certain part of their person 
on Linga-jee, and a little application of the drippings which are ever trickling from 
the orifice of the Argha. 

The Sanskrit word Yoni is rendered in Greek %5ip og ffd^urrog and ^og which curiously 
enough are masculine nouns ; whilst the Latin words Virga and Mentula, signifying 
the Phallus, are feminine. It is note-worthy that Virgaalso means a scourge" or "whip " 
which urges to duty, and many Phallic deities are therefore shown with whips. 

1 here give the well-known gem discovered by Layard amidst the ruins of Nineveh, 
which is held to be Harpokrates a form of Dionysus sitting on a Lotus, 
adoring the too mundane organ of creation. This same " silent god " is 
really Bacchus, in no inactive capacity, and Cupid often sits thus 
with finger on or before the mouth, when most bent on wickedness. 
The Yoni is everywhere the sign of health, and the driver away of all n g . 84.-wc 
evil, as the Churches of Spain and Ireland still depict this object. At 
Servatos in Spain, " a rude image of a woman shamelessly exhibiting herself stands 
over one side of a door, with an equally conspicuous man on the other, and the same 

has been found in Mexico, Peru, and North America Baubo cured the 

intense grief of Ceres by exposing herself in a strange fashion to the distressed god 
dess ;" see p. 66. of Inman s Symbolism, quoting Arnobius Op. Cit., from which I 
quote the above, almost word for word. The exhibition was a Yoni denuded as is 
customary in this faith, the sight of which consoled Ceres, and enabled her to take 
food. Arabia and Africa still commonly put the. emblems of mares and cows 
over their doors as charms, and in France as late as the 16th century such 
Yonis were used. Europe now contents herself with horse-shoes, and the Barmese 
Boodhists with a lozenge, which, by a strange hallucination or oversight, the 
British Government in annexing Banna selected as the form of their official seal ; 
and hence all British mandates and state papers now go, and have done so for nearly a 
quarter of a century, as well to foreign Potentates as to our own subjects, under this 
free and easy "health-giving charm." As I have used it myself in Government offices- 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

in Banna for many years, I can testify to the fact of our Boodhist officials thoroughly 
understanding it, having observed many a smile and jocose remark passing as the 
young office-hands daily stamped the various documents with "the charm," before pass 
ing them out in the evening. 

Siva is in India called the holder or owner of theBhdga, which is one of the names of 
the Yoni or Bag; hence he is Bhagha-van, or Bhagha-vari, and his consort is Bhaga-vani, 
or shortly, Bhavani. In the Mahomedan "Dahistan," a Persian work of the 1 7th century,} 

a man, who understood well the lore of those very prac 
tical Phallic-worshippers the. Saktis, says that the high 
altars of the Mosks, are Bhagas or Yonis (he might have 
said the same of Christian altars), and the minarets 
Lingas here too, he might have added, corresponding 
to our altar candles. This observant Sakti here accounts 
for what has often puzzled me in Synagogues, Mosks, and 
Masjeeds (places of prayer), viz., the ovicular bulge, always 
given to the back wall, just opposite the raised pulpit. 

Nor is Boodhism free from phallic forms and ideas. In 
this figure 85, which Dr. Inman gives us 2 from the Jour. 
R. As. Socy., xviii. 394, taken from the monastery of Go- 
pach in Nepal, we see a Boodhiswata in the same charmed 
symbol, the mare s shoe, or it may be a cow s or donkey s, 
all or any being sufficient to ward off the evil eye, as well 
in the further Himalayas as in our own " Green Isle." 

This figure 87, also from Layard and Inman, is a com 
panion one to Layard s gem from Nineveh, my No. 84, in which 
we see the Linga and Yoni on the same altar with the reduplica 
tion of a Yoni and palm-tree, and the Sun and Moon above. The 
barred Sistrum explains to us the origin and 
meaning of " the ladder to heaven " which 
so long puzzled us all, and which is made 
doubly clear in this figure 86, from the same 
author, to whom we are all so much indebted. 
Over this " ladder * is a seven-rayed star, 
emblem of virile power, and a very peculiar 
hand at the junction of the two. 

Any generating part of either sex is often, as I have before 
urged, used to signify all the parts, and even both sexes ; and so 
-any characteristic part, especially of a symbolic animal, often 


Fig. 87. WORSHIP OF LI> 



stands for the whole Arbil; and I think Dr Inman may be right in what he states at page 
1 Translated by D. Shea for Or. Ti-ans. Fund., 3 vols., Allan & Co., London.. 2 Symbolism, p. 78. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 207 

100 of his volume on Symbolism, as to the figures somewhat like squares within squares, 
into which the Tortoise s shell is divided, often standing in hieroglyph for the whole Tor 
toise-idea ; and in the same way a portion of a curly fleece of a Ram, standing for the 
whole of that rampagious animal, on which, says Pausanias, " Venus is as often seen 
standing, as on a Tortoise." We are now commonly told that " the Golden 
Fleece" was held to be a euphemism for that which over-shadowed the "Grove," 
and for that in which the " Tree " was buried the Lanugo ; and so Mr. New 
ton in the Appendix assures us that the glans of the Phallus stands for the whole, 
and its shape so different from that of the column is the reason of our constantly 
having the cone, triangle or pyramid as the representation of Priapus. The curious squares 
on the back of the Tortoise may be the cause why labyrinths have been so common 
about holy places, and why we still see in the East at doors of temples and houses 
such quaint-looking labyrinthic figures. They possibly had to do with the coils of the 
Serpent ; surely they were not meant to pourtray those social tanglements which sexual 
matters usually evolve. We see the Tortoise over a closed ark covered with rectangles 
on the glans of that wondrous phallus which Mr. Newton so clearly explains to us at 
page 125 of Dr. Inman s Symbolism, and 
also very cogent reasons for calling a 
phallus a " Sun-Pillar or stone ; " for 
here it is crowned with Suns, whilst all 
round the glans are Arks with solar-like 
summits, Serpents, an excited Cock, &c. 
I give here Dr. Inman s drawing of the 
glans of another Phallus, on which we 
also observe that Suns surround the 
apex, whilst " beneath (says Mr New 
ton) is the horse-shoe-like head-dress of 
Isis, and two altars marked with the 
tortoise-emblem in front. Over both 
rises the erect serpent, and upon one. 
the arrow-headed cuniform cipher or 
dart, both male symbols." The Phallus 
which appears in the British Museum 

. t . . ., Fig. 88. GL 

opposite to this, is a valuable contribu 
tion to the study of the subject, and will well repay scrutiny. Its " Column of Life " is 
formed in all its length two and a half feet by a majestic man armed with a bow and 
two arrows, whose dress is elaborately studded with Yonis and Asyrian " Trees of Life." 
A prominent St. Andrew s Cross is shown over his chest, into the centre of which point 
two Phalli in conjunction with two ovals. Rampant winged lions are seen adoring 
another Sri-Linga on his phallic head-dress, and his triangular arrow-heads are clearly 

208 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

more in keeping with that of a Krishna or Solomon than a Toxophilite. The arrows, 
which are in pairs, remind us that all Temple pillars used to be so too, as also stones 
inside arks (like that of Israel), caves or niches ; and that the ancients held that one 
side of us produced male, and the other female, and inasmuch as one sex could be of no 
use in nature, so neither was one column or stone considered a perfected structure. 

In " Montfaucon," T we have a very true idea of a Phallus, and, from 
the best of all authorities, "du tempe de Minerve d Athene" It is an obeliscal 
column with the glans very distinct, from which, instead of the usual flame, issues a 
child, which all Egyptologists well know was a common symbolism in Egypt. 
On the very rounded head, a half-nude female rests her hand and blandly smiles ; 
whilst another, in a dancing attitude, stands on the other side. In the same volume, 
plate cxx., we also get a rather uncommon Phallus, which was the arms or symbol 
of the Greek town of Prusa or Brusa, situated on the north side of Mount Olympus, 
and which may be Kieros of Solar proclivities. It is a nude female with dishevelled 
hair and raised arms, standing by the side of a conical mountain, which embraces her 
whole figure : at her foot crouches " a marine monster," and the whole may, as 
Montfau9on suspects, be Andromeda, but none the less Siva and Parvati. 

It has been commonly supposed that Phallic faiths are young in Europe in com 
parison with Asia, but we "have lately found, in a bone cave near Venice, a Phallus of 
baked clay, together with a bone needle under a bed of Stalagmite ten feet thick ; 2 
and we have yet to find out whether this is 5000 or 50,000 years old. 

The Israelitish Yoni was of stone or wood, and that which Gideon cut down was so 
large, that it is said he was able to offer a bullock as a burnt sacrifice from the wood 
of it. I can recall to mind somewhat similar huge and highly sexual wooden figures 
often standing by themselves in groves and sometimes desert places in India, which I 
regret to say I have negligently neither sketched, nor inquired into the history of. We 
may observe from the Vulgate and LXX. translations of 2 Chron. xv. 15, 16 and Jud. 
iii. 7, that Asherah, Astarte, and Astaroth are indifferently used as equivalents for the 
" Grove." They all seem to be feminine Ba-als ; Oth is the plural affix, so that 
me>K, Asherah or Ashtaroth in the plural, become Asherahath and Ashtoroth ; ah 
or h being the feminine affix as in Ish or Esh, man, and Islia a woman. Asher, the 
male, becomes Asherah, the female organ. The Asherah was, as a rule, kept close to 
Baal, and in real groves or on " high places ; " but in later days, Manasseh erected one 
in the temple of Jahveh, 2 Kings xxi. 7. The " Grove " was as popular as Baal, 
having four hundred priests, who all ate at the table of Queen Jezebel, daughter of 
^^-Ba-al, King of Sidon. The Asherim are held to be female emblems of Baal, or 
numerous emblems of Asher, "IB>K, whom the Phenicians called Osir, TDK, or Husband, 
Lord, Osiris, or Phallus. He was "the prosperous," "firm," and "happy one," over 
whom the Pompeians wrote : " Hie habitat felicitas." Mr Newton is of opinion that 

1 Tom. III., Part 1, plate i. 
z Inuiau s Anc.Pagan and Mod. Christ. Symbolism, 2d Ed. 1874, p. 113. Appen. by Mr Newton. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 209 

these Asharim, or male symbols, are conventionally represented in the numerous 
budding branches which gods and great men are seen to carry, as in Figures 5 and 9 of 
my plate IV. In Fig. 5, we have a Bacchus, from Hislop s " Babylon," drinking out of a 
vase, with a head ornament of crosses, and a dress of three fleur-de-lis-looking dots; and 
in Fig. 9 we have a priest or chief of Nineveh carrying, besides his Arbor Vitae, the 
spotted antelope, which very probably signifies Diana at all events woman. These 
branches or Asherim of "the Tree of Life," are commonly " figured on the houses of 
newly-married couples among the Jews in Morocco " (Symbolism, p. 3) ; so we see 
where the New Testament writers probably borrowed their ideas of the "Tree of 
Life " " the vine and branches," which was, they said, the new Logos. 

The ancient Jews had small Lares and Penates, or Yonis and Lingams, just as all 
the world had, and as Hindoos, and millions not Hindoos still have. We have two 
instances of such in the "idols " of Rebecca and the queen-mother Maachah (1 Kings 
xv. 13), although these "idols" are not called Asherim and Asherahoths ; that of the 
Queen is called a Miphletzeth, nv^ao, or in the language of the Vulgate, a "Simu 
lacrum Pria/pi." It is impossible not to see the worldly wisdom and learning of that 
great church which refused, and still practically refuses to give this invaluable book 
the Jewish-Christian Bible to the people. Protestants in their ignorance " rushed 
in where angels feared to tread," and the result is already very clear. Before this cen 
tury is over these writings will be pulled to pieces, and churches and their figments 
scattered much further and wider. It is scarce two hundred years since persons, not 
clerical, began to study the New Testament in the Greek, and scarce a generation since 
independent minds have really set to work to master the Hebrew, and travel therein 
out of the old orthodox paths of clerical translators. Another generation or two with 
all the additional floods of light which have burst upon this one, and matured, 
dissected, and worked up with the sound data which now comes to us from tablets, 
rocks, and monuments, which our fathers could not read and never dreamt of and we 
shall have such a revolution in faiths, and we must hope this time such a wise and 
peaceful revolution, as the world has never yet witnessed. All churches and nations can 
scarcely hope for a perfectly peaceful change ; but where the paths of education have 
not been blocked up by an interested priesthood, and the masses been allowed to learn 
and think for themselves, we may hope that when the ripening of the upper middle 
classes takes place, the higher, upper, and lower strata will have been sufficiently 
grounded in ordinary learning to follow their teachers with understanding, and to see 
that physical restraint cannot curb the mind. 

I have not yet said all that is necessary on Jewish Phallo-Solar cult, for I 
would wish to trace this up to the palmy days when Jews are held to have had a very 
grand -and wonderful temple, sacred rites, and a pure faith ; so my readers must here 
bear with me a little longer. As we all know a great deal about Jews, or think we 
do, what I say of them will be better understood, though I fear less appreciated and 

I. 2 D 

2io Rivers of Life, or FaitJis of Man in all Lands. 

myself better abused (this matters little if we speak the truth and expose error), than 
if I waded through similar details of other tribes or nations, though greater mentally 
and religiously beyond all comparison than the Jewish tribes ever were or could 
become. Though Jews very early, often, and for many centuries lost their ark, it 
does not appear they then lost their Serpent and Pole, or Standard, Rod, Banner, or 
Nissi, nor possibly the Vase of Manna or Bread ; at least their traditions constantly speak 
of the miraculous powers of the Manna and of Moses 7 Rod, which I fancy took the place 
of the Adam or Seth, before which Noh and his family prayed in their Argos", and 
which is, no doubt, connected with all the " Matsoobas," " Pillars," and " Great 
Stones " of Jacob, Joshua, Adonijah, and even the pious Josiah. None of these idols 
and no prophets or teachers supplanted Baal, Baalim, Molok, Kiun, or the Grove, nay, 
nor the Ephod, for destroying which the valiant Gideon so nearly sacrificed his life ; 
and but for his father Joash, he would have undoubtedly suffered, with all his friends, 
"the wrath of the whole people." Let us look at this revolution and attempted re 
formation somewhat successfully made by Gideon. 

This was a clear attempt by the Yonites to upset the worship of Baal or the Sun- 
Stone an assault by the Ze/2-hand on the right-hand, sects. Gideon was an Ephod- 
worshipper, and the later writer of the events not liking Gideon s Ephod which was 
made of the ornaments of Israelites and Midianites (Jud. viii. 22, 27), and hung up 
in his sacred town or place, Ophrah says that it was "a snare unto Gideon," for all 
Israel went " a whoring after it ; " which of course Gideonites would not agree to. 
Gideon himself was a poor farmer thrashing out wheat, who, the writer says, saw " the 
Lord" (Jud. vi. 14) sitting "under an oak in Ophrah," for whom he at once prepared 
some soup, kid and cakes ; but as it would not exactly do to tell all the world that 
Jhavh ate these (the person is indifferently called "Lord" and "angel of the Lord," 
though clearly believed to be the same God who gave the tribes victory), the everlasting 
" Rock," Fire, and ubiquitous Rod is introduced, which demolishes the meat and soup, 
when the charmed farmer builds an altar on the top of the rock and calls it Jahveh 
Shalom, or his " Lord God of Peace," a name of Siva. This God then directs him to 
forthwith demolish the antagonistic altar and Grove of Baal, which he clandestinely 
accomplishes at night. He then likewise beats down the "Fire-Tower" (viii. 17) 
of Penuel or Peniel, which we shall see further on is the tower of Phan. After this, 
Gideon s faith is said to prevail for the time-honoured number of forty years; but " as 
.soon as Gideon was dead, the children of Israel turned again and went a whoring 
after Ba-alim, and made Baal-Berith their God," which the margin too delicately 
describes (v. 33) as "Jupiter Fcederis, or Mercury," who "presides over Covenants," 
that is " THE LORD OF THE TESTIMONY," or Maha Deva. Now, what was this Ephod- 
God of Gideon, but -the highly feminine symbolism which Churches, but especially the 
Romish, still adopt. This Ephod had in great prominence two golden Shields, 
or breasts with jewelled centres, and a breast-plate with twelve stones or ova of divers 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


Fig. 89. NUN WITH STOL. 

colors, such as still adorn most altars, and which here marked the parentage of the 
tribes, who all worshipped the Stone or Rock, Tsur. This breast-plate was called 
Shiryon or Sirion, a name also applied to Mount Hermon (Deut. iii. 9), which must 
have, therefore, been looked upon by these Arkites as an Omphe, 
though by most Syrians as a phallus ; or perhaps the idea is the same 
as that of the Stole in which the Calvary or Calvaria is the head 
Hermes or Sun, and the whole mass the sexual and probably 
dual energies. Dr Inman gives us this as the female stole or 

o o 

nun s dress, remarking upon the strangeness of her who is called 
a fish (nun) having a dress like a navis (Anc. Faiths, L, 165). 
The Ephod of the High Priest was finished off with a sacred zone 
(virgin belt?) which the writer of Ex. xxxix. always calls a 
" curious girdle." The robe had a hole in the centre for the head, 
and all round the hem real bells of pure gold, alternating with 
pomegranates, the bells being given to tinkle like the Sistrums 
of Isis and of most churches, and so to denote the movements of 
the "Man of God." 

The Ephod had all the thaumaturgic powers of the Rod 
of Moses, and enabled the Priest wearing it to speak with 
God (1 Sam. xxx. 7,8). We see that it is a female vestment from 
Samuel wearing it when a child (1 Sam. ii. 18), and by David putting it on when going 
before the Ark a female deity (2 Sam. vi., 14). It was an accompaniment to all 
" houses " of Elohim, as when Micah " had a house of God, (he) made an Ephod 
and Teraphim " (Jud. xvii. 5), which are usually held to be Penates or Lingams; and if 
so, Micah worshipped both organs. Thus then we see that the warring of the Right 
and Left-hand factions among Jews or Syrians went on from the very earliest times, 
just as is still the case all over the world. In India, Sivaites, Vishnooites, and 
sects within these, still quarrel, and if Government did not interfere, would often kill 
one another ; and so it is with Christolaters and Mariolaters and sects within these, as it 
was with "gods and Titans." The dwellers on Mounts Moriah and Zion, Ebal, and 
Gerizim, were never at peace, and we can trace their continual warrings in the 7th and 
8th centuries to the philosophic sects claiming Boodha and Confucius. It was clearly 
this great eastern wave of thought which roused two such leaders that stirred, a 
generation or two later, the little Jewish folds in their Syrian wilds. Thus 
a war arose against ephods, serpents, and idolatry of most kinds in the reign 
of Hezekiah, or about 700 B.C. He is said to have been a good man, and to 
have done all that was " right in the sight of the Lord according to all that his father 
David had done " (2 Kings xviii.). Before him there had been many good men, yet 
the brazen serpent that Moses had made was still a God in that land, aye, in the 
temple itself, and had been most carefully preserved according to Usher, over 800 
years of grievous wars and troubles. It was then (720 B.C.), we are told adored and 

2 1 2 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

worshipped together with statues or figures, evidently phcallic, and with Asheroths or 
" the Groves " of earlier and later days. These symbols, we are told, Hezekiah broke 
and destroyed, but no purifications of one or two temples and certainly not the de 
struction of spnbols, can change the faith of a whole people, until the mind is educated 
out of these. Hezekiah s iconoclasm lasted only twenty-eight years, and then his son, 
Manasseh, King of Juda, went back to the old worship in 698. " He did that which 
was evil in the sight of the Lord, after the abominations of the heathen, he built up 
again the high places which Hezekiah, his father, had destroyed " (2 Kings xxi). He 
reared up altars for Baal, the phallic sun-god, and made a "grove " or asherah, as did 
Ahab, King of Israel, and " worshipped all the host of heaven." Nay, he built these 
altars, and " set up the grove " even in Solomon s holy temple, the two court-yards of 
which he consecrated to Tsabeanism, or the worship of the host of heaven. He wor 
shipped fire, and " made his son pass through the fire " ordeal, yet he maintained his 
kingdom in peace, according to the writer of " Kings," during a long reign of fifty- 
five years, and the hosts of Senakerib, King of Asyria, whom the weak Hezekiah 
had bought off (the narrative says the Lord destroyed 185,000 soldiers miraculously 
in one night !) never returned in his day ; he slept with his fathers, and was buried 
in his own garden, his son Amon succeeding him in 643 B.C. The later writer 
of Chronicles, although -always anxious to paint highly, probably says truly that 
Manasseh was for a time in Asyrian captivity, but on this point the writer of " Kings " 
is silent. King Amon and his people were likewise sun, fire, and phallic-worshippers. 
The unknown, yet said to be inspired historian tells us that he (Amon) walked in all 
the ways that his father walked, and served the idols that his father served, and wor 
shipped them (2 Kings xxi). He forsook the worship of the Jhavh, and only reigned 
two or three years when he was assassinated by his servants, 641 B.C., according to the 
dates given by Archbishop Usher in the margin of our Bibles. Amon s son, Josiah, 
seems to have continued the same worship up to the year 624 B.C., or. for seventeen 
years, when, owing to the rise of a noted high priest, Hilkiah, the persecutions of the 
old faith began : for the ripples of the Eastern wave had now reached Asia Minor. 

It was not, however, on account of Manasseh s faith that King Amon was assassi 
nated, and that the good King Azariah was smitten with leprosy and lived and died 
in a cell ; nor yet that Manasseh had a long and peaceful reign. God does not so 
work out his purposes, though there are those who would still try and persuade us to 
this effect ; for Josiah succeeded his father when a child of eight years old, and no 
change took place in the worship of the people, or in the gods and altars of Solomon s 
"holy temple" till 624 B.C., by which time the old faiths of sun, fire, and Phallic 
worship had flourished for seventy-four years (698 to 624 B.C.), or during the whole 
lifetime of the then living race. No doubt Moses may be called the principal founder 
of this Faith, for he dearly cherished his fire-ark .with its overshadowing serpent 
wings, and its box of. charms and witchcraft properties, although he much disliked 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 

2 1 3 

"Egypt s Golden Calf," or rather Golden Cone. We may say generally that these 
tribes preferred the worship of the female energies, or of the Grove or ,TIB>K (Ex. 
xxxiv. 13), just as the Italian, Spaniard, and Gaul, and among ourselves, the Irish do. 
The latter, until the other day, ex 
hibited this Asherah over some of 
the porches of their churches, too 
grossly to be here shown. I give 
this very complete illustration of 
Grove- worship from the sculptures 
in the British Museum. Here 
we see the Priest pointing with 
" phallic hand," in form as the 
Pope still adopts, to the Asherah 

situated under "the great God who passes through the circle," and carries the bow and 
arrow. All objects are here ; the four gods or Arba-Al ^ra-is whereof see details 
which Dr Inman veils in Latin, "Anc. Faiths," L, 89. 

This was indeed such a worship as Solomon would love, and accordingly we have 
full details, in 1 Kings xi. and 2 Kings xxiii. and elsewhere, of his " Mount of Corrup 
tion," where was Chemosh, Milkom, Sun and Fire and the worship of all the generative 
energies of nature. Is it to be wondered at, that with such a "God of the circumcision," 
and one so devoted to all the procreative energies of " his holy people Israel," who 
accepted none but those who satisfied the sexual purposes of creation, that this people 
should prefer Solomon and similar kings, and dislike their one or two " Prophets " or 
seers who condemned such a faith ? No one can study their history, liberated from the 
Hind which our Christian up-bringing and associations cast over us, without seeing that 
Jews were probably the grossest worshippers among all those Ophi-Phallo-Solar devotees 
who then covered every land and sea, from the sources of the Nile and Euphrates to 
all over the Mediterranean coasts and isles. These impure faiths seem to have been 
very strictly maintained by Jews up to Hezekiah s days, and by none more so than 
by dissolute Solomon and his cruel, lascivious, bandit-father, the brazen-faced adulterer 
and murderer, who broke his freely volunteered oath, and sacrificed six innocent sons 
of his king " to his Jhavh." Jewish tribes were swept out of Syria long before these 
old faiths. Let us skim lightly over some of the details from Solomon to the dis 
persion and slavery. This king devoted his energies and some little wealth, as I have 
said, to rearing Phallic or Solo-Phallic and Fire shrines over all the high places around 
him, and especially in front of Jerusalem, and on and around the Mount of Olives. 
His favourite deities were Ashers and Asharoths, but chiefly woman, as Asherah or 
Ishtar* that Phallic eye of p. 72. He was ever true to Kama or Eros, and to Chemosh 
the glowing burning god of love, whom Aryans called Tsoorya, and after whom pro 
bably all Syria was called, though said to be from Tyre which worshipped Tsoorya. 

214 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

The Kama and Fire Gods whom Solomon adored were those of the Hindoo Sakti 
(pronounced Shrakti) sect, viz. "Cupid or the attractive power," which draws the 
votary to "the Prakriti the female embodiment, or Agni-mandalam, the place of fire." 
Solomon s "Holy Spirit "was that also of the Saktis, viz. " Koolna, or spirit of 
enjoyment," and his whole " song " is as nearly as possible like that of some of the 
Hindoo Tcintras. " Agni-mandalam " is a euphemism for the muliebre pudendum; 
see details in Anthro. Soc. Jour, 1865-66, vol. ii. 269. The fuel of the Sakti s fire, says 
this gross faith, " is collision, because fire is produced by friction, and the Lord-Linga 
is the great high priest," and not only David and Solomon, but other Jewish kings 
were their own high priests. 

In Milkom, no doubt, Solomon worshipped a dual and androgyne god whom the 
seers called, though in far later and wiser days, " the abomination of the children of 
Amon." The temples of this androgyne god were principally on the sacred Mount, and 
no doubt if we could get at some of the architectural details, we should find that, 
though architecture is called " frozen music," it was with this very licentious people 
no frozen mythology. The builders of the shrines of the Tyrian Hercules were those 
whom this prince got in Hiram and his staff; and, seeing Phallic and Sun-gods 
enshrined on all the mounts of " the holy city," Hiram would not forget, in construct 
ing Solomon s temple, all the idolatrous forms of his own and Egyptian lands, of which 
the best and purest ideas would be those connected with Solar- worship, as he may have 
seen this on the Sun-temples of Tentyra, viz. the winged globe with serpents, the 
early Pythian- Apollo idea, and such like. 

It is clear from 1 Kings vi. 32, 35, and vii. 13 21 and elsewhere, that many of 
Hiram s ornamentations were highly emblematic, and we may be quite sure that none of 
these were permitted on the shrine, without grave thought as to their full signification 
and symbolic character. On each side of the entrance, under the great phallic spire, 
which below formed the portico, see fig. 93, p. 218, were placed two handsome 
phallic columns over fifty feet high, capped with Isis and Paravati s emblems, lotuses 
encircled with pomegranates the fruit shown to be specially worshipped at Damascus. 
It was a representation of the Queen of Heaven and of the gravid uterus, and the 
symbol of a happy and fruitful wedded life : with Hebrews the Rimmon " personified 
Natura Naturans, or the fertilising principle of nature ;" it was " the blooming Venus 
Ursina" and in Iledad- Rimmon and many another town, the Sun was shown as its 
accompaniment, because the Sun was its fertiliser. On the robes of the Jewish high 
priest it was everywhere prominent, and was there united with bells, that very speaking 
oracle of every shrine, as well of ancient Mylita as of modern Mary. In all Mary s 
and many Protestant shrines it was and is a conspicuous and important ornament, 
and in mythic story the pomegranate persuaded Persephone " the seed-vessel " 
to rejoin her husband Pluto in the realms below, an allusion doubtless to its 
significant symbolism the gravid uterus, which was also the name of mother- 

Serpent and Phallic IVorship. 2 1 5 

Terra; for classic story says that the Po /a, Rhoia, or pomegranate was the express 
emblem of the Earth under her different appellations of Demeter, Kubele, Ceres, 
Rhea, &c." (Clas. Manual 203, Iliad ix. 585,); but Rhea is Ops, and "Ops, Opis, 
Opus and Opici were all terms related to," if not actually meaning the sacred serpent 
(Bryant v. 308). The Agathodemon which Egypt shows us as crowned with a Lotus, 
just as Siva stands at Som-ndt, crowned with Luna the crescent moon. Now this 
Agatho-demon was, says the same learned investigator, " called Noe ; " but Deukalion, 
that is Deva Kali, " was called Opus, by which is meant Deucalion Serpens," * so that 
here we see the whole signification is either mother Eve as the Yoni, the Serpent, or 
we see an androgyne god, embracing Kala and Kali, or Noe and Terra ; but this sub 
ject has unduly enticed us away from Solomon s shrine. 

The Phallic columns were, it is written, profusely bedecked with " pomegranates 
and lilies " or lotuses, and other emblems, and hung about with wreaths of chains 
which always denote serpents. Thus we are not surprised to learn that these columns 
were called, that on the right JAKIN or " he that shall establish," and that on the left 
BOAZ, or " in it is strength." Such poles and hangings with similar ornation abound 
beside most Eastern shrines, and the Venetian merchants, following their Asiatic cul 
ture, placed somewhat similar columns on and around their beautiful St Mark. 

A glance through the illustrations of even these volumes will, I think, convince 
my readers that the architects of Solomon, and the artisans of Tyre only did but 
follow, although no doubt at a great distance, the cult and architecture of the richer 
and superior shrines of the nations about them. We must however bear in mind here 
that we have not a single historical record, on papyrus, leather, or tablet, of either 
Solomon or his temple ; none of the great travellers of antiquity say a syllable regard 
ing either, and Herodotus who specially travelled over all these countries on purpose 
to study the cult of the peoples, never gives us a hint even as to the existence of Jews, 
their religion or temples. From Lucian and others we know that Syrian temples, and 
notably, that to the great Dea Syria, had two huge Phallic columns in the vestibule, so 
that Jakin and Boaz in Solomon s shrine were 
strictly in keeping. The constant recurrence of two 
stones, whenever stones are required, marks a 
strange but consistent idiosyncrasy of all Phallic- 
worshipping races. 

Beside these pillars in Solomon s portico, 
there were also placed here the sun god Belus, 
and his chariots, and with him, at the entrance, 


the symbolic " Great Sea," that holy symbol 

of Samoodra, which all nations worship from the shores of Japan and Bombay 

to the banks of the Neva; and those on Samoodra s shores, in proprid persona. 

1 Homer, (Liddell and Scott) uses Drahon andOphia indifferently; see further, Inmarfs Symbolism, xxxviii. 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

This Molten Sea, Fig. 90, was, we are assured, most correctly constructed. As 
it represented woman, so all the females of Jerusalem brought forth their most 
representative emblem the Mirror which as Maya the Sanskrit Aryan calls Illusion, 
a word I believe really meaning that by which man may reproduce or reflect himself. 
Anyhow, the mirror is a most suitable and universal emblem of Maya over all Asia; in 
this, Fig. 91,1 show it in the form it is constantly found in the palaces and temples of the 
Nile. The head ornament or burden of the woman is here a Cone, similar to that which 
Egyptian women are usually shown with ; for if Siva carries Luna, and the Agatliodemon a 
lotus, then woman must so honour the Cone ; and I believe the 
first occasion on which they likewise came freely forward and 
poured their golden trinkets into Aaron s lap, was for the 
construction of such a golden Cone, and not a Calf as the 
LXX. translators tell us. As the Jewesses of the desert well 
knew their own religion and the object of their affections, so 
I think did those of Jerusalem know the cult they were en 
riching, and the sexual proclivities of their king and his very 
Sivaik shrine. They knew well that the large "bowl" for 
which they were giving those ornaments so precious to a 
woman s heart was no mere bowl for water; just as, I believe, 
their ancient mothers knew that it was no mere calf that 
Aaron made, and before which they bowed down. The word 
by, used in Exodus xxxii. as " Calf," signifies, we are told 
by ParJchurst, something "Round" or "Orbicular," as a 

"round ornament;" even a "round ring," "car" or " corn-wain," &c. He particu 
larly warns us that, as translated " Calf," we are merely to consider this "Em 
blematic," and because such, "both to believers and unbelievers and heathen, was 
a representative of FIRE." " The golden calves of Aaron and Jeroboam were," 
continues this very orthodox Hebraist," "set up as secondary representatives of 
the First Person (as we speak) of the ever blessed Trinity, ivhose primary em 
blem, was FIRE Both Aaron and Jeroboam meant their respective CALVES 

FOR EMBLEMS OF JEHOVAH and each called his respective calf ALEIM," who 

is the Lord and God of the Old Testament ; so that the conclusion arrived at is, 
that Fire and Apis or Aphis were true emblems of Jehovah. In fact, we may say 
that this Jah was Fire and Apis ; and we need not dispute, therefore, as to whether 
" the gold ear-rings" of the Aaronic tribes were made into a "Calf," or, as I think, into 
an "orbicular" object, or "mass" "embryo" or "foetus;" or into a cone which is 
visually called " the breaker through," a true meaning of by (Filrst), and a very proper 
emblem for Jah, whose name, says the same great Hebraist, signifies "The Increaser" 
Mr Parkhurst was probably not aware that the Hindoo called this seat of " Fire," the 
Agni-Mandalam \ 

Serpent and PJiallic Worship. 2 1 7 

I will now enter into the details of the construction of Solomon s and the second 
temple, which, as a young engineer, I, a great many years ago, tried to construct from 
the bible, together with such other traditional writings as have come down to us. The. 
results were startling, and to my then sealed eyes, awakening. Like all edifices moiv 
or less connected with Tasbean or Sun-Worship, the aspect of Solomon s temple 
was strictly correct in regard to His Solar Majesty. The recent researches in 
Palestine show (see an Edin. Review of 1873) that "the sunrise-line through 
temple and altar, and through the central western gate of the mountain, and the great 
east gate of the sanctuary, bisects the enclosure of the Haram north and south ; while 
the meridian line, determining the face of the platform, bisects the southern wall of the 
sanctuary." 1 Yet this writer, though mentioning also that " the orientation of this 
temple " caused it to be thus placed obliquely to the other necessary enclosure walls, 
also that " Greek and Coelo-Syrian temples " were so built as of prime necessity to 
face the rising Sun-God, that all Palmyra s gorgeous temples were similarly placed, 
and that even Stonehenge has a great stone which, seen from the centre of the circle, 
declares the point of sunrise in the fertile summer solstice ; yet, in spite of all these 
proofs of the faith of these ancient worshippers, this writer, like many others, sees 
nothing in Solomon s Pagan Temple, but the pure and spiritual worship of Jehovah 
which this century is almost alone in grasping. Strange, indeed, are the vicissitudes 
of faiths. Titus Cesar levelled the " Holy Temple " of Jehovah in the year 70 A.c. 
the second of the Emperor Vespasian ; and Hadrian drew a ploughshare over the con 
secrated ground, as a sign of perpetual interdiction (see Gibbon, III. 161). A few years 
more saw a temple to Venus on the spot where it is supposed the death and resurrec 
tion of Christ took place ; and there this latter stood for nearly three hundred years, 
until the zeal of Constantine pulled it down, and reared in its stead a Christian shrine, 
to which mankind made pilgrimages as to the former. Half a century later and what 
do we see ? The wise and philosophic emperor Julian issuing orders for the rebuild 
ing of the Jewish temple, to counteract the mummeries which disgraced the Christian 
shrine, and which had filled Jerusalem with every species of debauchery and vice. 

"What avails it," says Newman, in his Hebrew Monarchy (page 131) "that 
Solomon warned young men against foreign harlotry, when the Toyal preacher himself 
established far more hateful and disgusting impurities," and Christians apparently still 
followed that fell example. We see from various sources (1 Kings xiv. 24 ; xV. 
12-13 ; xxii. 46 ; 2 Kings xxiii. 7, and elsewhere) how rampant here were the worst 
features of Phallic Faith. Solomon s favourite, Queen Maacha, "made a Phallus 

1 See Drawings over leaf. Lingam-Stone of the second temple iu 

T. Ground Plan of Temple. lieu of the lost Ark. 
II. A Block Plan, in which the east and IV. A Transverse Section of Tower and Phalli, 
west line is shown dotted. V. A Landscape View as the Temple would 
III. A Longitudinal Section, giving the Great appear on Mount Moriah ivhen first con- 
Tower and One .Pillar, with Serpent structed, without its after surroundings, 
hangings, and the Sanctuary with the 
I. 2 E 


Rivers of Life, or Fa it /is of Man in all Lands. 

(English, idol) for Ashera," and her grand-children no doubt like her reigned over 
Juda for about twenty years after Rehoboam, when one of them, Asa, is represented, 
probably by a too tolerant priestly scribe, as putting away his grand-mother, although 
"he removed not the high places;" and the fact is now clear to us that Solomon s faith, 
and the practices in Syrian Temples continued until education and civilisation drove 
them away, about the fourth century A.C. 

We read in Gibbon (Vol. III., page 81) that Constantino found throughout Syria 

" every form of prostitution " in full force in 
Venus temples, or others devoted to the wor 
ship of the female energies. The emperor at 
least did good in suppressing this, though he 
frequently converted the worshippers into 
" Christian flocks " by holding open their jaws 
and forcing "the body of Christ" down their 
throats a more merciful mode than was pur 
sued by kings, queens, and priests who followed 
him, during ten long centuries. 

Solomon s Temple appears to be a very poor 
imitation of the grand Egyptian temple near 
Edfou, 20 miles south of Thebes, at Apollin- 
opolis, probably to the great Apollo ; see the 
drawings given by Gwelt in his Encyclopaedia of 
Architecture. This Edfou temple was 450 feet 
long, and 140 broad, or upwards of 14 times the 
size of the Hebrew shrine. Taking the " Sacred 
Cubit " of Sir Isaac Newton, which is 24754 
inches, and omitting decimals, and placing the 
chambers inside, as usual throughout the East, we 
find that Solomon s Temple proper would only 
occupy one of the halls of the Egyptian temple, 
that it was a very humble and rude structure, 
and not at all in keeping with its great phallic 
portico. The temple was only 120 feet long, 40 
broad, and 60 high, in two stories; while the porch was a large tower, 40 .feet long, 20 
broad, and 240 high ! It may have been gilt like the Boodhist temples in Banna. The 
" Holy of Holies " was cut off with " golden chains " from the rest of the inner temple, 
and was 40. feet long ; shrouded and bedecked with two hooded Serpents, called 
Cherubim,. and with chains and garlands Serpent symbols. The carvings on the 
walls were what we should expect, viz : symbolic palm trees, open flowers, and cheru 
bim, &c. I cannot discover what the portico tower was built of, but as an engineer, 
I should have been very chary of building a " porch " rising, as it did, to 240 feet in 


Serpent and Phallic Worship. 2 1 9 

height, from a base of only 40 x 20. The writer of Kings wisely does not venture 
on a statement of the height ; but that of Chronicles is here explicit, though he avoids 
any statement of the breadth of the base ! According to the Arabic, Syrian, and 
Alexandrian Bible, the Porch should be only 20 cubits high ; but let us stand to the 
orthodox bible. The facts as related lead me to suppose that the temple was very 
like the hundreds we everywhere see in the East, except perhaps that its walls were a 
little higher than usual, and the phallic spire out of proportion. I give in this Fig. 93, 
the whole structure, drawn strictly to scale at 2 feet to the cubit. The ark-box, or 
temple like an ark, with its phallic tower, is quite in accordance with all I have before 
asserted, as to every part, and the whole of a Sivaik shrine being like its holiest parts. 
The Jewish porch, 240 feet long, 40 broad, and 20 high, is but the obelisk which the 
Egyptian placed beside his temple ; the Boodhist pillars which stood all around their 
Dagobas ; the pillars of Hercules, which stood near the Phenician temple ; and the spire 
which stands beside the Christian Church. The little ark, -120 feet long, 60 broad, and 
40 high, stands under the shadow of the great spire, and beside the real little ark 
within, we have the idea repeated by the presence of Jakin and Boaz. Even Isaiah 
says that Egypt shall in her extremity again return to the Pillar, and Altar, or Ark- 
God ; that five of her cities will be seized by the speakers of " the language of Canaan," 
and "swear to the Lord of Hosts" (the Sun-Yahveh), and put "an altar to the Jharh 
in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the Jhavh " 
(xix. 18-19); so that we see here again the ark and its pillar ; for an altar was an ark 
with a "mercy seat," or place of fire and sacrifice, and an ark was woman, and " the 
great sacrifice" was the conjunction of the male and female Sun and Moon. Amongst 
old peoples the conception and liberation of new life was "the great sacrifice," which it is 
still called among many Phallic- worshippers to the present hour. 

To try and make clear to my readers the ideas which guided the builders of Solo 
mon s Temple, I give here a small bird s-eye view of Mount Moriah its circumambient 
walls and cliffs, divested of all accessories in the way of the buildings, priestly and 
other, which thronged its precincts even before Solomon is supposed to have finished 
it, showing merely the Sacred trees, Palms, Olives, and Cypresses, which were, and still 
are there so sacred. It is, we see, but the ark-box and tall stem, such as Tyrian coins 
show us, as the Tree-stem, or an upright man with feminine emblem adjoining; see 
Figs. 1, 3, and 11, plate IV. A careful study of the figures and details, which we find 
principally in Kings and Chronicles, aided by tradition, not altogether refusing even 
orthodox bible dictionaries, and allowing only to myself that amount of licence which 
the engineer and architect must have from his unprofessional and inexact client, 
I have found pretty ready to my hand matter enabling me to frame a " specification, 
and to execute drawings as follows : 

No. i. is a Ground Plan of Temple. This has a total length of 1 20 feet, of which 
the Sanctum is 40 feet, and beyond this, but separate, is the Spire and Porch, 20 by 40 
feet. The MoUen Sea (2 Chron. iv. 10) and a staircase, appear to be on each side at 

220 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

entrance, whilst in the Porch is placed Jakin and Boaz, the Chariot of the Sun, &c. 
I am unable to comprehend the details of windows, and doors, upper and lower storeys 
and partitions, owing to the imperfect, and often contradictory terms given in Kings 
and Chronicles ; but in the leading figures no architect can make a mistake. Such 
temples are especially common amongst the Phallic- worshippers of Southern India. A 
lofty entrance-porch usually adorns the front ; on entering we find Phallic poles, with 
altars for sacrifice, &c. ; and in the innermost recess the sanctuary or oracle of the Cultus. 

No. ii. is a Block Plan of Site, showing that the shrine is to be placed true east 
and west, so that the Ark or Altar may see the morning sun of the Midsummer Solstice 
rise over Mount Olivet, with a ray which bisects the inner and outer walls of the 
enclosure, which I take to be trapezoidal -in form, owing to the course of the cliffs that 
bound the summit eastwardly. 

No. in. is a Longitudinal Section of Temple. This gives details of Spire and 
position of the Phalli, Jakin and Boaz, and determines their height as something 
between 50 and 60 feet, also the elevation, &c., of the Sanctum and Oracle. The 
Ark having been ea.rly lost, I place a plain Maha-Dcva or Stone, which the Reverend 
T. Wilson tells us was all that existed in the second Temple. 1 

No. iv. is a Front Section of Porch.- This shows its appearance from the front with 
the relative heights of temple in two stories ; but the chroniclers are here very defective ; 
one making the Sanctum portion lower than the rest by 10 feet or- so. 

As to the scale, it has been common to assume the cubit as from 22 to 23 inches, but 
after much consideration which I was once compelled to give to this in a lengthened con 
troversy which the late Sir James Simpson engaged in at the Royal Society of Edin- 
1 turgh as to the measures used by the ancient Egyptians, and which, as regarded arith 
metical details, I had to conduct; the cubit of Sir Isaac Newton was the one most generally 
approved, and I have therefore taken 2 feet as Solomon s cubit. Of course, whatever size 
is taken, the proportions here shown will be the same, unless the bible text is corrupt. 

In chapters xvi. to xxii. of 2 Kings, we have an attempt, and no bad one, to 
describe the grandest developments of Phallo-Solar Faiths ; and from the general 
history of these tribes might gather substance for as complete and impressive a 
description of details as we could get in Egypt or Asia Minor. At the entrance 
of Solomon s temple, we are told, stood the mighty Baal, represented by chariots 
with horses yoked ; whilst ever around him, and in the courts sacred then to all 
Heaven s other orbs, were his Priests, called Chemorim, burning incense to the Sun, 
Moon, and twelve Zodiac Constellations. There also sat the temple-women weaving 
"hangings," which symbolised serpents, for the "grove" or Asherah, and who had dedi 
cated their lives as well as bodies to the sacred fanes ; and, alas ! there also sat the most 
debased of men, who had likewise for the gods consecrated their bodies to defilement. 
At the gate of this " holy city of David and Solomon," where lived Joshua the 
Governor, were the tf high places " to phallic- worship, as Hindostan so well knows 

1 See his Archeological Dicty., art. Sanctum. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 22 1 

these, at the entering in of all her cities. Though Jeremiah was scourging with 
angry wail and prophetic curses, and though Isaiah had long done the same and prayed 
to his people to spiritualise their faith, yet no phallic, solar or fire-rite was here 
omitted. In " the valley " " of the sons of Hinnom," the drums of Tophim were ever 
Bounding, to drown from the ears of loving but fanatical parents the wails and shrieks 
of their offspring, consigned by ruthless and bloody priests into the red hot stomach 
of the great brass god Molek ; or else clasped by his horrid arms to his burning frame, 
in which blazed a fire as fierce as that which Christians are taught to believe exists, by 
a loving Father s command, through all eternity for us in Hell. 

Yet these great old Faiths, not carried as by these smaller tribes of the earth into the 
barbarities of Hinnom, were not the dwarfed conceptions of rude people, but marked the 
ascendancy of mighty nations, and the bold, grand thoughts of strong men, manly and 
full of fire and vigour. We can read this very clearly in the great empire of the Asyrians 
and Egyptians, in the Olympic ages of Greece, and down to their conquest by the 
Romans ; also in the brave, robust rule of Rome, whether Imperial or Republican, as 
well as in the softer, more fitful, but not effeminate kingdoms of the Aryan conquerors 
of the far East. These were faiths which men fought for and died to propagate, and loved 
as dearly as devout Christian Evangelicals and the Mahommedan zealots of our own days 
do theirs. For countless ages did men and women on this account " make swift to shed 
blood," and freely permit their own to be spilt like water. Nearly allJewish history shows, 
that Egypt and the countries to her north and east never disturbed her, unless she was 
trying to upset these old Faiths. Hezekiah, king of Judah, began burning altars and groves 
in 726 B.C., when there came up against him in 713 B.C., or as soon as the heresy seemed 
to have taken root, Senakerib king of Asyria, whom he had twice to buy off. It took, 
says 2 Chronicles xxx. 10, a long time to get the people back to a semi-spiritual faith 
in J ehovah, and in their revered ancestors ; for we read here that the people " laughed 
to scorn " Hezekiah s writings and fulminations, "and mocked" at his messengers. 

Again, in 610 B.C., we read that Josiah, the "good king," had revived the reforma 
tion of his great-grand-father Hezekiah, which Manasseh and Amon his father and grand 
father, had dropped for 74 years ; when, as soon as the " holy temple " was prepared, 
up comes Neko, king of Egypt (2 Chron. xxxv. 20), Josiah was killed, and the good 
Jeremiah appears as one of his mourners. Jerusalem after this received her kings from, 
and paid tribute to Egypt, worshipping its orthodox gods till Syria was retaken by 
Babylon in 599 B.C. In 588 B.C. was completed the captivity of these little tribes when 
a change of Eastern Empire gave them a respite ; for on Cyrus finding himself strong in 
536 B.C., he granted them permission to return to their country, and Nehemiah 100 years 
later succeeded in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem ; so that the people were once more 
at liberty to select their own faiths. But we must remember that this and other captivities 
changed any originally pure Jewish blood which they previously claimed, and show us 
the stern fact that the tribes were votaries of almost pure Sun, fire, and phallic faiths, 
according to their own records up to at least 440 B.C. ; and that the only purer aspiration 

222 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

they showed up to this date, was a tendency to worship their ancestors or " Peers," and 
to indulge occasionally in some spiritual songs and prayers to Jehovah, Adonis, and Aleim. 
Let this suffice for the present as to the faiths prevalent on the hills and in the valleys 
of Syria and Phenicia, up to the brighter days of the brave Maccabees. 

The French have hitherto always been foremost in Europe in understanding the 
early faiths of the world. A small volume by various writers printed by Nichols 
Loud., 1785, called "A Comparative View of the Ancient Monuments of India" thus 
boldly opens its preface : -" Those who have penetrated into the abstrusenesses (sic) of 
Indian mythology, find that in these temples was practised a worship similar to that 
practised by all the several nations of the world, in their earliest as well as their most 
enlightened periods. It was paid to the Phallus by the Asiatics, to Priapus by the 
Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, to Baal-Peor by the Canaanites and idolatrous Jews. 
The figure is seen on the fascia which runs round the circus of Nismes, and over the 

portal of the Cathedral of Toulouse, and several churches of Bordeaux 

M. D Ancarville has written two large quarto volumes to prove it (Phallic -Worship) 
to be the most ancient idea of the deity." So one hundred years ago we see these old 
writers calling male and female, the bull and cow, Liber and Libra. Bacchus is 
pointed out as the "mitre-bearer," and in his processions he is shown as "the carrier of 
a Bason and a Sell," the Womb and Sri-linga. He carries a veil as night, and a 
serpent, and " sword as the enlivener." These French writers seem -mostly agreed that 
Bacchus was Brahma, whose Indian visit, Bailly says, took place in 3605 B.C., when it 
is thought " Brahma or Bacchus became mythological." His death and deification, 
the French savants fix at 3553 B.C., calling him "Darma-deve 1 Chiven, or Mahodys," 
meaning " The Gracious One " or " Prince of Peace," i.e., Siva or Maha-deva. In Ele- 
phanta they describe to us a distinct specimen of the Indian Ardha-Nara, though not 
so clearly depicted as that in my plate XIV., taken from " Anc. Faiths," vol. II. The 
Elephanti-androgyne, says M. D Ancarville, holds a shield and something like a sheaf of 
corn in the two left hands, and a serpent and elephant trunk like Ganesha in the upper 
right; the deity "rests his hands on a Priapus," represented by a bull, and leans 
mostly on the lower right arm. These early explorers had also discovered in 
Indian shrines the symbolism of " great seas," like that which Solomon made. 
Anquetil de Perron mentioned them one hundred and twenty years ago, and also found 
fault with the Popish Portuguese, for adapting many of the Indian holy places in 
caves, rocks, temples, sculptures, pictures and all, to the religion of the Virgin 
and her Son. Montfauyon also was fully alive to the symbolism of shields, Indian 
and Asiatic, for in Tom. IV, 1., pi. xxii., he exhibits a very feminine one, such as 
Solomon would have delighted in, calling it " un bouclier extraordinaire d plusieurs 
losses qui resemblent a des mamelles." 

In most ancient languages, probably in all, the name for the serpent also signifies 
Life, and the roots of -these words generally also signify the male and female organs, 
and sometimes these conjoined. In low French the words for Phallus and Life have 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 223 

the same sound, though, as is sometimes the case, the spelling and gender differ ; 
but this is not of material importance, as Jove, Jehovah, Sun, and Moon have 
all been male and female by turns. In Hebrew, Baal is masculine, but in the Greek 
translation he is feminine both in the Old and New Testament It would seem 
that the Kaduceus of Mercury that Eod of life, is due to the fact of the ancients 
having observed that serpents conjoin in this double circular but erect form, as in 
Eskulapius rod. Mr Newton records his belief of this at p. 117 of his Appendix 
to Dr Inman s Symbolism. It appears, as stated by Dr. C. E. Balfour, in Fergusson s Tree 
and Serpent- Worship, that when at Ahmednagar in 1841, he saw two living snakes 
drop into his garden off the thatch of his bungalow in a perfectly clear moon 
light night : " They were (he says) cobras, and stood erect as in the form of the 
Eskulapian rod, and no one could have seen them without at once recognising that 
they were in congress." It is a most fortunate thing, say Easterns, to see this, and if 
a cloth be then thrown over them, it becomes a form of Lakshmi, and of the highest 
procreative energy. 

In time we shall probably come at the origin of many other ancient hieroglyphs, 
forms, rites, and customs. The mysteries of Eleusis have long puzzled all, yet they 
too, are now pretty well known to the initiated. The serpent, we have learned, can 
always take Maha-Deva s or Siva s place, especially in an Ark ; and a serpent in 
an ark, as already dwelt upon, is a perfect object of worship, which neither is separ 
ately, except on the well known religious axiom that " a part represents the whole." 
This coin, from Mr Sharpe s Egyptian Mythology, is held to reveal 
the long insoluble secret of Eleusis. Here we have the ark or 
cist which the virgins used to carry, at certain solar phases, 
to and from the Temple of Ceres, and on which, not to say into 
which, none dare to look ; it was a more dangerous fetish even 
than that Jewish ark proved to poor Uzzah. The garland of hearts 
or fig leaves around this maidenly burden itself an omphe is ex- 
pressive enough. It is, however, very easy to lose the clue of this occult faith, and 
learning and cultivation, instead of helping us, do, until our minds are most 
thoroughly awakened and taught, often drive us still further from the meaning 
of its signs and rites. Thus, the philosophies of the later Greeks followed by the 
stoicism of Rome, and intense piety and spirituality of the schools of the great 
Marcus Aurelius, followed by that of the good, earnest, and cultivated men of the 
Christian communities enshrouded nearly the whole of Phallic lore in a gloom which 
scientific research is only now beginning to dissipate. 

A sister coin to my Fig. 94 will be seen in Smith s " Class. Diet.," at p. 753, as 
belonging to Tralles in Ionia, where on the reverse side the serpent is seen entering 
the cist, and on the obverse two serpents in a state of passion surrounding the cist ; 
the male is shown as with a beard, and a bunch of corn tied up in fleur-de-lis 
fashion. It would make this work too costly, else it would be easy to illustrate it to 


Rivers of Life, or Fait /is of Man in all Lands. 


any extent in support of my arguments. I may, however, here give a few specimens 
as samples of the faith of the isles and coasts of the Mediterranean, such as numis 
matists will at once recognise. 

In coin No. I. we have clearly the worship of the Yoni, whose guardian is shown 

above as the mystic IAO. At the base we 
observe that the flower has budded, and a 
rampagious lion guards the way. No. n. 
is the so-called " Medusa s head," a symbol 
of disordered Passion, her hair entwined 
with snakes. No. in. is a Phallus or Janus, 
as very often formed from two or three 
manly heads. No. iv. is the whole Artel 
the "Trinity in unity," and fruit the result. 
No. v. is the same in another form ; for 
here the Palm-tree is man, and the Concha 
Veneris, woman, standing on either side of 
the mundane egg, around which is coiled 

the serpent as Passion. No. vi. is a very curious old coin ; we require to have read a 
great deal regarding mystic hands, corn-sheaves, flaming torches, &c., &c., before we 
can fully appreciate it. It also represents all organs, and signifies The Bread-Giver. 
The testes are here seen precisely as in many old stones, of which we see some in Plates 

IV., VI., and VII. ; mark especially that of Kerloaz, 
Plate IX., 11, for the same races who produced 
this stone, give us, say Montfaucon and the Rev. 
Mr Maurice in his Indian Antiquities, this Gaulle 
Serpent Goddess my Fig 96. 

We could scarcely anywhere get a figure, which 
gives us more completely the idea of the serpent and 
woman than this :. I have not seen it surpassed by 
any Asiatic drawing or sculpture. It reminds us of 
the severe symbolism of the Hindoo sacred thread : 
the serpents embrace the thighs, cross at the parts, 
and kiss the bosoms. The picture is made a little 
more decent than the Rev. Mr Maurice gives it in 
the prominent frontispiece to his fifth volume. I 
cannot get any information as to the age and exact 
locale of this Serpent-Goddess, but no doubt Gauls 
(( instructed it long before the days of Clovis, and worshipped it more or less for 
several centuries after the time of Charlemagne ; for we shall see by-and-bye, that 
even in spite of the long domination of Christianity, and the considerable enlighten 
ment of the people of Europe and her isles, which, until very lately, proved highly 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 225 

iconoclastic in regard to the monuments and memories of- her more ancient faiths, 
we have still discovered abundant evidence, of all her people having, from the most 
distant ages, been sincerely devoted to Phallic and Pytho-Solar Faiths ; that is, to all 
the first five streams of my Chart. 

From the veritable organs depicted as they best could, ancient peoples gradually 
rose to Statuary, and their steps in Art are still very patent to us. First come huge, 
ungainly lumps of clay or wood ; then these in stone the men very upright, the 
females very rotund both with great sexual development. The Greek often gives us 
only a head on a column, with the sexual sign on the latter to shew us who is meant ; 
the Egyptian and others, as they got decent, left us such as this a man, no doubt a king 
from the horns or rays, with arms lopped off, and who as such would be 
considered a procreative Trinity. Mr C. W. King states that this cross * 
" was discovered cut upon the stones of the Adytum of the Serapeum," 
and is "the Egyptian Tau, that ancient symbol of the generative power, and 
therefore transferred into the Bacchic Mysteries. Such a cross is found 
on the wall of a house in Pompeii, in juxtaposition with the Phallus," 
and as both symbols embody the same idea, figures like this are called 
Hermetes, a word which in Kaldi actually means the hooded snake a 
symbol of the Phallus. The words Hermon and Herm-ione are, it is 
asserted, derived from Herm and Yoni, the actual names of the organs. 
A naked man on a wheel of four spokes, or a Phallus in the quadrangular tetrakt of 
Pythagoras, which was a wheel within a circle, was a very holy subject in ancient 
days. "Ixion rests upon his wheel," says Pope, and Pindar calls it "a winged 
wheel," which Indian mythology explains. Pindar says that Venus brought down her 
bird fastened to a wheel of four spokes from Olympus, and such a wheel was one of the 
symbols requisite at the Suovetaurilia. It was " the Wheel and Cross of Salvation" 
See a pamphlet by Investigator Ablwrrens? where a number of strong facts are 
thrown together by some learned and pious Christian, who is very indignant at all the 
crosses, croziers, and phallic insignia of his faith, calling their use the " restoring of 
Phallo-proshmesis." Montfauon shews us the Phallus fastened to the Cross Wheel, 
so that I fancy Venus so-called bird, also to be seen upon the Wheel as well as phallus, 
is a mere euphemism for the real article, such as is customary in nurseries. All this 
shews us why Hermi were invariably placed at cross-roads, why we have the Priapic and 
cruciform Osiris, the cruciform Venus of Nineveh, and doubtless why Christ was also said 
to have suffered on a cross, when we know that it was a tree, pale, or stauros, and not a 
cross. His sacrifice on a pale would, in archaic times, have constituted a sacrifice to Siva 
or the Phallus. A word as to Venus bird. Pindar uses here the name " iunx, that is 
iungs, which, divested of its grammatical signs, is iugg, and the root is iug. It is therefore 
etymologically the same word as our way-tail, the Anglo-Saxon wag-tsegl ; German, 
fcacft-steltze ; and Low Dutch, gW&-staert;" and continues Idolomania, as if we did not 

1 Gnostics and their Remains, p. 2H. 2 " Idolomania," Lon. 1858, pub. E. Wilson, Eoyal Exchange. 
I. 2 F 

226 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

all know who this bird of agitation or restlessness (from agito or vibrd) was, we are 
told that "the derivation is from the Sanskrit Yoni, and belongs to conjectural 
etymology, suggested by the ancient use of the wag-tail in love-potions and incanta 
tions " (p. 33). My readers will find in Coleman s Hindoo Mythology a drawing of 
this wag-tail, or bird of Venus, understood to be Venus herself, sitting on the summit 
of her Meroo or Olympus. The great Orientalist does not enlighten us with any remarks 
upon this well-known mythic story, as it is clearly one not suited for the general public. 
He merely lets us understand that such a Linga-in-Yoni, with a merry little bird, is 
a common article in temples as an ornament for box covers, &c. 
This I can certify to, having seen several such ornamented 
Lingams : the bird is here half cockatoo, half wag-tail. I have 
no doubt but that this is the Oriental idea of the grosser Egyptian 
one, where we see a child, very coarsely portrayed, signifying the 
continuity of nature. The Komans called the wag-tail Fnitilla, 
from Frutis, one of the names of Venus, and Fruti, the Fruitful 
One. It was also Motacilla, from which we have in Christianity the " Holy Virgin 
of Moticelli." Fruti is a prolific word : thus in Gothic we have Brutli, a new- 
married woman, and in Anglo-Saxon Bryd, a maid, our bride. In the Greek we have 
Plouto as a woman s name, from Ploutos, wealth ; Plutus being the god of wealth and 
husband of Di-ana-Trivia or triformis, sometimes called the Priapic Rose: so in 
Sanskrit we have Vrit, "to bestow gifts," and Bhdga, the Sack, or bag of gifts or of 
abundance ; she is " the mountainous one " as Bhdga-vati? or Par-vati, or "Lady of the 
Sack," whom the ancient Florentines called "Madonna del Sacco," now changed into 
Dea Immacolata, and occasionally called simply St Bride or Bridgetta. In some 
Hindoo works Bhdga and Yoni are interchangeable, probably from the writers not 
understanding the anatomy of woman. As regards the holy mother Moticelli, we 
have in her the root of matter, or that which produces. Mot is mother in Phenician, 
and Mouth in Egyptian is a name of Isis, the "mother of God," and yet a virgin. 
Mat, mot, met, and mut, are roots of mat-ra in Sanskrit the invisible element mat- 
eria, which we in English render matter, and of which the Greek poet Linus says : 

"Hulen aishkron doteiran hapanton." 

" Matter is the giver of all shameful things." 2 

The Torso-like crosses, Fig. 97, were abundantly found on coins, especially at the 
demolition of Serapis, and in a simpler form among the ruins of Nineveh. They turned 
up in great numbers at the general destruction of so-called "Pagan " buildings, by that 
shocking heathen, Theodosius. Mr E. Payne Knight and Mr King are very clear on 
this point, and these crosses are of more importance than may at first sight appear, for 
all the Christian Antiquaries of those early days agreed that " they signified future 
life," precisely what the Christian says of his cross. 

Porphyry alluding to crosses asked in 280 A.c. " why theologists give passions to 
1 The English word Pagoda is said to come from JBhaya-vati. 2 " Idolomania," p. 34. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 227 

the gods, erect Phalli and use shameful language " (Epist. ad. Aneb.), to which the 
Christian lamblichus in 336 replies, "because Phalli and crosses are signs of a produc 
tive energy, and provocative to a continuation of the world 1 " (De Mysteriis. I. ii.). It 
was the good emperor Julian who prohibited all indecencies. In his note, p. 2, 
" Idolomania" says: "In this opinion lamblichus is sustained in coins of Egina and other 
places, on which the phallus is represented within a quadrangular Tetrakt of 
Pythagoras ; from the intersecting point or centre of which proceeds another beam, at 
an angle of 45 in the manner of a ladder ; this well explains the meaning of a ladder," 
such as that my readers will observe on the Amergau Maypole, page 84, and in femi 
nine form at p. 206, Fig. 86. 

Ladders appear to have been used in connection both with ancient stauri and crosses, 
and were possibly for the first part of the ascent of such Phalli, although I suspect the 
words " ascent of the Phallus," which we so often hear of, had also another meaning, 
as Passion or something rampant. " Phallobates " is used by Lucian (Dea Syr. 29) to 
express the action of Cruci ascendere, possibly merely "to go up or upon a phallus " as 
priests had to ascend Phalli. At Hieropolis one had to go up and remain for seven days on 
the top of a phallus, and there pray for the welfare of Syria. The " raised up priests " 
(could the Gospel writer have alluded to this, or merely prayer, in saying that Christ must 
be raised up?) were called Engutlieoi or " men near to God." Simeon Stylites whom the 
Roman Church has canonised, was such a " Simeon on the pillar," and he appeared on 
the Kalendar of Arras, 826. Many attempts were made up to the 1 2th century to restore 
this pillar-worship, and the indignant author of "Idolomania," from whom I quote, says 
that our High-Church people are still trying "to restore Phallo-proskunesis, or the ado 
ration of the cross and its correlative rites " (p. 26). Architecture early adopted 
pillars with men, lions, elephants, bulls, eagles, &c., on their summits ; either alone and 
upright, or crouching and supporting roofs, entablatures, &c. ; these might signify the 
same thing ; viz., passion or fertility, as the support of the house or universe of God, 
and of this world and all that pertains thereto. Such pillars divide and support the 
houses also of the Sun in the ancient Zodiacs, and can be seen on many old sculpturings 
and on coins. "Idolomania" says : " On a silver tri-drachm of the Isle of Lesbos in 
M. D Ennery s cabinet .... is a man embracing a woman-, and on the reverse the 
phallus or cross in relief within the tetrakt or square of Pythagoras," which shows us 
clearly what "holy ceremony" or "sacrifice" these symbols signified. The unity of the 
sexes is symbolised in Hindooism by two equilateral triangles, which are said to re 
present the ineffable and self-existent one, the Swayatnbhoova from whom emanate all 
the gods and goddesses of earth, past, present, and to come. 

It was from seeing the prevalence of this cruciform phallic- worship, that the emperor 
Theodosius, between 378 and 395, issued a decree prohibiting the sign of the cross 
being sculptured or painted on the pavements of churches. Tertullian the African had, 

1 Idolomania, or The Legalised Cross not the Instrument of Crucifixion, by"Investigator Abhorrens is a 
very useful tract, which I recommend my readers to peruse. 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

about 200 A.C., complained that the devil customarily made a sign on the foreheads of 
the worshippers of the Persian god Mithra, who was at this time one of the deities of 
the Romans. He accused Christians of adoring the cross, and before him Justin Martyr 
said that Christians made the sign of the Greek Khi, X or % (that which may be seen 
on the large Phalli in the British Museum mentioned at page 207) on all occasions 
and upon all sorts of things, to denote the first power of God (Apol. II. i). In those 
days the Khi was written like the Algebraic plus +, as we see it on the Sigeian stone 
of 500 B.C., given to us by the Rev. Dr Bos worth ; and it was this Kiasmos that is seen 
common to all lands and from the most ancient days, as in the symbol for Venus situ 
ated below her circle, but also in that of all other planets and many constellations. 
I give here in Fig. 99 the planetary symbols, and many of the sacred sectarian and 
other hieroglyphs to which ancient men have attached much significance. Several of 
the emblems have been already dwelt upon, and the others I will hereafter refer to. 
X vni vil VI V IV ill II I 

H ^i rjr ^ ca v.^ 


The term cross was never applied to the Cross of Christ, till about the 2d century 
or days of Justin Martyr, 110 A.C., who however always used the term Stauros. It 
is believed that owing to some early French version of the gospels using Croix, and 
hence Crucifix, for Stauros, our English translators used Crux as applicable to any 
thing in the shape of the Greek ;/, + or X Kiasm; but a very ancient meaning of crux, 
common I believe before the Christian era, was sorrow, grief, repentance, and the 
Romans never understood by Crux a straight line or a beam with a transverse upon it. 
Suidas tells us that the Stauros was a straight piece of wood fixed in the ground, and 
signifies stability and strength, terms always applicable to Maha-Deva. The Roman 
Furca was like a Y or Upsilon r, which is the Druidic phallic-tree, and this is what 
Scaliger thinks Christ was crucified upon, as Jews never used crosses for punishments. 
Had this however been the case, the gospel- writers would, it is thought, have called 
such dikranon or phourke, and not Stauros. But it matters little ; both are highly 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 229 

phallic, more especially with a dead man hung thereon, for this was then a true sacrifice 
to Maha-Deva. A stauros was used for fastening down men, who were to be flayed or 
disembowelled, whilst the Crux up to 65 A.C., was only known as an instrument of 
torture to thrust through the body of one on the stauros. (Idol., Note p. 5). 

The pious and much shocked writer of " Idolomania " justly adds on this subject of 
Phallic faiths and emblems, that " he who would avert the destruction of purity in 
morals and holiness in religion, must not be prudish in language" (p. 13) ; but still he 
gives us some good matter, though behind a shield. If the Greeks had many hundreds of 
years B.C. "their Hermetes and Termini" to mark their fields and boundaries, roads and 
sacred places; so, he says had Asia, which claimed the dying saviour of Man on a cross, such 
"a religious symbol thousands of years it is probable before the crucifixion on Calvary." 

The Egyptian " emblems of life," or phalli, used to be very abundant in the 
British Museum ; they had once evidently been used as religious ornaments, and were in 
the form of a cross or four phalli meeting in a centre, which centre, if a circle, was vari 
ously called " the wheel of life," the sun, &c. Constantine, to please the Christians, 
abolished staurosis or stake-punishment, and Theodosius prohibited the carving of 
the symbol where it would be exposed to profanation (Hume, H. E. App., I. 8) ; which 
shows us all knew that Christ was put upon the genuine and simple symbol, and not 
on the Crux which is the Phallus complex. The question has this interest, that it proves 
Christians have no claim to the very phallic symbol which some have sought to 
monopolise as altogether their own. 

The sculptures of ancient Bamian that door between lofty cliffs whence our high 
" Asian Fathers " are believed to have passed down into Asyria, Iran, Egypt, and Greece a huge erect man and woman on their vertical faces, whilst on their summit 
and adjoining eminences we see single Lingam-pillars and upright stones, as in the case 
of the upright Amon, Jupiter- Stator, Apollo, or Siva. All ancient processions carried 
somewhat indifferently a male figure, or some solar sign, and in almost all the rites of 
old faiths we see the serpent or Pythic Apollo. We have seen him in my Plate IV. 1 0, 
winding round the Skandinavian " Yule," Seul, Sun-log or lingam prominent at 
Christmas, a time which much requires the enlivening God, and who is accordingly 
then hailed with such epithets as Invictus Sol ; whilst the 25th of December is called 
" Natalis Invicti Solis," for the serpent then lashes him into vigor, as Vishnoo s Hansa 
roused the wearied Brahma. 

The Irish took early and more kindly than the British to serpents and crosses, but 
they at once and for many centuries continued to entwine the serpent-god around the 
cross. On and about all ancient Irish crosses, relics, and sculptures the serpent is most 
conspicuous, which is curious when we are assured that there is not, or was not till lately, 
a serpent on the island. Had the people under these circumstances been only looking 
about for a serpentine form, one would imagine that, like some French districts, 
they would have symbolised the eel ; and their not doing so assures us that their 
ophiolatry was a distinct faith brought from abroad. It is also evident that the horror 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

with which some Irishmen as well as Scotchmen regard Eel-eating, has its root in serpent 
worship, just as Europe cannot be persuaded to eat the Hippos-symbol of a later faith, 
by which Indian story tells us a creation arose. One radical objection to the eel would 
be that it had not the power of expanding itself and standing up erect, which the 
sacred serpent has. 

Serpent and Fish extremities have been given to many gods, goddesses, and great 
men and women, to denote the properties of these creatures, or their Kingly or Queenly 
origin ; and this quite apart from those mermaidish ideas which may have arisen from 
the ancients believing that man has a much closer connection with the lower creation than 
even Darwinists would grant, or from great men coming to a land by the sea. I give 

. here such a figure, obtained from a very extra 
ordinary source the lofty gates of the Maho- 
medan king s garden at Lucknow. Those 
who know this faith will be amazed to see 
such come from the palace of so virulent and 
iconoclastic a race, and especially so where rul 
ing over idolatrous Indians (as the conquerors 
called the Hindoos), and where Islands long 
considered it their special mission to efface 
and destroy not only "every graven image, 
but every painting or sculpture of man or 
beast." There is also less excuse for breaking 
the commandment here than in any place on 
earth, for the crescent was ruling in the most 
holy land of Ayoodya (Oud), where Vish- 
noo s finest incarnations first appeared and 
longest tarried, and here, if anywhere, Mos 
lems should have been circumspect ; but the 
knee which, still ever bends in monthly adora 
tion and prayer before Isis Virgin Moon, need 
not scruple to do the same to this one of her 
most archaic symbols. The artist of the Luck- 
now figures, no doubt a Hindoo, has, it may be said, been allowed too much of his own 
" heathen " way, and taken such liberties with the Islami fish as to thoroughly betray its 
Aryan root and significance beyond what the Mahomedan lord could, or doubtless would 
have permitted, had he not been too callous, or ignorant, or both ; for not only have we here 
a fish, but, oh, horror! a woman s bust, and that vile reptile s tail symbol of a faith which 
Moslems have freely shed their blood to efface, on a hundred battle-fields, and for hundreds 
of years. So persistent, however, are these old faiths, that they stand not only asserted on 
these palaces of "this people of the book," but the fish is even here the Royal seal and signet 
of the kingdom of Oud ! thus evincing its imperishability. The idea is clearly ophitish, 


Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


as well as piscine, and well the Mahomedan knows that in a hundred favorite tales 
his young crescent moon is a serpent ; so that Island, though this twining fish- Queen 
here be, we really see in her only a continuation of that old old faith, which 40 centu 
ries ago flourished on the Ganges, Euphrates, and the Nile. Dr Inman shows us 
the fish in the frontispiece of his AUG. Faiths, as on the head of Isis, of which I here 
give a side view, from page 68 of his volume on Pagan and Christian Symbolism. 
This Mahomedan Fish-Queen may be called the female Dagon, he of piscine extremities 
who was a king, and is probably seen in this other figure, supported by two fish gods, 
which I also get from Dr InmariaAnct.FaithsIl. 398, and he from a Cornelian cylinder of 
the Ousley collection. The central god-man in Fig. 1 02 is clearly 
Oanes or Bel, worshipped or attended by two gods of Fecundity, 
on whom the Creator or great Sun-god, also with fish-like 

Fig. 102. OANNI 


Fig. 101.-ISI 

tail, is clearly intended to be gazing down benignly. This 
picture reminds us of the scene enacted on the summit of the 
hill of Eephidim, which I have likened to Sun and Moon upholding the procreative 
energies of Jhavh symbolised by a Kod or Standard, and afterwards worshipped below 
the hill as a " Nissi " on an Altar or Ark. The Greeks incorporate Jah or Y ho and 
Cannes in the sacred name John, or loannes. 

Some countries preferred pourtraying this fish-idea under the form of a lovely 
woman, supported or befriended by Dolphins ; but this required a good deal 
more labour and art, than merely giving one figure with fish extremities ; 
this last also enabled the cognate or homogeneous idea of the woman and 
Serpent to be depicted in a facile manner, by merely twisting about the long 
snake-like extremities, as in the Lucknow fish. Egypt showed her " good 
goddesses," says Mr S. Sharpe, in this ophite form, Fig. 103, where we. see 
one represented by the Royal Asp with circular, and therefore solar head 
which here forms her bust ; whilst two Cones or Columns which it has 
always been customary to call feathers, crown her Royal head. 

The Serpent may be generally seen encircling the neck of him with the three eyes 
and the crescent on his forehead the symbolic trident in one hand, and the hour glass 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Mart in all Lands. 

in the other, great Siva, when "he is a very austere god, and wholly mystical and 
spiritual," says H. H. Wilson. No revelries or midnight orgies must disgrace his 
shrines such as phallic-worship presented at times in Egypt, Asia Minor and Southern 
Europe, or as still obtains among Vishnooites and worshippers of nature s female 
energies. The serpent is a constant accompaniment to the rites of worship known as that 
of the Lares and Penates, as we see graphically depicted in this drawing, which I find 
in Gwilt s Encyclopedia of Architecture, page 1 23. He takes it from a painting of 

a kitchen in Pompeii, exhibiting 
what he calls, " the worship of 
the Lares, under whose care and 
protection provisions and cook 
ing utensils were placed." Of 
course all matters connected with 
food -are intimately connected 
with religion in the East, and 
in this very comprehensive plate 
we see the worship not only of 
Lingam and Yoni, Penates and 
Lares, but of Fire ; the latter 
being uppermost and combined 
with the Phallus in the Lingam- 
sliaped fire-altar, where persons are seen standing around, watching and tending 
the sacred fire. In the lower storey, the Lingam appears as it usually does in every 
holy Sivaite temple ; in this instance excited by two huge snakes. The head of the Linga 
is a fir cone or head of Indian corn, with a leaf on each side. This picture is an instance 
of what I have already stated ; viz., that the most sacred Lingam is always far away down 
below the ground-level or temple-base, to which the Priests will seldom allow the un 
believer access, see Fig. 4, page 39. That the Pompeian drawing also represents the 
worship of the female energy we see from the lower altar-figure, where Isis symbol 
the cow s head appears on the bell-shaped vessel, here no altar ; the pine cone within 
the vessel, and two leaves on each side form a complete Linga-in- Yoni, but too gross, 
and therefore hid away from ordinary ga-ze. A word as to Bells, for these are as neces 
sary in Siva s temples as in Christian churches. 

No Lingam-worship can be conducted without the bell, and the bell idea is as 
forcibly portrayed in this Pompeian household-shrine as in the early Irish bells ; in 
union the Lingam and bell give forth life and sound, as Siva s priests have 
confessed to me. Bell-ornamentation is very conspicuous on sacred buildings, 
where it is usually said to represent the mammsB, and denote fertility ; it 
is always connected with the Phallus, and very commonly hung upon Phalli, as 
is that of St Fillans in Scotland, and as we observe in the case of many bronzes 
and pictures, obtained from Pompeii and Herculaneum, and old Roman buildings. 


Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


I allude to those well known ones seen on the Eoman ruins of Nismes, too gross 
to depict. In the Art Journal of February 1873, a writer unacquainted with 
phallic lore tells us that the ordinary ornamentations of holy Bells, is the cross in 
various curious forms, fleurs-de-lis, pomegranates, lions rampant, eagles, and dragons ; 
that the usual crosses are Tor s hammer, and such as I show in Fig. 20, page 65, 
the Pattee, the triple cross, and common Hindoo Tylfot, all seen on page 228. He tells 
us that this last word is composed of two words, Su and Aste, signifying " Well it is," 
or Amen, which therefore corresponds to the Hindoo AUM, the ineffable Creator ; 
he says the Fleur-de-lis when in a circle, as in this Fig. 105, a common form 
for Church windows, signi 
fies "The Trinity in V IV 
Eternity," which greatly 
amused some of my Sivaite 
friends, when I explained 
to them this roundabout 
mode of expressing the 
great Arbil. I found Hin 
doos quite cognisant of an 
old form of bell, which left 
the top of the dome open, 
and also of the meaning of 
bells in temples and in 
ecclesiastical architecture, 
and of all the various other 
symbols in this Fig 105, 
which I shall have occasion hereafter to refer to. 

In this other highly graphic picture, No. 106, of Isis and Horus fringed with bells, 
forming the lOni figure, which Inman gives in Anc. Faiths, I. 
53, we see the great appropriateness of the bell as a symbol. 
The gem is from a copper vase found at Cairo, and shows us Isis 
as the nursing mother, forming together with her boy a " Column- 
of Life," inside what we may call "the Asyrian Tree or Door 
of Life " or the Jewish "Grove." The bell-flowers around them 
are held to be " the Ciborium or Egyptian bean, and to repre 
sent both a bell and a teat;" whilst the matured bean was thought 
very like the male organ. No Egyptian priest would look 
upon the legume. We know how much Aaron and Jews 
valued bells, see Exodus xxviii. 34, and Isaiah refers to 
virgins wearing bells at the base of their garments (iii. 16-18) 
as also does the Koran. Dr Inman explains very satisfactorily why marrying a virgin 

Fig. 105 

Fig. 106. isis AND HORUS. 

2 G 


Rivers of Life, or .Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

was "bearing away the bell;" she was a "fountain sealed" (Canticles iv. 12), "a 
closed garden," the virgo intacta, not at all the Shidah mt5>, Lady or Spouse, whom 
we have in this figure ; for, says Inman, HK> shaddai is a " field," " my mother" or 
" female ;" IQ-shadai " the all powerful one ;" but Shad it? is the breast or pap, and 
shadah mp, that which pours out ; so we see clearly that Abraham s God EL-SHADAH 
was simply the male SHEDDER, or Jupiter Pluvius ; and that the Ephesians correctly 
represented the same idea in their Shadah or Di-Ana, which I here give from the same 

clear-sighted author, who also calls her the Ishtar of 
Mesopotamia and the Bhavani of India. Her em 
battled crown and doorway denote universal mother 
hood ; Jier open hands and outspread arms supporting 
salacious lions, the bounties she is willing to grant to 
all ; whilst winged figures, kissing-birds, serpents, and 
roses, complete a picture which was well fitted to make 
the ancient world cry out : " Great is Diana of the 
Ephesians !" 

The early Christian sect of Ophites evidently desired 
to harmonise Christianity and the old mythologies, for 
we find them also calling the Serpent the Agatlio-demon, 
" the Love -God " or demon of love. In Egypt it sym- 
\HA\$>Q&Knepli, in Greece Apollo; and, through Kekrops, 
was the father of the ancient races of Attica, and the 
symbol sacred to Athena the virgin-goddess and 
" Protectress of the state." 

Some tales of Apollo represent him as killing the 
mighty Python, but this is only when the narrators 
are alluding to the scorpion as Typhon, just as the 
mythology of India represents their Apollo (Krishna) 
killing the great snake in the Yamoona. Bryant tells us 
correctly that Apollo and the Python were the same, and 
that the hill where both were worshipped as one god was 
called, Tor-ophis, or shortly Tripos the Sun-Serpent 
or serpent-hill. The etymology of the word shows 
in what light the Serpent or Sun-God was regarded 
Ops is power and dominion ; Opulens is wealthy ; Opus is work ; Optics is from Optomai 
" I see," hence the Serpent is Power, Wisdom, Light, and therefore a fit type of crea 
tion and generative power. The Priestesses of the Delphic Tripos especially sang their 
god s praise on the -seventh or Sol s day, and thus united the two faiths. 

If the ancient Roman called the entrance to his dwelling-place Vestibulum, so has 
the Christian adopted, what architects call Vesica as the favourite window for the house 

Fig. 107 


Serpent and Phallic Worship. 235 

of his God. Properly this form of opening is only applicable to the Deity or Virgin 
Mary, and is as seen in my Fig. 105. m-2, or in the more lOnish form as on page 145. 
The Indian, Egyptian, and Asyrian prefer the Lotus-bell, as well when in flower 
as in seed, closed, and in section, and showing the seed vessels ; this for all sacred 
architecture. The Asyrians pourtrayed the same on their jewellery and pottery, and 
the Egyptians on their mummy-paper. India and Egypt seem in their symbolism to 
have seized on precisely the same ideas ; thus in both countries we have all the well- 
known hieroglyphs which I give in Figs. 99 and 105, and to all of these distinct 
names and ideas seem to have been attached. Thus, turning to Fig. 105, we may say 
generally, that in col. 1 we have female or dual attributes as water and fire ; in col. 2, 
male, or male and female in conjunction ; and in cols. 4 and 5, most of the ordinary 
conjunctions which Egypt called " creative energy " the three in one. In time the 
chief and most significant of these seem to have been thrown together into this well- 
known and highly analytical figure of perfected creation, which 
gives the idea of man, his origin and qualities. It will be found in 
many works, but I give this from the last edition of Symbolism where 
it is said to be " very common on ancient Hindoo monuments in 
China." I have often seen it in India. Elsewhere we are told that 

A is the EARTH or foundation on which all build. 

Wa WATER, as in an egg, or as condensed fire and ether. 

Ra FIRE, or the elements in motion. 

Ka AIR, or wind- Juno or lOni ; a condensed element. Fig 108 

Clia, ETHER, or Heaven, the cosmical Former. 

As it was difficult to show the All-pervading Ether, Egypt for this purpose 
surrounded her figures with a powder of stars, which on Indra s garments, we are told, 
were Yonis. So this figure gradually developed, becoming in time a very concrete 
man, standing on two legs instead of on a box-like base the crescent Air stretched 
out as his arms, and the refulgent flame as his head. Greek and Eoman lore tell us 
that man s head represents Apollo or the sun, some maintain as being round, but clearly 
because it is Fire or the light which lightens all, and raises us above our otherwise merely 
animal state. From such symbolism no doubt came alphabets, so that in the ancient 
hieroglyphs we actually see the roots of written language ; which very difficult, complex, 
and learned subject this is not the place to dwell upon. Yet I must ask the general 
reader s attention to some well-known facts as to the meanings which all letters had ; 
or perhaps I should say, the sensuous objects, or signs we call letters ; represented in the 
eyes of those who from the hieroglyphic passed into the hieratic and thence to the 
enchorial stage; for these symbols our letters strongly mark or point to the leading- 
religious symbols and ideas which prevailed among their learned ones, who were, of 
course, always hierarchs. If we take up an ancient Canaanitic alphabet, we find that a 

236 Rivers of Life, or .Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

distinct and mostly sensuous meaning is attached to every letter, and that, in the most 
ancient forms of these, this rule is still more fully and clearly dominant, thus : 

A. Aleph, is the Bull, symbol of generation. M. Mem, is Water as in ripples. 

B. Beth, is the House, or Home. N". Nun, is a Fish, and Woman. 

C. Gimmel, is a Yoke. O. Oin is the Eye, and Sun. 

D. Daleth, is the Door of Life Woman. P. Phe is the Mouth, Oracle or Male. 

E. He, is a Window. Q. or K. Koph, is the Ear. 

L. Lamed, is a Stimulus, generally female. T. Tau is the Mark, and Future Life. 

The ancient Hebrew Aleph was apparently a shaft or pole with serpent, and 
rather more pronouncedly so than the present K ; the Tau or T was a sloping Tor s 
hammer, like that seen in my Fig. 19, page 65. This was called in the Canaanitic 
language by the phallic name of " the mark," that is the mark of sex in Hindostani, 
the Nishan, a common word for the pudendum of any creature. The first and last 
letters of alphabets are the priestly favourites, and next to these the following are very 
important : B, D, I, K, M, 0, P, T, and U, or V. Our European priests still adorn 
their churches and altars the arks of old, with flags displaying in prominent red figures 
(red is the holy phallic colour) such symbols as the circle with cross, or the Greek R 
the shepherd s crozier. At marriages and confirmations, which last correspond to the 
period of puberty, when the male assumed the Toga Virilis a great occasion with all 
old peoples, the Christian priest usually suspends banners from poles or crosses, &c., 
each banner having a bright red A and n (Alpha and Omega) such as we saw the 
Ancients hang from their sacred Palm trees, Fig. 1 6, page 62. This picture-literature pro 
claims to the initiated and learned, that now, especially at a marriage, is the end of 
childhood and beginning of new life ; the ignorant of course remain ignorant still, and 
only think the whole scenes and ceremonies, very "pretty and impressive !" To the 
initiated, the Omega is " the eye," or womb, or vesica piscis, according to the occasion 
on which used ; and the conjunction of the Alpha with the Omega is therefore rather 
indecently distinct. In Europe we are almost too far removed from the times and 
ideas which originated such marriage and " confirmation " signs, to judge the origin 
ators, but some parts of our " Prayer Books " and Bible, which we will not on 
any account yield up, are as gross as is to be found in the most ancient faiths. 

We had not very long ago a Royal confirmation ceremony on the occasion of our 
Queen s eldest grandson coming of age, and from my notes regarding this, taken at the 
time from the daily newspapers, I observe that " the walks were decorated with alter 
nate A s and /2 s, and the double triangle (see Fig. 105, n. 5), the emblem it was stated, of 
the Trinity ; and this figure was repeated, worked in Ivy and Oak, around the altar 
and its elaborately illumined niche." Now clearly "the Trinity" here was the Solo- 
Phallic one, for Oaks and Ivy, and male and female signs, are all his, and could not 
be imputed to the later "Aba Father," Paraklete or Logos. The church has here clearly 
forgotten herself, and stepped down from the o&p% of John i. 14, to its ancient equivalent 
the Basar of Gen. xvii. 1 1 ; even the colour, green everywhere, assures us that the 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 237 

creating God of ancient days is here symbolised. In the Oak and Ivy we recognise 
Tor and Friga, or Osiris and Kan-Osiris the tree of Osiris, and all the energies of 
fertility, and observe that they are scattered abundantly on and about the altar, or ark 
her symbol. The meaning was clearly that which the Greek held when he spoke of 
Herm-athena, or Mercury and Minerva in conjunction, representing the perfection of 
heaven and earth. A youth was here separating himself from the chains of childhood 
and joining the ranks of the Zi&er-Pater and it was impossible not to see in his fete 
and the Tree and Banner-symbolism, and Serpent-like garlands scattered everywhere, 
a, mild imitation of the Liberalia ideas of ancient Home ; we wanted only the " love 
sick ones " with their Thyrsus, dishevelled hair, spears, and serpents. 

We may remember that the assumption of the Toga Virilis had to take place 
when Virgo had attained her prime, and Sol was rising into Spring power, and 
conjoining with Luna. Then the bonds of liberty were relaxed, and a saturnalia 
proclaimed ; for with " the Scales " had come desires that nature asked freedom in the 
exercise of. I am not aware if the churches of Europe also observe such solar periods 
for their Confirmation ceremonies, but under the head of Sulla and Toga Virilis 
we find noteworthy details of Eoman customs, and similar ceremonies prevail in 
the East. 

The Sulla, in general a much more primitive article than our classical dictionary 
writers seem to imagine, and not hung from the neck, but at the foot of the abdomen, 
might, at the spring- solstice fetes, under due regulations, and with 
many significant and not very occult rites, be laid aside, as also 
the Praetexta, and be then formally presented and consecrated to 
the Lares, or female energy, as that from whence man and woman 
came forth to life. I here give the usual form of an Eastern Bulla ; 
it is a heart, that is the Ait, or Ain, or seat or " fount of passion," 
as the Egyptians called it. Smith s Dictionary shows one having 
the band adorned with fleurs-de-lis, which I should think very 
probable ; but I have never ventured to so closely scrutinise them, only seeing them 
when worn on the parts by children. Strange that Europe should now worship this form 
of heart, yet a Bulla signified "a bubble floating upon water/ and hence is the emblem 
of fertility and Salacia. Bacchus embraces the signification of water as the medium of life 
and spirit, and Bacchus or Liber is very much connected with this matter. With the 
Greeks he was not only Akkos or lakkos (our Jack in the box), but was the Sun-God 
Aka, a Bull ; and A, their first letter, represented him, as well as Oin and Oinos, wine, 
which points suspiciously to Aidoion, the pudendum. In Latin, Bacchus was Bon, Bonus, 
and Jeios, but invoked usually as le ( ity, from which we have leous Jeous, Jesus, &c. 
The cry was usually held to be Heva, or Eva, for the aspiration is unnecessary. In 
Sanskrit Iva is Viswajeni, or Prakriti, the universal mother. She has been represented 
by the astronomical hieroglyph used for Venus; for the Sanskrit /, when detached, is a 

238 Rivers of Life, or faiths of Man in all Lands. 

phallus with a ring, as we see this in the hands of Isis, there it means the Phanin, and 
the mundane egg. The Romans mistook, it has been said, the word Evan for a woman, 
and wrote it Euan, a name of Bacchus, which, as he was the Serpent-god, is very like an 
intentional mistake. We are told a curious story about a " Sulla " of the days of Theo- 
dosius fourth century A.C., which seems to speak of the vis inertia with which the old 
opposed the new faith. One Marcellus, a so-called Christian, bequeathed an Abrasax 
or sacred amulet to his children, which is said to be the original of the papal seal of 
lead, called THE BULL, as well as of the magical Agnus Dei with cross, see Cardinal 
Baronius on Idolatry, p. 41. Marcellus directed it to be. made as follows, and applied 
to the stomach in case of pains. On a jasper was to be engraved a serpent with seven 
rays, which was to be enclosed in a goldejn Bulla shaped like a heart, a globe, or an egg, 
and having the sexual parts engraved on it, probably as I show in the last figure. Such 
articles were often used, especially by the Gnostics the Ritualists of those days, else this 
Christian would not have ordered this one in his will; possibly the deities he thus decreed 
posthumous honour to were his favourites in life, and to appease them he so honoured 
them in his death. I am certain that if at the present moment such a relic were 
disinterred in the East, and said to have belonged to a god, millions could be frantically 
excited, and a great " religious revival " take place ! And although we may smile at 
the idea, the East could very well retort on the West, by asking if it would not also 
be so in Europe, were such a remarkable object found, and said to have been worn by 
Jesus or Mary. Of course they at one time did wear Bullae during boyhood and girl 
hood, as all decent children do, more especially in the hot season, when clothes are 
dispensed with. In regard to the alphabetic signs, the Hebrew sloping shaft and 
serpent, or the more common male symbol, the ploughshare, or " Adam " of the East 
(see Fig. 10 5. ii. -4), and the other alphas of the Syrian dialects, I should perhaps state that 
in Egypt and many of these lands the Lingam Bovis, rather than Lingam Hominis, was 
affected by the people. The Delta A was usually the door, and some particularised it 
as " the third stage of life." Dunbar s Greek Dictionary says that in Aristoph. Lye. 
151, it is the muliebre pudendum ; whilst Delphus, AEA^TS, or Belphus, fcxpvs, is 
" the womb." Elsewhere we read that "the house of the first stage" became to the 
ancients " the door of the third stage ; " for Pallas creation was held to end with the 
ceremonies of the Om-phallos, regarding which the Talmud has a great deal of curious 
and confirmatory matter. 

Moore, in his Hindoo Pantheon and Oriental Fragments, directed our attention 
forty years ago to the great importance of all words, nay, to every letter and symbol 
used in ancient religions. At page 299 of the latter volume, he writes : "In thinking 
over AIDS, DIVUS, 0o&, Deus, Devi, &c., I suspect that a scholar might discover 
mysteries in the form of and &, as well as in the * and Y and n, among the wild- 
nesses of Hindoo fable. The 6 is the conjunction of two cones or Linga ; separately, 
an emblem of Siva, the deity of death ; joined, it is the hieroglyph of his consort 0, 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 239 

the TOni. With the Greeks the 6 is seen singly, where a sense of death is meant to be 
indicated the initial of 0aw" (sic). In regard to letters and mystic signs and sculptures 
he remarks : " We may be assured that not one Egyptian or Hindoo hieroglyphic, or 
sectarian mark or symbol, be it ever so complicated or monstrous, was without its 
meaDing or allusion, historical, mythological, or religious, in some bearing or other. 
Not even a line or a dot, simple or compound, straight or wavy, was meaningless. 
The position was also of import. . . . The meanings, if dead in Egypt, live in India." 
The learned writer then goes on to speak of the Alpha being the plow and ever the 
representative of man, as Persephone the seed-vessel is of her who resides annually 
several months in " Hades." 

The Edinburgh Review, of July 1873, insists upon the great mystic importance 
of all Hebrew, and I think, if I remember aright, of all ancient alphabetic signs. The 
writer says that the Jewish sect of the Misrains " ascribe a divine origin and hidden 
teaching to the form of the square Kaldi characters a doctrine which points back 
to a period when the phonetic value of the hieroglyphics had not superseded all earlier 
ideographic significance. Thus the opening left between the stem of the Koph p and 
its curved part is said to intimate that the door of divine mercy was never closed to 
the penitent " that is, to the good man, or him who had a right to enter in. 

If we would understand early rude men aright, we must not spiritualise their 
words or proverbs too much ; and painful though it be to say so, I must insist that 
when rude races thus spoke of " the door," they commonly meant the Phallic one, and 
phallic matters also when using the terms " testimony, "and what our translators call the 
"heel," the "loin," the "grove," the "flesh," which we call the Basar 1^3, Logos, Gospel, 
&c. Most of us are far too simple and ignorant in regard to these points, and although 
I fain would not have been here the instrument of enlightening my fellows, yet the 
follies, false doctrines, rites, and great ecclesiastical figments which I have seen, as well 
in Asia and Africa, as Europe, built upon the grossest, most irrational, and impure 
language and practices, though of course in general unwittingly so, has forced me to 
come forward and add my humble protest to that of the many learned ones which may 
now be found, if men would but search and read, and not confine their attention to one 
little book, and their own little isle and sect. 

We cannot too narrowly, faithfully and sceptically watch words, symbols, rites, 
topography, and all else, when we study faiths or approach "Holy places," or even ordi 
nary shrines, old churches and temples ; that is, if we would not be led away by mere 
feeling, poetry, and specious appearances, or by the romance of Nature and Art. All 
priests try to veil their mysteries from the gaze of the vulgar, and especially detest 
calm and dispassionate inquiry ; as the light becomes strong, they draw down the 
blinds and dim the sanctuary ; so Rome latterly hid away her Vesta the Yoni, or 
Linga-in-Yoni, or Adytum of Agni-Mandalam which her priests, when asked, said, 
was " Holy Fire," Swahia, etc. It is easy to attach pleasant names to that which 

240 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

has ever borne ancient and pleasant memories, and so the Phallic Deities were con 
tinued into cultured ages and respected by cultivated minds, which would have 
abhorred the faith had the truth been fully permitted to dawn upon them. To the. 
Fire-God were given misleading names and functions ; in Spring he was Amorus, and 
disguised, though faintly so, as a Earn holding a Spear ; in Autumn, as the full-bearing 
Ceres, and elsewhere as Fire sitting on the great Lotus-ball. 

The Paters and Maters of Rome asked not, and were very ignorant as to the 
meaning or origin of their faith. On week days and festivals they went through their 
accustomed routine of ceremonies and adoration in connection with the Lares and Pe 
nates social and public, daily adored the family male and female figures which stood 
in the vestibulum, and did all that their, pastors and masters told them, with as much 
pious care and gross ignorance as is done now all around us before the public and private 
fetishes of Europe, be they books, crosses, altars, or eucharistic emblems. Nothing, 
said the priests of ancient Athens and Rome, and of ancient, nay modern London, could 
go wrong, if all persons but observed the rites, doctrines, and fetes, etc., of their faith, and 
so says all Europe. The Hindoo is less ignorant here than most peoples ; he knows well 
what the vestibulum and its Deity represents, for if he breaks his caste-rules he has 
to be regenerated practically by passing through a door of gold or silver, and often 
through a symbolic orifice, and visit and fee certain holy shrines. He used to pass 
through an artificial cow, and curious perforated rocks and clefts, as Coleman describes 
to us in his Hindoo Mythology (p. 175), but civilization has now mostly confined the 
penalty to rupees and some social ostracism. 

I have said that the human head was looked upon in Egypt and by ancient 
peoples as the divine part of man the Solar orb or " Light of the body," that which 
passes through the orifice of the Crux-ansata, Catholic Albe and Chasuble, and which 
this Faith marks on the summit with the sacred solar Circle, Corona, or Tonsure. 
This last is no insignificant or unimportant mark, and its investiture is- the first cere 
mony which denotes the entire dedication of the neophyte to the service of his God and 
his Church ; it is one known to many faiths, besides that ruled by him who sits where 
Saturn s high priest reigned. Egypt preferred the Serpent on head to the Tonsure, 
and so her devoted ones are seen with it on the forehead, where Jahveh s " chosen people " 
placed the phallic T-tau. The serpent on head denoted Holiness, Wisdom, and Power, as 
it does when placed on gods and great ones of the East still ; but the Hindoo and Zoroas- 
trian very early adopted a symbolic thread instead of the ophite deity, and the throw 
ing of this over the head is also a very sacred rite, which consecrates the man-child 
to his God ; this I should perhaps have earlier described, and will do so now. 

The adoption of the Poita or sacred thread, called also the Zenar and from the 
most ancient pre-historic times by these two great Bactro- Aryan families, points to a 
period when both had the same faith, and that faith the Serpent. The Investiture is the 
Confirmation or second birth of the Hindoo boy ; until which he cannot, of course, be 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 241 

married. After the worship of the heavenly stone the Saligrama, the youth or child 
takes a branch of the Vilwa tree in his right hand, and a mystic cloth-bag in the 
left, when a Poita is formed of three fibres of the Sooroo tree (for the first cord must 
always be made of the genuine living fibres of an orthodox tree), and this is hung to the 
boy s left shoulder ; he then raises the Vilwa branch over his right shoulder, and so stands 
for some time, a complete figure of the old faiths in Tree and Serpent, until the Priest 
offers up various prayers and incantations to Soorya, Savitri or Sot, the Eternal God. 
The Sooroo-Poita is then removed as not durable enough, and the permanent thread 
is put over the neck. It also is formed of three threads, each 96 cubits or 48 yards 
long, folded and twisted together until only so long that, when thrown over the left 
shoulder, it extends half-way down the right thigh, or a little less ; for the object 
appears to be to unite the Caput, Sol, or Seat of intellect with that of Passion, and so 
form a perfect man. 

Syrians, as well as all other nations, connected the Serpent with Fire. Thus the 
Jews had their fire altars, on which the holy flame must be p cicfisaTov, ever burning and 
"never go out" (Lev. vi. 13) ; and they carried about a serpent on a pole as their healer. 
So also the writer of " the Acts of the Apostles" speaks of the Christian Holy Ghost 
as having Serpent-like " cloven tongues of fire," which the margin of orthodox Bibles 
very properly connects with Isaiah s Seraphim, vi. 6. It was these " wavy tongues of 
fire " which struck life and animation into that young faith, and converted its run 
away disciples into fanatical followers (I am supposing that they are historical persons), 
just as Holy Ghosts or fiery Serpents have done in all creeds. 

Both Python and Pythoness were severe Deities, requiring enormous, costly and 
cruel sacrifices, which however neither men nor women have ever shrunk from : 
crowds in every land and in all times have waded through blood, and tried to excel 
each other in giving all that each held most precious to their Deities, but especially to Sol 
and Siva. If the pious Origen, the priests of Kubele, and tens of thousands of others 
in the western world have made themselves eunuchs, aye, and far worse, " for the 
kingdom of heaven s sake " (Matt, xix.), so have millions in the East dedicated health 
and wealth, and yielded to every degradation of soul and mind and body for years and 
years ; and finally cast themselves, like the Edomites, from the tops of lofty rocks. 
Lucian writes that crowds did this at the festivals of the Syrian goddess Hea, 1 near 
the Euphrates, first singing, dancing, and rejoicing, and then before the final leap 
crowning themselves with garlands. Mothers used then to put their children " into 
sacks at home " and fling them from the giddy heights of the temple, whilst others 
beat and vociferated at them all the way to the precipice, and finally drove them 
over these deadly cliffs. These were days of strong faith and unbounded belief in 
miracles and sacred writings, and therefore show us clearly what "strong faith" leads to. 

Phenicia sacrificed her fairest children when war, pestilence, or famine urged her ; 

1 No doubt Haiya or Hiya, a male and female god, and third in the Trinity of Asyrian gods. 
I. 2 H 

242 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

and especially so to Saturn the European Siva. In Byblos, Love or Adonis required 
the immolation of boys, just as Siva and Dooiga demanded before the British ruled in 
India. The founding of a colony or city required a vast hecatomb of children, which, as 
population is the life of a land, was simply an offering of faith to the god of production ; 
and so Abram, who longed for posterity, showed his faith in proposing to sacrifice his 
first son. The Carthaginians were celebrated for their fire-offerings. Hamilcar sacri 
ficed human beings from dawn to sunset at the siege of Syracuse, and when king 
Agathocles appeared before their city to besiege it, 200 boys of the best families were 
offered to the flames. There Kronus stood like the Jewish Molok with extended red 
hot hands, on which when the victims were laid, they rolled into the fire-belly of the 
God. Darius Hydaspes, and after him the Greeks and Romans, in vain tried to stop 
these sacrifices, which continued until the consulate of Tiberius. Mahomedanism 
stopped human sacrifice to the Sacred Stone of the Al-Kaba, it being at one time com 
mon for black-vested priests to offer every seventh day a youth, virgin, or suckling, who 
were said to be married to the god by fire. Omar, in conquering Egypt, stopped 
human sacrifices to the Nile ; Lykurgus put a stop to the sacrifice of men to Artemis ; 
and Kekrops put this partially down in Attica. Themistocles sacrificed three Persian 
prisoners to Dionysus before going to battle. In Sicily and Rhodes, a brazen bull 
consumed the victims in" his red-hot body. At Cesar s triumph, Mars had two human 
victims ; and Octavius sacrificed 300 to 400 for his victory over Antony. Sextus 
Pompeius first century B.C. cast men into the sea as offerings to Neptune. Eusebius 
complained, in the fourth century A.C., that a man was sacrificed annually to Jupiter 
Latiaris. The Druids of Central Europe and Britain, in Cesar s time, sacrificed slaves 
and criminals, smearing with the blood their statues and sacred trees ; and the Jews, 
for long centuries, used steadily to give up their first-born 1 to their fierce and "jealous 
Jahveh." The Germans, says Tacitus, offered to Woden their phallic Mercury and 
chief god sacrifices of prisoners. The Lithuanians bought and offered men " without 
blemish " to their Serpent gods ; and Skandinavians broke the backs of their human 
victims over their sacrificial stones or Lingams. The Swedish King On immolated 
nine sons to prolong his own life ; but the Swedes sacrificed two kings to get good 
harvests ! A Gothic mother offered up her son to Odin for a successful brew of beer, 
by which she desired to win the heart of her husband, King Alfrekr. 

All the ancient races of America, North and South, offered up human victims 
to their Sun-gods, showing how close the connection between Siva and the Sun was, 
even after Solar-worship became comparatively pure. The sacrifices of the Azteks to 
their Sun-god Tohil are described as something awful. The Rev. S. Baring Gould, from 
whom I glean most of the above, says that " at the dedication of a single Mexican 
temple 70,000 men were slaughtered," and that yearly 4000 to 5000 victims were 
immolated between 1486 and 1521, making a pile of 136,000 skulls where the present 
1 See, for ample proof of this, Colenso " On the Pentateuch and Muab Stone." 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 243 

Mexican Cathedral stands. Sometimes 20,000, he says, were butchered in a day ! 
which we must doubt, seeing how long it would take to do this, and to arrange, 
not to say dispose of the bodies in any way. 

This same author says that " the idea involved in communion with God is the 
reception of something from Him," and that this used to assume, in ancient days, the 
gross form of sexual intercourse. Thus, on the summit of Belus temple was a 
chamber, with only a bed and table ; and a Theban temple, says Herodotus, had the 
same, and to this bed every night went the proudest lady of the land ; so also at 
Patara in Lukia. Strabo says the noblest ladies went to the tornbs of the concubines 
of Jupiter Amon. In our days Mr Prince bestowed the favours of the god before all 
his community in an English Agapemone ; and Cook s sailors say that this was also 
one of the sacrificial ceremonies which they were called upon to witness. The gods 
could also be found by what was called incubation. Women seeking them were 
locked into the temples, lay down and slept, and were visited by dreams. It was 
not uncommon apparently for men and women to make use of these customs to 
obtain children or illicit intercourse. I have frequently heard of the guiltiness of both 
husbands and wives at similar religious rites and fetes, where priests have an op 
portunity of seeing frail, and offspring-loving ones alone. Josephus tells us (Ant. 
XVIIL, iii., 4) that Decius Mundus passed himself off as the god Anubis in a temple 
of Isis, and so had intercourse with a noble matron, Paulina, who imagined she thus 
received the embraces of the god ; and although Paulina may have been deceived, yet 
my Eastern experience of many church or temple rites assures me that the priests are 
not alone to blame for arranging ceremonies where childless women, with imbecile or no 
husbands, can get opportunities which do not exist for them at home. I have seen 
the touters, or beaters-up for a pilgrimage to Juganat and HSrdwar, enter quiet villages 
and be all very warmly received by buxom girls, childless wives, and disconsolate 
widows, especially at times when their male relatives were in the fields ; and I am 
certain that pilgrimages are no more to be got up miraculously, or from what we call 
purely spiritual and religious motives, than are European churches and so-called Re 
vivals. Juganat has a regular staff who beat up Northern India, just as gangs acting 
for Moody and Sankey beat up Liverpool and London. I* think that priests and 
women understand each other better than men in regard to all the emotional parts of 
faiths, as Revivals, sacraments and such like. 

The Rev. S. Baring Gould informs us, that after the grosser ideas of human 
sacrifice, and of sexual or such divine bodily blessings or favours, the religious world 
passed into another phase, viz., that of " eating and drinking consecrated food and 
wine," or other fluids, sometimes blood, or a mixture of which blood formed an ingre 
dient, as in the shocking Sivo-Sakti rites. This pious clergyman actually says that 
the " eating of the body and blood of Christ " is the last development of these grosser 
forms ; and that the ancient priest also taught that whosoever shall in faith eat and 

244 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

drink this consecrated meat and drink, shall become partakers of the Divine nature. 
Any one who wishes to see how Christians got many of the ideas and ceremonies of 
their Eucharist, and why Paul said you cannot be the partakers of the Lord s tables, 
and of the tables of devils, should read this very Christian author at page 405, and 
thereabouts. 1 I will hereafter show their Mithraic origin. 

Severe and horrible, however, as sacrifice becomes in several Phallic phases of faith, 
we must yet remember that we are indebted to Phallic faith and Phallic lore for nearly 
all that adorns ancient works of art and all that enriches poetry and classic literature. 
It first worshipped the beauties, peculiarities, and grotesque forms of nature, in all 
animal and bird life, and was the first to appreciate what is loveliest on earth and grand 
in heaven. In regard to animals, we see many which continued to be esteemed by Chris 
tians for several centuries after Christ ; if Diana or Phebe was set aside as a name, not so 
her Antelope, nor the Dove, lona, and Fish. These all abound upon the Christian tombs ; 
the "Ever- Virgin" sheltered and loved all animals, and with the weakness of her sex 
preferred the society of hunters, of whom Phebus was chief. It has been said that the 
Antelope was liked by early Christians, because Pliny, the naturalist, wrote that it 
" had powers to draw forth serpents out of their holes by its breath, and then 
trampled them to death." I fear we must relegate this story much further back, and 
to Phallic lore, as the Antelope is a peculiarly violent and nauseous animal when in 
heat. We probably better see the Virgin-Diana idea in that old -old Asyrian sculpture, 
which I give as figure 9 in my Plate V., where the great king of the " Tree of Life " 
carries his little virgin about with him, and the spots denote woman. The maid of 
Eome was the Artemis of Greece and the Bubastes of Lower Egypt ; but before them 
all she was the great Diet- Ana, or goddess Ana or Anat, of which I will speak much 
in treating of Asyrian and Kaldian Faiths. We shall not be far wrong in closely 
connecting this goddess with the Queen of Heaven Maya, to whom "the bird of the 
tombs and night" belonged. The owl was also sacred, we know, to Athena or Minerva, 
or as creation to her as Pallas-Athene, which I consider means Pallas and Athene, or 
a Sri-linga, that is all organs, or Perfected Nature.. 

Christians were very partial to the fish, but, indeed, may be said to have carried 
on freely, all the ancient ideas, as which faith has not after its 
first attempt a.t purification 1 On Christian tombs especially 
.Ado fish abound, commonly crossed as in this figure 110, 
which reminds us that crossed serpents denote their act of 
intercourse, and in this symbolism the fish woulo^ be very 
natural and usual, because denoting new life in death. Dorceto, 
the half-fish and half- woman of the temple of the Dea Syria at 

Fig. 110 FISIl AND WOMAN IDEA. TT . T . , . f , , 

ASYRUX8 AND CHRISTIAN* Hira, was, says Lucian, the perfection 01 woman ; she was the 
mystic Danes, Athor, and Venus, whom Egyptians have handed down to us embalmed. 
] " Origin of Religious Beliefs," by the Rev. S. Baring Gould. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 245 

So the fathers of the Church have called their flocks Pisciculi, and their high-priest a 
Fisherman; and have given to all cardinals and bishops the fish -head of Dagon, whose 
very phallic " Full-dress " I here give. This fine old symbolic God 
of Babylon, Asyria, and Phenicia here boldly holds up his mystic 
rod which Yahveh entrusted Moses with, and below is the irrepres 
sible bag. The mitre on the priest s head is equivalent in Hindoo 
mythology to Siva holding the crescent, for the fish s mouth is the 
Os-Yoni, as the rod or baton is the Linga. Senakerib s great deity, 
Nishrok, is always seen with this mystic bag in one hand and a cone 
in the other, the cone being, no doubt, a model of that great Lingam 
which was erected in the Plain of Dura (Dan. iii. 1), whose height 
was 90 feet, and breadth 9 feet. Nishrok was a winged man, with a PHENICIAN FH-GOD. 
vulture s head, so that here again we have Siva as at Somnat, in Western India, carry 
ing the crescent on his head ; for the vulture, says Mr Sharpe in his " Egyptian 
Mythology " (page 32), is " Mo or TJi-mo" the great mother of the 
Horae, Astrea or Dike, and of the Moerae said Greeks. Here she is 
Th-mei, Justice or Truth, and in after times, Great Themis, daughter 
of Uranus and Ge ; and she accompanies Ouro, the Sacred Asp, 
and King of the Gods. From these two ideas and deities, the Jews 

" . Fig. 112 THEMIS AND SOLAR 

undoubtedly borrowed their Onm or (Jurim and inummim or PYTHON. 

Th -mim, as this learned Eyptologist assures us. He thinks that the Vulture and 

Eoyal A sp as thus seen together in these curiously chequered cups or boats, which 

remind us of Indra s lOnish dress, are only a variety of Horus 

Ra and Themei, which he also shows us here in the same page 

engaged in prayer before the Lingam or Obelisk within an ark or 

temple. Horus, he tells us, is he with the Solar Orb on head, 

and Themei, the figure with "feather" and Crux Ansata. I cannot 

say that I think Mr Sharpe is here right however, for the attitude I>1 SsS?^ OT " 

and the feather are, so far as I know, generally masculine, although the Crux Ansata 

in this position is often feminine. The worship is clearly Sivaik. 

I wish here to impress on my readers the fact and I- will do so in the words of 
one who is evidently a person of considerable erudition that wings, feathers, and such 
like articles attached to tlie animal creation, are highly phallic accessories, denoting 
power, ubiquity in creation, and such like. The writer of Idolomania, at page 41 of 
his pamphlet states : " The winged serpent is but a repetition of the phallus and yoni 
without the circle. The winged bulls of Nineveh in whose ruins the cross has been 
found, the winged Ormazd of Persia, and winged animals in general, together with the 
numismatic thunderbolt with wings, and winged gods, are all symbolical of the male 
sakti or energy;" and so also winged Cupids, Mercuries, and most winged gods. Idolo 
mania, I think, would have been more correct if he had merely said symbolical ofprocre- 

246 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

ative energies male and female, for the womb is always winged; see the Concha Veueris 
in the hands of Siva and Sivi, page 129, where the imaginative Hindoo seems to have 
anticipated anatomy by discovering what some describe as the "butterfly wings" of the 
womb. But to return to Pisci-olatry. 

The fish is universally worshipped in all lands as the most fecundative of all 
creatures; and w r here most valued, the superstitious have offered it in sacrifice to their 
gods refusing to eat or injure it. Many a time have I travelled through a poor and 
barren country where it was all mankind could do to live, and seen rivers and lakes 
teeming with fine fish which I dared not touch, or only so by stealth as night came on, 
much to the annoyance of my followers and myself, and the detriment of the people ; 
for so do priests lay upon us burdens grievous to be borne in the name of their gods, 
making the poor cry out "is religion a blessing?" We find Phenicians, Kelts, and 
Syrians specially mentioned as holding the fish in the greatest reverence, and at 
different periods of their history not eating it. The hill tribes towards the sources of 
the Indus have the same ideas. The Phenicians picture Dagon and Dorketo, the gods of 
Gaza and As-Kal-on, as Fish-gods, or perhaps we should say a fish-god and goddess, for 
we know they were also Astartian Deities. Kutliera and Kupros (Cyprus), as shrines of 
Aphrodite, vied in the worship of this fruitful Kubele, and Syria held her great northern 
shrine of Hierapolis most holy to Venus as the Fish-goddess ; Cadiz, Ko-des, or Gadir- 
Gades, had Herakles on one side of her coins and a fish or Lunette on the other ; whilst 
Syracuse, or rather Soora-koos, and Soosa alike held their finny multitudes sacred to 
Fertility. In these days we can imagine what a privation and curse these faiths here 
were to the poor, and indeed to humanity. The fish was sacred to Christ, and is com 
mon on Christian Catacombs, yet so confused were men regarding faiths, that Dean 
Stanley tells us he then found not only the fish, but Pan and Orpheus, with epitaphs 
to the gods of the grave. (E. Eaces II. 429). The reader should note how Ko and 
Soorya solar terms, occur in the above names ; the roots Ko, Go, Ga, Do, Da, De, 
point to the same source. 

In my Plate V., Fig. 4, I have given the Boodhist piscine mode of representing the 
Sanskrit-Aryan idea of Ananta or Eternity, where the serpent, seep. 49, appears with 
tail in mouth. The two fish are curved upwards, apparently kissing, or at least holding 
up their heads to the Phallic symbols. . The same idea of eternity or perpetuity of species, 
is probably meant by the kissing of the Tortoise and fish-looking Lizard behind the 
right heel (note this strange and constantly recurring word), of the large statue of Mer 
cury or Hermes (the Lingam-god) given by Montfaucon as Plate XXXVI. of the supple 
ment to his Antiquities ; where the tortoise is seen stretching forth his head out of his 
posthe, towards the large and curiously shaped head of a creature whose serpentine tail we 
see in rear. In my Plates IV. and V. will be seen European and Western coins of men 
riding dolphins under trees and on arks, which are more indecent than Easterns would 
permit in their public records. The Western Sun-god is seldom so coarsely pourtrayed 
as the Eastern, thus the latter shows a man passing through an oval in the form 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


of a phallic cross, and pointing with a "phallic hand " see Plate IV., Fig. 2, and 

The Dolphin as a most peculiarly sacred fish, was called Philanthropist by 
the Ancients, and said to delight in music. It saved the great bard Arion when he 
threw himself into the Mediterranean on his way to Corinth, which event is said to have 
happened in the seventh century B.C., or about the time the story of Jonah arose. The 
Greeks placed the Dolphins in their zodiac. Burckhardt says in his travels in Nubia 
(p. 470) that no one is permitted to throw a lance at. or injure a dolphin in the Red Sea; 
and the same rule is enforced among most of the Greek islands. As we closely study 
the illustrations of sacred fish, and the language used in regard to them and their ways, 
we gradually begin to see the coarseness of the symbolism, and why all this extraordi 
nary pisci-cult. This mermaid, Fig. 115, from Gal way in Ireland, for which I am in 
debted to Mr Marcus Keane, exhibits what 
one would fancy the water here might have 
been allowed to cover ; but, instead of this, 
great and even unnatural prominence is given 
to the organ within the water; which assures 
us that it, and not her liber or book, is what 
pisci-cult mostly relates to ; and this is con 
firmed as we study Kaldian and Asyrian 

pisci-olatry, where we find the woman merges into a kind of seal, and 
is held up to us belly foremost, like this Irish mermaid. I give this in 
the figure on page 244, where it will be observed that we have a woman s head but 
arms d la torso, as in the case of our Greek and Seraphim Tau, page 225, Fig. 97. 

The Indian idea does not seem to have embraced this feature of the sexual parts, at 
least so far as I have yet been able to observe, but to be merely connected with the 
known great fertility of the fish, and its dwelling in 
water the source of all fertility. India, however, early 
notices its vaginal form, and shows us therefore man 
and animals issuing from its mouth. This is well ex 
emplified in my large figure of Vishnoo s Mdch or 
fish- Avatar, and in this modified small Fig. 114 of the 
same, which Mr Marcus Keane gives me. The evident 
idea here is, that all creation issues from a fishy sheath, to 
the astonishment and adoration of the somewhat watery- 
looking world ; and as it issues, becomes gradually armed, 
with "the weapons necessary towards the continuance of all animal life." 

Mr Keane further gives us this very remarkable sculpture, Fig. 116, from the cross 
of Kells, County Meath, Ireland, which is clearly the worship of the fish and phallus 
combined ; or of a fish, as a phallus, a not uncommon idea. Taken in connection with the 
Iberian mermaid, Fig. 115, there is no mistaking what chis upright fish was intended for. 



248 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

Neptune, the male Sea-god of Rome, was identical with Poseidon of Greece, and his 
temple and festivals were in the Campus Martins. Poseidon was a brother of Jupiter and 
Pluto, and a mighty representative god-man of the waters, and of what the Sea symbolised; 
his was the teeming womb of fertility, and therefore woman. His hosts are dolphins 
and innumerable sea-nymphs and monsters. His chariots are yoked with horses, which 
he is said to have created and taught men to manage. His symbol is the phallic tri 
dent, or rather the Tri-sool, or " giver of life " of Siva, which can cleave rocks, produce 
water, and shake Heaven and Earth. The Nephthus of Egypt was the goddess of the 
coasts of the Red Sea and the wife of the wicked Serpent deity Typhon. The Dolphin 
as a highly emblematic fish often stands for Neptune himself, although it probably 
first rose in importance from a mere punning on the words Delphis foxp/c, a Dolphin, 
and likyuc, Delphus, the womb, and occasionally the Pudenda as already shown. Del- 
phax &xpa, was also a young pig which was occasionally offered to Juno ; Delphi was 
goddess Earth s symbolic chasm, and Delphinius was her. Apollo, and from Dolphin 
springs the name Dolphin or Dauphin, the eldest son of the King of France. 

The male Palm or Cedar is shown rather indecently in Figs. 5 and 8 of my Plate; 
IV. as springing from a dolphin and man ; in one case in the water, and the other in 
an ark or altar. In Fig. 4, Plate V., Neptune or Siva stands in god-like form, with his 
symbolic Tri-sool in hand, thrust down upon the world, and in the other hand, a young 
dolphin ; one foot rests upon the Ark-boat of life. Elsewhere we see a man standing 
on a dolphin and playing with fertility as a woman and child ; or he leans upon a rock 
which denotes the male deity EL who is TSUR ; but I must pass on, and will here ask 
attention to some gleanings from Phallo-Serpent sculpturings among existing and very 
civilized races with whom I found it an ever active and prosperous faith. 

Most persons who could afford it have customarily marked their faith as indelibly as 
possible on any great works erected by them, and on their tombs. On the tomb of Epa- 
minondas was a serpent (Bryant, II. 465), to denote that he was an Ophite or Theban ; 
and in a circle or yoni on the " Adamantine shield " of the Theban Herakles, were, says 
Hesiod, two dragons suspended with high uplifted heads. .My Indian sketch-book can 
give many similar pictures. I take this one copied from a small sarcophagus-looking 
building on the artificial weir and embankment of the magnificent reservoir of Kan- 
krouli in the Odepore state of Rajpoot-ana. It is one of a very common description, and 
probably denotes the faith and death of a soldier who fell near here ; or who had something 
to do with the construction of this large and important public work. In many cases 
such figures signify more than this ; the man on the horse being the Sun, and the lance 
the phallus, with which the ancient Roman crossed the standard of their legions ; whilst 
the two great dilated cobras denoted the continuity of fertile force. This is especially 
the case if we find "these emblems about doors to Sivaik shrines, and on temple walls, 
and similar places. I copied this one from amidst a profusion of phallo-serpent objects, 
and close to one of the holiest shrines in India, where dwells one of those saintly 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


Gosains of Krishna the Indian Apollo, known popularly by the name of a Mahu- 
Kaja. His filthy town, palace, and temple lies just below the weir, surrounded by 
richly irrigated lands, and is well known far and wide. None may invade his littJe 
empire. That soil is as holy and more revered by far than the spot still left to the old 
Priest (young to this Gosain s race) on Tiber s banks ; and respected as much by his 
king in Odepore, as by the paramount British power. 

From a huge block, adjacent to this warrior figure, which forms also part of the 
enormous masonry works of this Royal Reservoir, I got also the triple serpent, Fig. 118, p. 
:251. All are cobras with upreared hoods, of which the centre one is expanded and with 
five heads, always a god-like canopy. The side Serpents remind us of the God support 
ing Maha-deva and Argha, Fig. 42, p. 123. Not far off, and on an adjacent earth-fast rock, 
on one of the island-like cliffs, which here lend support to, and probably gave the idea 
of damming up the gently-sloping plain, we have an abundance of sculptures, such as 
these given in Fig. No. 120, corroborating in the strongest manner the phallic faith of the 
land. Here we see the full formed features ; the fleur-de-lis as Europe calls it, on the 
right, is supporting Isis the cup or crescent-moon, or Parvati ; and in case there should 
be any mistake as to the meaning, the Triune God is also given on the right hand 

i. 2 i 

250 Rivers of Life, or. Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

corner. I suspect these shields are lOnish, as well as the upreared fiery corona of 
Serpent heads. These sculptures were on a very old part of the dam of the Reservoir ; 
I mean may have been of any age prior to this century, for we are here talking of quite 
new Sivaik workmanship ; I should say they were not probably more than 200 years 
old at the very outside. On the most modern part of the fine marble weir, where it 
is of noble proportions in both height and width a regiment could without much diffi 
culty encamp on it, I found a beautiful white marble figure of Maya, the Fecundatrix, 
as Fertility, which however I neglected to sketch, because so common to the Indian eye. 
It was here evidently ready for erection and dedication as a central object, and clearly so 
because the lake formed a centre of fertility, both natural and religious, in a very barren 
land. Vermillion and gold-leaf, judiciously applied, brought out the proportions of the 
figure in fine relief, which somewhat made up for the want of touches which the Greek 
knew so well to apply. This Fig. 1 1 9 is only that of the ordinary Maya on Tiger ; the one 
I allude to had four arms, holding all the usual creative symbols ; as the lotus, disk, 
sword, and serpent, and was seated on the tiger, emblem of salaciousness, and crowned 
with Serpents, as in the most ancient sculptures of India, such as we see on and about 
Amravati, and ah 1 such sculptures are young, in comparison with the Serpent idea. 

I have not here in any way particularly selected this Hindoo marble and ordinary 
masonry work, or its ornamentations. It is a fine piece of useful engineering, and is well 
known all over Rajpootana. I merely mention it as furnishing very fair samples of 
the active, existing faith of the people, which we may ordinarily sketch almost every 
where, in marching over India. I will now cursorily notice the leading features of 
various sculpturings to be found on the ornamental marble portions of the newest parts 
of the weir ; but I must skip over some too obscene for description, though possibly 
not meant to be so, nor more so than the descriptions of Jupiter in quest of some god 
dess, his obtaining her person, metamorphosed as a horse ; Danae s shower of gold ; the 
Rape of the Sabines, &c. Many parts of the indelicate sculpturings are due no doubt to 
the artist s own weaknesses. Along the running mouldings of the cornices, the most 
prominent objects here are Geese Brahma s vehicle, or, as the Boodhist calls him, the 
Henza (Hans or Hansa), in which form Vishnoo appeared to Brahma to remind him of 
his creative duties, for the god had " rested " as creating gods may not do. Tigers 
were less abundant than usual, but one, fully sculptured, stood in front of the usual 
little Lingam shrine, partly excavated out of the solid rock of the hill-side, on which 
one end of the massive weir rested ; of course the tiger-faced " Maha-Deya " a conical 
stone buried in the dark crypt. Tigers were also to be seen on the various Kiosk sort 
of sculptures built out into the lake, down to which five flights of marble steps and 
platforms conducted one. Mixed up with a due proportion of elephants, gods, or 
heroes, riding crocodiles, there were also men, and women with bodies of birds from the 
waist downwards. Vishnoo, but oftener Siva, was there surrounded by angels, and 
women and children sat under trees, besides winged lions, with men s heads. The Sun 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


Fig. 119. 

rig. i-->o. 


252 Rivers of Life, or .Faiths of Alan in all Lands. 

was to be seen in a chariot drawn by horses, and there were winged figures in an ark- 
boat, having the sacred Henza-head on its prow, whilst in another ark-boat sat repre 
sentative man and woman, whom Christians might call Noah and his wife ; but as the 
man had occasionally three heads with the trident symbol, or a cist or box, I fear we 
must confess to the Argha-Ndt in his Argha or Ark. To return to ancient clays. 

The Serpent is inexplicably mixed up with crosses, crosiers, augurs rods, or "the 
crook d Lituus," which had its origin in the older crooks we find on the Nile (where 
it springs from the hat of many gods, kings, and priests), the Euphrates, and the 

The Lituus or Crosier is but a variant of the Rod of Moses, which he borrowed 
from Egyptian priests, and of the sceptre, staff, or baton of gods or great men ; and in 
one of its very oldest forms with the double circular bend, as in 
i. and v. of this Fig. 121, where a clear circle is formed, we see 
the Phallic triune symbolised. No. i. here is the most ancient 
Etruscan Lituus (Smith s Greek and Roman Antiquities), whilst 
No. in. is the ordinary Roman one, and No. v. that of early Christi 
anity : but the Lituus was also framed into a sacerdotal trumpet 
(iipanKw oviXcr/yya) and so employed by Romulus when he pro 
claimed the title of his city, and continued to be used as the 
I SDIAX ANGKOOS. " trumpet for cavalry the Drakones or Serpent- bearers (Dragoons), 
in contradistinction to the Tuba of the Infantry. Now Siva, Python, Jove, and all 
male and female Oracles were the instruments through which the Divine power 
was proclaimed to men, and hence the lituus very naturally was formed into a 
trumpet, and especially so by the Phallic-worshipper of Ilera-ldes the mythic patriarch, 
Romulus. India considered the Ankus or Ang-koos, Fig. 121, n., with the Sool or jave- 
line head, one large crook and one small one, its equivalent symbol, which Hindoo and 
even Boodhist women, as already shown, wore as a lingam ; but India has also crooks 
and crosiers, for without a crosier no Tibetan Lama would attempt to perform any im 
portant office, say Hue and others. Hislop, in las -Two Babylons, gives us proof positive 
as to the connection between the Mitre of Roman Episcopal Prelates and the Augurian 
Lituus, saying that one of the Popes of the middle ages is described as "Mitrd lituoque 
decorus." He also derives the augur s lituus or crosier from those great phallic- wor 
shippers, the Etruscans, who he thinks, got it from the Asyrians. A very improper, 
ecclesiastical looking procession, said to be only of about the times of the Protestant 
Reformation (and if so, showing how sadly this was wanted) may be seen in the secret 
chamber of the British Museum : it is the procession of a very gross phallus, not unlike 
the skeleton form of the crosier- trumpet No. iv. above. 

In forming -such prominent and important articles, of course some sort of 
decency was always observed, except at extraordinary festivities, connected with 
great Solar periods . of fertility ; when great grossness in form was always thought 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


admissible, and thus we are assured that we are not mistaken as to the symbolism 
which the milder forms portrayed. Plutarch writes that Osiris had a crosier 
with an eye above; and Hurd tells us that the hooked stick or form was a great 
fetish with Africans, and hung over their doors, and we know already what sort of 
feminine objects were there ; no doubt this hook 
was their sexual complement. Most Japanese 
Gods have a regular " Shepherd s crook " in their 
hands, and, of course, wherever the God is repre 
sented as a " Shepherd of his sheep," he will be 
usually given the shepherd s staff that wherewith 
he catches up into his arms the young and feeble, 
and guides the leaders ; and as all faiths ever and 
again blend with one another, so we may expect 
to see the serpent forming the curve and the 
Phallus, or a phallic emblem, the staff, just as may 
be observed in this celebrated Crosier of Cashel, 
which I here give, Fig. 122. It was found in a 
Sarcophagus called the " Font of the Cashel 
Temple " a coffin showing elaborate serpent 
sculpturings, and believed to be " the coffin of 
the great Cormak." The Serpent is here 
springing out of a sheath, which we can confi 
dently call the vagina, as we see a fish on it 
looking downwards as we now hold the staff, 
with open mouth and yoni spots. The entrance 
of the Sheath, Cave or Cavern, is also formed 
like a Polyps or Anemone, which is a w 7 ell- 
known favourite with the votaries of lOnism, 
and not seldom alluded to in the poetry of 
Sivaism. Note also that the end of the Sheath 
is adorned, like most arghas, with a wreathing FIg . 122 . . m 
Serpent denoting Passion ; whilst humanity stands 
upon its coiled head, and on that of a biting dragon who clings to, or seizes the Staff 
of the hero. 

The old Crosses of Ireland are also usually living with Serpents. Mr Marcus 
Keane says that " no figure is more conspicuous on Irish sculpture, or more fre 
quently met with than the Serpent " x yet no living Serpents are to be found 
in Ireland! though "there is scarcely a cross or handsome piece of Irish 
ornamental work which has not got its serpent or dragon." From him 

1 Towers and Temples of Anc. Ireland. Dublin, Hodgson, p. 15G-8. 



Rivers of Life, or. Faiths of Alan in all Lands. 

I get this Kilkenny Cross, where we see serpents wreathing everywhere, and 
eating up each other in the cross, the centre of which is the Sun, as emblematical 

of fertility. If we had the old original top we 
should no doubt find it was a lingam, or the 
favourite female " charm," instead of, as here, evi 
dently altered by Christianity, when it succeeded 
the older faiths, into a covered recess for a Madona 
and Child. 

Col. Forbes Leslie -in his Early Races of Scot 
land gives the same, or greater prominence to the 
Serpent in that Island. We see the deity all over his 
Scotch sculpturings, and he writes that, " in what 
ever quarter of the globe portraiture, sculpture, 
history or tradition has preserved to us a know 
ledge of the ancient rites of heathen nations ( ! ? ), 
the Serpent seldom, if ever, fails to appear as an 
object connected with religion." (II. 409) Indians, 
when in sickness and trouble, still use the holy rep 
tile as Israelites are said to have done in the desert. 
Babylonians placed " two exceeding great serpents, 
formed of silver," on the summit of that famous 
tower of Babel. (Dio. Sic. II. 9.) The Citadel of 
Athens was founded on, and defended by a great 
Serpent (Herodotus, VIII. 41) ; and the Athenians 
called their king by the name of Basileus, of which 
more elsewhere. With Egyptians as well as Hin 
doos, aye, and with ascetic Boodhists, the hooded 
canopy must cover the Gods, or what is holy; and 
the Typhon Snake of the Nile, and the Kahoo of 
Ceylon, must attack Osiris, Soorya or Mithra ; 
whose enemy the Irans said was Ashi, and Cingalese 
Ahi . t His Excellency Brugsch Bey, in his address 
regarding the Jewish Exodus at the Oriental Con 
gress of 1874, said that "the Serpent of Brass, called 
Kereh, or the polished, was regarded as the living 
symbol of God," that is, of Maha-Deva, or the Lingam- Jhavh : it was "the living or life- 
giving God, which the town of Pithom in Egypt worshipped." Belzoui s Theban tomb 
shows us that the -Serpent was there propitiated with human sacrifices, and the British 
Museum abundantly proves that he was worshipped with most obscene rites in almost every 
corner of the world. Virgil pictures to us Eneas making offering "to the holy thing" as it 


Serpent and Phallic Worship. 255 

glided from the tumulus of Ankises, a characteristic which seems to have always greatly 
added to its sanctity ; I mean that of gliding through clefts or crevices, for then often it 
"casts off its slough," which was always held by our forefathers as a very precious relic ; 
" if wound round a woman in labour it would insure her speedy delivery," says Col. 
Forbes Leslie in his Early Races. Serpent eggs were also very important gems in these 
islands ; they were called Glaine-nan-Druidhe, or Druid glass, and the pious Saint 
Columba sent one to Brudeus, king of the Picts. Any water poured on these eggs 
" had wonderful life-giving powers," that is produced life. I show two probable imita 
tions of them called beads in Plate, No. TX. 

In Boodha s Isle, Ceylon, no one will kill a Cobra di Capello, and temples to these 
are still numerous, for islands are his favourite abodes. " The island of Nainativoe, 
near the coast of Ceylon, has a small temple sacred to Naga-Tambiran, the Serpent 
God," where numbers of Cobras are daily fed by Pandarams (Early Races, II. 411). 
Kahoo, already mentioned, is the Ceylon Boodhist planet, called the " Serpent and 
Fish," of which Upham gives us this drawing. He is both male 
and female, and therefore immortal ; and is " one of the houses in 
which the Sun dwells ;" that is, a sign of the Zodiac. Upham makes 
him more like a camel-leopard than a serpent, but not having 
any original before me, I copy him. We have an abundant 
literature telling us of Rahoo ; he is the holder of fertility or the fish in 
one hand, and apparently of a young snake in the other, which takes 
the place of one of his breasts ; or else he has only one very promi 
nent breast. A dog as passion rests precisely where the tortoise 
and serpent are seen kissing, in Montfaucon s great Hermes, and 
at that suspicious place which the Serpent is "to bruise" the apy %!&HMTaunBnNumnn 
Akab, euphemized as heel. His dress is kilted up and chequered exactly as in the case of 
the Goddess Kandoo, or the Moon, another house of the Sun, of which more in its place. 

Thus, then, we find the serpent everywhere, for Passion or Heat is as necessary 
as the objects on which it acts, which are nothing when bereft of it. The Lingam 
Stone is nothing if it is not the Sun-Stone or Serpent-Stone, nor are Moons or 
Astartes of any consequence save when influenced by this motor. Col. Forbes Leslie 
sees Nagas in the ascending Nodes, in Elephants, and other astronomical figures. Indra 
is tame, except as Nag a- Indra, or shortly, Nagendra, and so is Zeus and Juno, sky and 
air. The Kelt saw a Naga in the thunderbolt, which he called Beir, and explained 
to be Tein-Adhair, or Ethereal Fire ; for Beiiher, he said, was a dragon or serpent, as 
well as Lightning (Early Races, II., 415). But let us now look at him in his moun 
tain home near the southern extremities of Europe, to which, as the seat of one of 
the greatest of Pythic oracles, we must devote some special attention. 

As usual we must carefully study the topography of the Shrine, for it is 
always this, and not signs or miracles, from or by the gods, , which first attract wise 
priests. Fitting scenic effect is necessary towards the success of every drama we 

256 Rivers of Life, or. Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

intend to place before the public, more especially if we wish to inspire an enduring 
reverence, awe and worship, with tragic interludes. This stupendous, dark, and 
frowning mountain, with its strange, weird, rocky cleft and holy water, was enough to 
establish any shrine ; but when, as here, the spring in the gaping cleft was not only 
thermal but sulphureous, then, indeed; was it " nature s own door," the " holy of 
holies ; !> which the Greek esteemed this Pythic fount. It had, however, many other 
symbolic and awe-inspiring features, as the two great East and West masses, which 
hung imaginatively over it like huge bosses, cheeks, or bosoms. Asiatics, or indeed 
any careful observers of faiths and their sanctuaries in the East, can generally tell at a 
glance, from the topographical features of a hill or holy place, to which god the 
shrine belongs. I have never experienced any difficulty in doing this long before I 
reached the shrine, and even in cases where I knew nothing of the cult of the temple I was 
being led to see. The formation of the rocks, a favourable bend of the rivulet or river, 
the disposition and shape of the hills, will generally proclaim to him who studies the 
faiths of men in whose " awful presence " he stands. Thus I at once saw Siva or 
Apollo on approaching Delphi, and Palas between the Sabine and Etruscan Mounts, 
where Tiber bends his, or rather her stream ; for he was sacred, no doubt, to yonder 
Albulan nymph of sulphureous breath, who dwells in that pretty retreat at Tivoli, re 
garding which much will be said in its place. 

When visiting Delphi, now many years ago, I was not so conversant with my subject, 
and especially hazy in regard to Solar Shrines, of which we have but few living specimens 
now in the East, and none purely Solar ; so that on approaching the " resplendent 
cliffs" with their caves and monastic buildings, I was at a loss as to the deity until I 
saw the cleft and Kastalian fount. Still there were no poles with the usual serpent 
streamers, though the cleft and well soon made me feel whose presence had been hurt? 
supreme. The gods were, however, suffering grievously from neglect and loneliness ; no 
bell, nor chaunt, nor even a shed, welcomed the weary pilgrim ; no- well-trod, sweet, 
shady nook was here where he could sit and worship his god, as we are so well 
accustomed to meet with in the East. 

How had the mighty fallen ! Yet not by reason of the faith now dominant in 
Europe, but before the marshalled hosts of advancing intelligence, which the Academic 
groves of Greece, and the suburban .villas of Rome so freely gave forth. Though Asia 
and Africa, nay, all earth, once owned the sway of the faith which had ruled here ; 
yes, and in a manner which neither they nor any great nations of men ever will 
again so absolutely own; though poet and pietist for thousands of years had never 
wearied of singing and hymning the glories of the deities of the triple or, perhaps, we 
may say quadruple faith 1 of Delphi and none did this more than the people of the 
-coasts of this central sea, and the sweet isles of Greece yet, in due time, Delphi s 
end too had come ; and as all earth-born things must die, it too passed away as a 

1 All the five streams of Faiths were here, though the first Tree is almost undiscernable. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 257 

wearying dream before the advancing tide of human knowledge and exact science. 
Tennyson never wrote more truly than when he thus described the ephemeral nature of 
all " Religions," although every race, nay, every earnest pietest, oft declares of his 
own, that " it will never pass away," no, " not a jot or tittle I" whilst it is changing 
all around him, if he had but eyes to see and ears to hear. 

" Our little systems have their day ; 

They have their day and cease to be : 
They are but broken lights of Thee, 
And thou, O Lord, art more than they." 

In vain does " the Blind Bard of Delos " and thousands of others down to our 
own day now try to bewitch us into madness whose feet are stayed on Reason, and 
whose anchor is not only " common sense," but keen and sceptical science ; we listen 
and oft admire, but smile when asked to join in the worship which he sincerely and 
often beautifully offers to his deity. Seldom did the Delos Bard do so more 
rapturously than when looking, we may imagine, from the lofty precipices of 
Parnassus over the holy dwellings of Krisa, down far away into its lovely bay, or, as 
with eyes over Delos, Samos, Lemnos, and Sacred Syrus, he cried with exuberance of 
pious joy : 

" With thee each rock, each headland brow 
Of lofty mountains rang, 
While Rivers in their seaward flow, 
And toppling cliffs, with waves below, 
And creeks thy praises sang." 1 

But we must leave the poet and the past for a time, and here relate all the prominent 
facts concerning this one of the most important of the Sun and Serpent-shrines of 

That which we now call Delphi was the oracle of the Python and then of Apollo ; 
it nourished long before the days of the Hellenes, or of the tales and myths, for we 
have not yet any correct histories, of the early tribes who worshipped here. Tro- 
phonius, the Basileus, and his brother, Aga-Menes, or " Man of Love," built, says 
mythic tale, this shrine for King Hyreus : query HUT or Sol? 2 but this hereafter, when 
we investigate the kingly name of Attica and the origin of the. Basilica of Romans, and 
of the great modern Faith, whose priest rules from the seven hills, of which the fore 
most still is that of Pallas. Delphus, Delphua, Delphoi, Delphis, &c., have all a feminine 
signification, perhaps as connected with A, Delta, the " door of life," womb, or the Delta, 
as the most fertile part of a land. The Delta of Egypt was a synonym for Isis, but 
the roots D-el or Del, D or De, Di, Diu, Dev, Div, T, Teu, Zeu, To, So, Go, &c., have 
never yet been properly investigated by competent men : Bryant and Faber had not 
sufficient knowledge of Phallic faith and Eastern lore, and their mistakes are, in the light 
of our present knowledge, often very quaint. D added to a word, as to Oanes which 
1 Hymn to Apollo, xxii. 4, quoted by Pococke, I. in G. 303. 2 It was adorned witli Serpents. 

I. 2 K 

258 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

Faber thinks is the origin of Dagon, gives this Kaldian male god a female form, and so 
in the case of Ana or Anu, as roots of Diana; but it oftener gives merely the androgyne 
form which all great Dese had. Dag, we know, has the signification of fruition ; and 
hence, perhaps, a fish ; whilst On, Om, or p is " power," as in Am-on. I suspect D-elphi 
unites all the male, female, serpent, and oracle or mouth-piece ideas. Jove, we are told, 
created Pandora to ruin his lieutenant s manly creation ; and we thus see in woman 
the traditional tempter, the possible reason why such words as Delos, Deleastra, Dele- 
asma, &c., are all connected with " a bait or enticement," and probably why Deltas or 
Delta is also a " book or tablet " on which man may write, an analogous meaning to 
the woman s mirror-symbol, in which man may mirror himself. 

Although I have personally most carefully inspected the Pythian shrine, I will 
here try to describe it in the words of others rather than my own. 

At the foot of Mount Parnassus is situated the small but populous town of Kala- 
mata, and here let us spell all names with a K, rather than with that very deceiving C, 
and it will make more clear the close connection of early Greek story and geography, 
with India and its Kala, and Kali Siva, and Sivi or Parvati. This last lady is one 
whom, I have no doubt whatever, we have here found in Greece ; and I am not the 
first discoverer by a long way. Moore suspected her here forty years ago, and I can 
assist his idea by adding that Parvati, who also is B&vani or B&mani, is, by Jains, called 
Parsva, the wife of Parsava-Nat, their great serpent Tertankdr or Incarnation. The 
birth-place of Parsva was near Vernasi, the old and sacred name of Kasi or Benares ; 
so that the early eastern wanderers to the Krissaeus Sinus, which Pococke, no doubt, 
correctly shows us was Krishna s Bay (for Delphi is his, as Apollo s shrine), would 
very naturally call their great hill, full of gaseous clefts and caverns, and of womanly 
contour, Parsva s own Vernasi or Pernasi. 

I wish my readers would take the trouble, as geographical illustration is very 
costly, to here consult a good map of the province of Phokis, from -the Bay of Krissa 
up to the holy shrine, amidst the boisterous waters of the sacred Pleistus, and over the 
great Parnassus to Opus of Lokris on the Eubean .Sea. All about here is "holy soil," 
and especially so easterly, over by that once so important capital city, Orkomenos 
and its fertile plains : these rise gently out of the far-famed Kopais Lacus, fed here 
by the troubled Kephissus, which drajns off all the Eastern waters of Parnassus and 
Mount Kerphis. To the searcher after faiths there is far more than mere classic 
story mixed up with all that we have read regarding the vast basin we here see 
spread out, and which stretching away down south and east to the great ranges of 
yonder " Mountain of the Sun," and the spurs which shut out the Theban plain, thus 
embraces nearly all the once strongly pulsating heart of Beotia the land par excellence 
of all European lands, for myth and fable. 

Parnassus shelters its most holy spot in a very warm angle, which it abruptly 
makes here by turning nearly due north and south from a direct east and west course. 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 259 

No easterly winds can thus touch its shrine, but only warm southerly and western 
breezes, and this is here very necessary ; for the oracle is at a considerable elevation 
and embosomed amid lofty precipices, where otherwise cold biting winds would have 
swept and eddied around and made the place such a home as ordinary priests would 
not care to dwell in ; but nestled as here in the warm bosom of the great 
mountain, it is exactly the kind of spot I should have expected to find it. The chain, 
on leaving Delphi, dips, and passing away down south, rises again in grandeur to 
form Mount Kerphis, and nearly land-lock the glorious bay into which so many thou 
sands of pious and anxious souls have sailed, and no doubt fallen on their faces before 
the great goal they saw there opening in front of them, as they rounded the prettily 
dented shores of Kerphis. The mountain chain, after Kerphis, again resumes its 
east and west course, and with another dip rises yet again into a glorious mountain, 
called Helikon after the great god of day, and then fades away into the fertile plains 
of this land of myth, feeding Kopais on "its left, and the garden meads of Thespia, 
that brave city of the Muses, on its right, finally expending itself under the walls of 
immortal Thebse. 

Strange how many names we have on and around Parnassus beginning, as Moore 
would say, with Kal lOnic or Krishn-IOnic sounds. We have the towns of Krissa and 
Kira, Mount Kirphis and Bay of Krissa on the south ; whilst Keronia, Orkonia, and the 
"lake of the Kopais, Krishna s sweet-hearts," says Pococke, lie along this great moun 
tain s eastern base. Of old, says Bryant (iii. 329), Parnassus was actually called 
Ark, or Larnassus, from Laren, which he holds to be an ark, and I hold to be still 
more in regard to female symbolism. The name, he thinks, may have been Laren- 
nasos, nesos, vwog, signifying of old not only an island, but a hill or promontory ; in 
short a Parvati that u mountain goddess," and ark of all mankind. The Akropolis of 
Thebes lying at the base of Helikon, was called Nesos, so that Par-nesos, or Lar-nesos, 
signified merely a great female hill, that is Ark-Omphe, or Caput-oline in contradis 
tinction to Pala-tine. This assures that most names compounded with Lar, Larina, 
or Laren, had a feminine signification, the same as Thebes or Argos. In the Akropolis 
of Argos, where was the ark which Da-naus the Arkitc was held to have established, we 
know that " the Laris or Navis biprora was worshipped," and watched over by women 
styled Danaidee, or priestesses of the Argus. Men who were great Arkites were called by 
names compounded with Argos or Ark, as Arkisius or Arkasius possibly Arkas-Ionas 
Bryant connects all with water, deriving Lares from the sea, as where Larinentis Aliens 
is in Hesychius called a man of the sea (p. 332). So Larinseum signifies " fishing," 
and Lar and Larus a sea bird, of which more hereafter, for here we must continue 
our topography of the shrine nestled in the high-sheltered bosom of that great Omphe, 
where kings and the mighty ones of earth continued for long ages to go and pray, and 
strive longingly to know the will of their God. 

Delphi has a convent and ruins situated on a rising ground, screened by high 


Rivers of Life, or. Faiths of Matt in all Lands. 


cliffs to the north. The fountain of Kastalia, that is Kasi-Tal, the " sacred" or " pre 
eminent Lake," is excavated in a rock of marble and still exists, though choked up 
with weeds and thorns. Behind it were the remains of an arched passage hollowed 
out in the rock : the cleft, on the east side of which was the fountain, widens at its 
mouth, and rises to a considerable height ending in two points ; see Walpole s Turkey, 

p. 37. I give here a general view of the natural 
features outside and around the shrine, embody 
ing not so much the artist s view of hill and 
cleft, as the ideas which seem to have seized 
the imaginative religious mind of the first 
founders and supporters of this oracle. It is 
clearly akin to that wild worship of caves and 
clefts, of which Bryant gives us a plate the 
first of his first volume, showing how fully im 
pressed this deeply read author was with the 
fact, that man s first worship was the cave or 
ark ; nor is it yet dead : do we not see it in 
the holy " Cave of the Rock " at Jerusalem, the 
holy caverns of Bamian, Elephanta, Elora, and 
a thousand such shrines, nay, also in the dark Adytum of the Al-Kaba, as well as 
the richly dimmed altars and crypts of Christian shrines ? Pausanias assures us that 
the " Cavern in Phocis was particularly sacred to Aphrodite, and that here she always 
received divine honours." The very "word Caverna, a cavern, was denominated 
originally Ca-Ouran, Domus Celestis vel Domus Dei, from the supposed sanctity of 
such places" (Bryant, i. 271). Parnassus itself, this author adds, quoting numerous 
ancient writers, was rendered holy by this " mighty chasm in the hill, ovros %<r/zaros h 
TU re, and Apollo is said to have chosen it .... on account of the effluvia which 
from thence proceeded." Bryant, in his Plate I., gives us " Mons Argaeus ex Numism 
Tyanorum et Caesariensum," very quaint looking holes indeed, and which I do not 
think he sees the full significance of; these I give the reader in Plate XIIL, v., vi. 
The Greeks knew the Delphic Cavern in their earliest advent, as wM, Pytho, which 
might signify merely the mouth of a god or goddess, or come from P ur-ain, the 
mouth of a fire fount. At this early period a very nauseous and intoxicating vapour 
used to issue from the cleft, and spread up the whole mountain gorge ; but this 
has long since ceased.. 

The earlier Grecian story of the Shrine seems to be connected with a fire which 
is said, in 548 B.C., to have destroyed the very ancient temple which had been built 
.by Princes " Trophonius and Agamedes, sons of king Erginus, who ruled over the 
Minyean Empire," from the adjoining capital of Orkomenos. The princes and their 
names are mythical, but full of religious ideas which I shall have to dwell upon here 
after ; for Trophonius was apparently the first Basileus, a name very early given to the 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 261 

head of a state ; it was adopted as the official title of the Arkons of Athens in 1024 
B.C., by Akastus the second Arkon, 1 who, however, but continued in this the title 
which used only to be applied to kings. Between 357 and 346 B.C. the Phokians 
used the rich treasures of Delphi to the great scandal of the pious world, but to the 
necessary protection of themselves against all the rest of Greece, they being merely 
the custodians of the world-wide shrine, for its treasures were not Phokian, nor 
the property of any particular province. After its destruction in 548 B.C., all states 
and even foreign kings and nations voluntarily subscribed to rebuild it, among whom 
was Amasis or Psametik II. of Egypt. 

The general features of Parnassus, taking a bird s-eye view of it, from the front of 
the Shrine, is a huge block of mountain, slumbering behind two rising mounts 
themselves of great height and grandeur ; these falling towards the south are broken 
into a fearful chasm, which has torn down the base of the mountains and thus 
formed undulating and gently swelling terraces, now clothed for the most part 
with scraggy brushwood, amidst which various Pietists and Shrines have found a safe 
abiding-place. The general features of Delphi have been so abundantly described by 
abler writers, as well as by good artists, that I will not enter on any details beyond 
what pertain to the Phallo-Pythic-Solar features, such as I have not anywhere seen 
adequately dwelt upon. 

Parnassus has two great east and west summits called Tuthorea and Lukorea. 
"Immediately above Delphi the mountain forms a semi-circular range of lofty rocks at 
the foot of which the sacred town was built. These rocks were called Phaidriades, or 
the Resplendent, from their facing the south and thus receiving the full rays of the 
sun during the most brilliant part of the day. The sides of Parnassus are well 

wooded and its summit is covered with snow during the greater part of the 

year .... It has numerous caves, glens, and romantic ravines On Mount 

Lycorea was the Corycian Cave (Kor-ak, or Sun-Cave), from which the muses are 
sometimes called the Corycean nymphs. Just above Delphi was the far-famed Castalian 
spring which issued from between two cliffs called the Nauplia and Hyamplia .... 
Between Parnassus proper and Mount Cirphus (Kirsus ?) was the valley of Pleistus 
(Pal-is-theus ?), through which the sacred road ran from Delphi to Daulis and Stiris," 
says the writer in " Smith s Classical Dictionary." The names of the cliffs evidently 
signify N-omphe and H-omphe, Nin and Hea, or female and male. Nauplia was the port 
of Argos, and Hyampolis was a very ancient town of this province (Phokis), founded 
by the Hyantes, whom Kadmeans drove out of Beotia, and which therefore probably 
flourished here some eighteen centuries B.C. Pococke tells us that the Phokians were 
our Northern Indian Bojas, and the Beotians, our Baihootias, whose ancestors lived on 
the banks of the Behoot or Jailum ; and without committing myself to the details of 
his or Moore s most interesting and erudite writings on the Indian origin of 

1 Philander in Smith s Greek and Roman Antiquities, ai ticles " Basilica " and " Archon." 

262 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

Greek and most Mediterranean Faiths, I may remark that the learned are slowly 
giving their assent to the necessity of seeking for the roots of these faiths in India, 
Bactria, and Iran. 

The first discoverers of Delphi are naturally enough described to be shepherds, 
who, as well as their flocks, used here .to be often seized with convulsions, owing to 
the fetid gases coming out of the chasm. It was then said, as in the case of poor 
demented ones all over the world, that all who had the premonitory symptoms could 
prophesy. Even in the palmy days of the Oracle, when the exhalations had greatly 
subsided they have now almost entirely gone the priestesses had to be careful and 
not sit too long on or near the Tripod. Instances are related of the priestess falling 
off this in convulsions, and even expiring on the spot, so mephitic were the gases. 
The torrent into which the waters of the sacred spring flowed was called Pleistus ; 
whilst towards the source or on the watersheds around we note several Phallo-Solar 
and Indian names. Pausanias tells us, that here was a village of Kal-amce that is, of 
Mother Kdli, in which was a temple to the Syrian goddess Kali-dia, or, as we would pro 
nounce this, Kdli-Deva. The Pleistus very shortly joins the Krisa, which is then called 
Kala-mata, an Indian designation, containing the meaning of blackness and fierceness, 
or black-faced one, as Moore shows it is entitled to be called. The waters then fall 
into the beautiful gulf of Krisa, near the town of Kirha ; all of which names justly 
entitle the locality to be called the Seat of Krishna, the black Apollo of India, and con 
queror of the Serpent, which the Delphic Apollo was. Mr Walpole describes all the 
country as "dark and wild, broken in the extreme." "If the founders of oracular 
imposture," he says, " wished to select a spot whose wild and desolate seclusion would 
deter such an influx of visitors as might endanger a detection of its mechanism, they 
could not have chosen a happier situation. Parnassus is for the most part a savage 
moss, with scarcely any vegetation to relieve the rugged surface. The fountain of 
Kastalia, stripped of its fanciful embellishments, is a small spring issuing from the chasm 
which rends the cliff from its base to its summit." " Here then," truly adds the great 
writer of the Hindoo Pantheon, " are all the elements of a site of Hindoo superstition 
... A savage rugged-surfaced moss ; a conical mount like Parnassus ; and above all, a 
stream issuing, Ganges-like, from a cavernous chasm rending a cleft from base to 
summit." It is possible that the Tal of Kastalia may be Sal, and convey the mean 
ing of a salt or bitter spring ; thus we have a lake, Nyne-ZaZ, issuing to the plains 
of India through a sulphureous cleft ; so that Kastaly may then mean a very sacred 
bitter lake or fount. . All the hills around Para-nasa are sacred to the sun as Kirphis 
and Helikon (Heli-konda or Hill of the Sun), and Para-Nasais sacred to Bacchus, says 
Lucan, quoted by Moore 

"Mons Phcebo, Bromioque sacer." Phar. v. 73. 

Byron, writing " from Kastri (Delphos at the foot of Parnassus) now called Liakura," 
saya: "The little village of Kastri stands partly on the site of Delphi. Along the patL 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 263 

of the mountain from Kryso are the remains of sepulchres, hewn in and from the 
rock. A little above Kastri is a cave supposed to be the Pythian, of immense depth. 
On the other side of Kastri is a Greek monastery. Some way above is the cleft in the 
rock, with a range of caverns of difficult ascent and apparently leading to the Korycian 
cavern mentioned by Pausanias. From this part descend the fountain and the dews 
of Castalie (Kas-tali) . . . The Curtian (Kar-tian) lake, and the Ruminal fig-tree in 
the forum, having been touched by lightning, are held sacred, and the memory of the 
accident was preserved by a puteal or altar, resembling the mouth of a well, with a 
little chapel covering the cavity;" and as wells and their mouths mean woman, this 
chapel should, as Moore says, be dedicated to "Our Lady/ Another traveller of the years 
1809-10, who is perfectly innocent of my subject, describes the Delphic chasm as some 
thing very extraordinary. 1 " It is," he says, "an immense cleft rending the mountain 
from the clouds to our feet," for he was then standing near the little town of Kastri. 

Parnassus to the north is now always called Lugare, and that part of it bears the 
very Hindoo name of Trikala, which is one of Siva s names, signifying him of the Tri- 
sus or Tri-Soola (three thorns) or Thyrsus. Parvati is called Tri-Kali-devi-Koomari, 
or the triple-maid. A curious fact in connection with Parnassus, and one which 
would alone make it very holy in Sanskrit- Aryan eyes, is, that the shell called shank, 
or Concha Veneris, of course very diminutive the Entrochi, are found all over it, and 
at its greatest elevation (Dr Clarke s Travels p. 207). 

Christianity has never neglected this so-called " Pagan shrine " nor yet 
misunderstood it, if we may judge by the saint she has here located, for Mr 
Hobhouse found "in the rocky chasm dipped in the dews of Castaly" but safe 
"in a rocky niche," a Christian shrine; and close by "a hut called the Church of 
St John," yea verily, of lOne, she who had once reigned here supreme ; " whilst on 
a green plot a few yards below the basin, in a little grove of olive trees, stood the 
monastery of Panhagia or Holy Virgin," so that here we still have, and beside her sacred 
fans in the cleft, men who have consecrated their manhood to the old Mother and 
Queen of Heaven, just as if she of Syria had never been heard of ! Doubtless they 
knew little of what civilized Europe calls Christianity, for I have often spent many 
days conversing with such men, and seen little difference between them and those 
similarly placed in the far East fervid Christians though Greeks and Syrians are. 
Another traveller through Greece Hughes as quoted by Pococke, says that Strabo 
rightly describes Delphi as "a vast natural theatre," which he thinks "just even to 
the minutest details, for the city was not only built upon a fine semi-circular sweep of 
the mountain, but suspended as it were upon regular gradations of terraces built in 
the Kyklopean style of masonry ; " and, adds Pococke : " From his rock throne and his 
town, could the Indian god-hero Krissa (Krishna) see glittering like burnished gold 
in the setting sun, the waters of the Krishnean Bay." Delbhai were the descendants 
1 J. C. Hobhouse s "Journey Through Albania," &c., 2 vols, Lon., 2d ed., p. 246-7. 

264 Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

of Arjoona, the third Pandava prince, "whose martial bands, under the name of 
Vaijayan (Aigaian) .... settled on, and gave a name to the Egean Sea ; on whose 
north was the gulf of Therma (Dherma) . . . another name for Arjoona . . . Delbhi 
or Arjoona was the bosom friend of Krishna," says Pococke (I. in G. 291) ; but I must 
pass on and speak somewhat in detail of the very important Naga-Poota, or Boodha, of 
the Serpent race, which guarded the rocky cleft and dwelt in the fountain ; and whose 
principal part was the golden-headed Tri-soola or Fleur-de-lis, around whose shaft 
wound three serpents. 

A triple serpent column, say all writers, was set -up in the Kas-talian or holy 
spring, and a seat was there for the Pontifex Maxima ; for a woman had to sit here, 
else the god spoke not. Now because some coins, sacrificial tripods, and many writings 
speak of these, and of " the Tripod of Delphi" on or from which the priestess gave the 
responses of the Deity; it has been concluded by European writers that these were one 
and the same, and hence they show, as Mr Jas. Yates does in his article on Tripos in 
Smiths Greek and Roman Antiquities, an elaborate tripod with a basin, having 
circular supports over it to carry a seat, on which it was supposed the priestess sat. 
This may very probably have been part of the furniture of the Delphic temple, as 
temples require and usually contain many similar rude tables for the flowers and gifts 
of visitors, but a three-legged table is not my idea at all of the Pythic Tripod. All 
who know Indian Sivaik shrines will remember the common little rude tables which 
stand about in them ; and no doubt these became in Delphi s later days more elaborate, 
and carried a sacrificial bowl or cup like our Church fonts ; but these three-legged 
articles have no connection in my mind with the tripod of the god. He himself is a 
tripod, but he is also that on which we have seen the bird sitting ; and his emblematic 
tripod is known as his Tri-Soola, a most potent and important article. 

It is the trefoil-lingam with which he strikes the yielding " earth-cow," and 
which brings water from the rock ; it may or may not have serpents twisted on or 
about it, like Mercury s Kaduceus, or the rod of Eskulapius. The whole tri-lingam in 
the Hippodrome of Constantinople is formed of serpents ; and the column is, as I here 
show in Fig. 126, situated in a pit. I give in Fig 127 an actual landscape of the Hippo 
drome as drawn by myself many years ago when at Constantinople ; but here in Fig. 126, 
I wish to present my readers with the three religious ideas of the spot. Thus on the left 
we see the symbol of a pure phallic faith that which preceded the Serpent ; while on 
its right we see neither Serpent nor Phallic ideas forgotten in the Temple of this later 
"People of the Book;" for in the ever-recurring domes, or globular forms of mosks, we 
have the Omphe and Solar ideas ; and in the minarets which correspond to the Jewish, 
Boodhist,. and Christian candles, we have the still repeated idea of the Obelisk ; in 
all, we have Ophis or Python, and Apollo, the Sun, Serpent, and Sun-stone, whether 
called Maha-Deva or Parvati, of which Omphe more hereafter. The Tripods of Apollo 
and Bacchus, and that consecrated to the muses, were certainly not "tables" if I 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 


have in any way studied solar, phallic, and serpent cults aright, in the temples of the 
East, and the literature of Europe. Nor did Hercules, when fabled as having raped 
Apollo s Tripod, steal or rape a table ; but rather are we to understand that he stole Pas 
sion from the Sun, or ran away with solar nymphs or the passive energies of creation. 


In the story of the Rape we are told that Apollo recovered his tripod that is the 
Sun regained his power, when he is pictured as a bright and joyous son of Song, with his 
lyre and Serpents love and passion ushering in the vernal year, and this is exactly 
the Ter-ambus or Egyptian omphe idea. The base of the Tripod was v we are told, 
emblematical of the God ; and as the Tripod was the Pytho-phallic cone or conical 
column, so we may be quite sure that the base was the Argha or Yoni. 

Pausanias tells us there was a more ancient tripod than the one Herodotus de 
scribes, but adds that it was carried off by the Tyrinthian Hercules, and restored by the 
son of Amphitryon, so mayhap this was it. 1 The word Am-phi-tryon bespeaks the 
triple sun-god. It is improbable that the golden portion of the tripod carried off by 
the Phokians was ever restored. The tripod was called the. image of truth, 2 by which I 
would understand Light, or Ur, as the Urian Jove, which is true of the sun-column; but 
it might be also Themis and the Mirror, or Maya. To show how close was the intimacy 
between the Serpentine columns or Serpents and " emblematical bases," Priestesses, 
Arghas, Vases, &c., we have a story related by the learned Montfaucon, that there was 
another Serpentine column, supposed to have belonged to Delphi, in which three brazen 
legs support a Vase, and round one of the legs is coiled a serpent ; and Bulenger tells 
us that live serpents were kept in the adytum. I believe that we see the idea of the 
Priestess sitting on the tripod in that vase over the Maha-Deva, in Fig. 40, page 121, 
for woman is the vase ; and in Delphi, where the oracle spoke with power and far-seeing 
wisdom, doubtless a throne was erected over the emblem of Life and Salvation, of which 

Pans. x. 830 Herod, ix. 81. 2 Montfaucon II. 86. 

2 L 


Rivers of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

our rural Maha-Dcva was and is the original. See also the vase-worship of Egypt in 
the Ark of Phile, which I give at page 190. 

The Serpent-column so felicitously placed in this oval pit seems to be the highly 
Sivo-tri-pythic column, which we observe in Smith s Dictionary of Antiquities, as the tri 
pod seen by Spon and Wheeler in 1675, and which they said was 14 to 15 feet high. I 
think they have mistaken or manufactured the third head; for when 1 visited the Hippo 
drome or at Meiddn of Constantinople in 1857, 1 did not see it, but my attention in those 
days was not so minute as since. I believe the heads were only perfect up to near the 
end of the seventh century A.C. One head is said to be carefully preserved in a Chris 
tian shrine, " the armoury of the Church of St Jerome." A writer in the Dark Blue 
of, I think, 1872, says that De Quincey -carefully describes the column, calling it "the 
greatest talisman of Constantinople, having its original in the Mosaic serpent which 
healed the diseased if merely looked at." " This consecrated talisman," he says truly, " was 
venerated alike by Christian, Pagan, and Mahomedan;" and,, writes the Rev. Mr Deane, 


" so superstitious are even the present Turks concerning it that they say : Although, 
in consequence of the lower jaw of this brazen serpent having been struck off some 
serpents do come into the city, yet they do no harm to any one." (Annals Tur. 213). 
De Quincey says that the column was struck on the head by the last great iconoclast 
race, in the person of Mahomed II., on 29th May 1453, when he conquered Constanti 
nople, then the glorious bulwark of Eastern Christianity. Even he, however, the mighty 
conqueror in his hour of triumph, feared attempting to crush the symbol of a mighty 

Serpent and Phallic Worship. 267 

and wide-spread faith, and only "scotched the snake." "The fanatical Sultan riding 
to his stirrups in blood, the conqueror of the last of the Csesars who had glorified his 
station, and sealed his destiny by martyrdom advanced to the column round which 
the triple serpent soared spirally upwards, wielding that iron mace, his sole weapon 
and well-known sign in battle, struck it on the head, and shattered one head only ; 
crush it and destroy it he did not." His people called it a symbol prefiguring the for 
tunes of Mahomedanism, saying that his good genius wisely prompted him not to 
entirely crush the serpent. This serpent-column was, it is said, the work of Greeks, 
chiefly Lacedemonians, after their victory over Mardonius at Plataia, and is said to have 
been made out of the spoils of the Persian army obtained on that golden-lettered day 
of two great victories the 22d of September 479 B.C. " For centuries," says a 
Reviewer in The Dark Blue, " it stood close to the altar of the Delphic oracle, and was 
surmounted by a golden tripod." 

From my drawing of the broken column and its present locale in Constantinople, 
it will be seen that the constructors of the Hippodrome have in a very extraordinary 
manner, and I believe quite ignorantly, placed the serpent- column exactly in the same 
position and with the same accessories, as the most learned votaries of phallo-serpent 
faith would have demanded; for mark that it is still in "the Abyss," oval pit or Yoni; 
and, alongside of the "Column of Desire," or the obelisk ; and close to the Moslem Mosk 
and its candlestick columns, as if designed to expose also the roots of that faith, or, at 
least its architecture. Verily here stand represented Osiris and Isis, Apollo, Typhon, 
Ceres, Sun, and Fire ; as well as every emotional, and also some of those spiritual ideas 
which can be abundantly gleaned from the various utterances of this once so celebrated 
oracle. Several authors, apparently following Herodotus IX. 81, say that this Serpent- 
Lingam, evidently Tauri aut Arei sed non hominis, carried a golden bowl, that is, was 
the Somnat Siva, with the crescent over the tripod, a not uncommon form of Tri-Sool 
to this day. But let us return to the spot whence the triple serpent came ; for we have 
only described its surroundings, and not tried sufficiently to read the meaning of the 
old priests and their followers. 

The site of the Python was the Navel or Omphalos of Ge or Terra; and we 
see it is also the reverse of this, "the cavea of a great theatre, shut in, but cleft 
in the centre ; from whence poured the waters of the Kastalian spring," that is 
waters from a Holy or Heated source a fountain and spring, it was said, of im 
mortal life ; and one, too, which has given joy and consolation to thousands, aye 
millions, for some 1200 years." The founders, we are told, were Lukoreans ; that 
is, followers of Apollo, or Maha-Deva, and so we recognise our Sanskrit- Aryan 
friends, whom my chart shows, when Delphi rose to prominence, as spreading away 
west, full of such learning and poetry. " In the centre of the temple was a small 
opening in the ground, from which, from time to time, an intoxicating vapour arose ; 
over this chasm stood the Priestess, called Pythia, whenever the oracle was to be con 
sulted. The words which she uttered after exhaling the vapour, were believed to contain 

268 Rmcrs of Life, or Faiths of Man in all Lands. 

revelations from Apollo," or Pytho of earlier times. I see then, in this great mountain 

and its Abyss and thermal font, our old Queen Par- 
nasi, or Varnasi, or Parvati. She is that great passive, 
sullen-looking mass hid away in the clouds, but who 
descends to earth in the two lower, full-crested Montes 
(see sketch on page 2 60), below which comes that huge 
Omphalos, ending in what has ever been called " the 
Phaidriades, or Resplendent ones, 1 in the secrets of 
which lay the sacred cleft of the Sun the Korykian 
Cave. Is not this also the idea which the races 
of Greece have perpetuated in marble, as in this of 
Ceres, which I take from Montfauon s supplement 
to his Antiquities, page 76 ? Here she fertilises the 
Fig. 12S.-CERES AND APOLLO FERTILISING THE EARTH, earth, herself fertilised by the Sun ; Love as young 
Horus or Apollo carries a laurel branch by her side, whilst below is the inscription : 

Juno appears in a very similar marble, pictured by Montfaugon at page 64, sitting 
on a Eock, possibly the Tsur or "Rock"- Jehovah of the Jews and Phenicians, with a bow 
and tipped with flowers,- and the peacock at her foot, brooding over the creation thus 
symbolized. She is called "Juno de Bresse" and holds aloft in her right hand a human 
heart, the Ait, or Ain, or seat of Passion, as typifying that which she reigns over ; she 
presses her bosoms with the other hand, and pours forth nourishment on all. Now, in 
these leadino- Mothers of Creation, I feel assured we see some of the ideas conceived and 


worshipped by the Greeks in this mountain and cleft. I believe they saw Ceres, the 
great Pythoness, as well as the Sun in that " Resplendent One," who was undoubtedly 
the chief part of the worship at this Kastali font Ain-omphi, or Nympheum. She is 
the Parnasi, or Varnasi in that Fons, Well, and Keservoir, as well as a Serpent facing- 
great Sol, whose beaming southern rays at this particular spot the fertile and imagina 
tive genius of the people thought from this source of bliss, permeated, and impregnated 
all their country. I must here try to make this clear, although it would take a volume 
to distinctly show all the phases of Mountain-worship, of which this is a part. 

Orpheus and his disciples went yearly, we are told, to offer sacrifice on a high 
mountain. All Persians worshipped on the top of high hills ; whilst " some nations 
instead of an image worshipped the hill as a deity;" see Bryant I. 293, quoting in the 
original Maximus Tyrius Dissert., VIII. 79. " So worshipped all the people of Cappa- 
docia and Pontus. Mithradates, when at war with the Romans, chose one of the highest 
mountains in his dominions, upon the top of which he reared an immense pile equal in 
size to the summit on which it stood ; and no sacrifices, perhaps, ever equalled in 
magnificence that which was there offered. . . . The pil